I would like to acknowledge the graciousness of the government of Malaysia in allowing me to conduct research under the auspices of the Institute for Medical Research of the Malaysian Ministry of Health. My research during 1975–1977 was supported by the Social Science Research Council and the National Institute for Mental Health, with logistic assistance from the Hooper Foundation of the University of California, San Francisco. My research during 1982–1985 was supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities Translation Program, and by grants from Fordham University. Support from the John Simon Guggenheim Memorial Foundation allowed me to take a leave of absence from teaching during the academic year 1987–1988 and concentrate on writing. The National Endowment for the Humanities Program for Interpretive Research supported my work during 1987–1990 and Fordham University awarded me a Faculty Fellowship for 1989–1990. Final revisions were done at the Rockefeller Foundation's Study Center in Bellagio. I thank them all for their generous support. I also wish to express my gratitude to Profs. P. L. Amin Sweeney and Marina Roseman for their invaluable help as my consultants. Many people kindly read and commented on earlier versions of portions of this manuscript, or helped by listening to my tapes, including Barbara Ribakove Gordon, Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett, Nancy Scheper-Hughes, Charles Leslie, Patricia Matusky Yamaguchi, Vivian Garrison, Mario Rendon, Clifford Waldman, Rena Gropper, Laurel Kendall, Barbara Ismail, John Hollander, Thomas Bolt, Jed Perl, and Gabriel, Raphael, and Michael Laderman. Most of all, I want to express my love and appreciation for Pak Long Awang bin Ali and Tok Daud bin Mat, of blessed memory, who were unstinting with their time and patient in their teaching. They, and all the traditional healers mentioned in this book, have ceased their practice, due to death, infirmity, or religious considerations.