This chapter reviews Newcomb's professional attainments during midcareer. After serving at the Naval Observatory since 1861 and after much political maneuvering, Newcomb was appointed superintendent of the navy's Almanac Office in 1877. His accomplishments in his early astronomical research to merit possible head positions at the Smithsonian Institution, the Harvard Observatory, the Coast Survey, and the Almanac Office are discussed. The chapter then describes the scientific societies that desired Newcomb as a leader. For instance, in 1877, he served as president of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and, in 1879, succeeded the recently deceased Joseph Henry in two annual terms as president of the Philosophical Society of Washington.
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