Monuments include ancient edifices such as earth mounds and pyramids, and also contemporary statues, plaques, obelisks, and other objects designed to commemorate dynasties and their rulers. In modern urban civilization, the monument is defined as a building that represents a symbolic idea or social heritage, or which symbolizes national unification. This chapter describes German national monuments, which include the Victory Column, erected in 1872 to celebrate German triumph over the French; the monument of Hermann the Cheruscan; the Neiderwald Monument; and the centenary monument for the Battle of Nations in Leipzig. The Germans also erected more than three hundred Bismarck monuments in commemoration of the Iron Chancellor, and more than three hundred statues and monuments for Wilhelm I. The appearance of national monuments in the German landscape serves as a key feature of national symbolism.
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