This chapter assesses China's civil–military relations, focusing on the post-1989 evolution of the military elite; the impact of the military suppression in Beijing on June 4, 1989; and the broader impact of, and lessons learned from, the roles played by militaries in the collapse of other Communist Party-states. These events affected the civilian and military elite in China profoundly and triggered considerable factional struggle, purges, and courts-martial, as well as promotions of many new officers. During the 1990s, virtually the entire People's Liberation Army High Command was replaced. Toward the end of the decade, some interesting legal developments suggested that interactions among the military, the Communist Party, and the state (or government) were changing and possibly evolving in a direction similar to that taken in other East Asian and developing nations.
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