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Minding the MachineLanguages of Class in Early Industrial America$
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Stephen Rice

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780520227811

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520227811.001.0001

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Hand and Head The Manual Labor School Movement

Hand and Head The Manual Labor School Movement

(p.69) Chapter 3 Hand and Head The Manual Labor School Movement
Minding the Machine

Stephen P. Rice

University of California Press

This chapter focuses on the manual labor school movement in America during the early part of the nineteenth century. During the late 1820s, just as the first mechanics' institutes were being organized in America, education reformers around the country founded schools of higher learning designed to address personal ills by combining manual labor with a classical education. The manual labor program traced its roots to a school founded by Philip Emanuel von Fellenberg, near Bern, Switzerland, at the very end of the eighteenth century. Proponents argued that the manual labor system would not preserve the health of students, but it would also provide them with good habits, improve their studies, and offer them a means for paying for their schooling.

Keywords:   manual labor schools, school movement, America, mechanics' institute, higher learning, classical education, Philip Emanuel von Fellenberg, health, good habits

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