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The Political Economy of Mountain JavaAn Interpretive History$
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Robert Hefner

Print publication date: 1990

Print ISBN-13: 9780520069336

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520069336.001.0001

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The Green Revolution in Mountain Agriculture

The Green Revolution in Mountain Agriculture

(p.81) Four The Green Revolution in Mountain Agriculture
The Political Economy of Mountain Java

Robert W. Hefner

University of California Press

The changes seen in mountain agriculture in the mid-1970s were in part the unintended consequence of developments begun in the wet-rice lowlands in the late 1960s and only marginally concerned with upland or rainfed agriculture. In the first five-year development plan (1969–74), “food policy was rice policy.” Preoccupied with sawah production, the government paid little attention to the rainfed uplands, and production there stagnated. Indirectly, however, state policies had a powerful impact on mountain agriculture. Programs for distributing chemical fertilizers to wet-rice farmers created a thriving black market. Government efforts to expand production eventually created supplies sufficient to allow deregulation, providing upland farmers with legal access to fertilizers. Roadbuilding and the manufacture of a new fleet of light trucks brought transportation to even remote mountain communities, allowing farmers to market their goods quickly and more cheaply. With increased mobility came new consumer goods and outside investment. Mountain villages experienced these changes with particular intensity. Less economically stratified than their lowland counterparts, highland communities were suddenly exposed to a new range of social influences. Inward-focused cultural traditions were undermined as the movement of people, capital, and goods became easier and radio and television brought home new images of identity and well-being.

Keywords:   agricultural policy, mountain agriculture, upland agriculture, social influence, highland communities

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