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Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America$
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Wade Sherbrooke

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780520228252

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520228252.001.0001

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Enemies and Defense

Enemies and Defense

Chapter:
(p.109) Enemies and Defense
Source:
Introduction to Horned Lizards of North America
Author(s):

Wade C. Sherbrooke

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520228252.003.0009

This chapter discusses some of the known predators of horned lizards, such as the long-nosed leopard Lizard (Gambelia wislizenii), the greater roadrunner (Geococcyx californianus), chihauhan ravens (Corvus cryoptoleucus), western diamond-backed rattlesnakes (Crotalus atrox), and southern grasshopper mice (Onychomys torridus). It also discusses the predator avoidance adaptations of horned lizards. Horned lizards employ camouflage to prevent detection by enemies, such as body flattening, background-color matching, and disruptive coloration. Horned lizards also have different defense responses. These include thrusting their horns into the flesh of their captor, inflating their bodies to make themselves too large to be swallowed, and blood squirting through their eye sockets.

Keywords:   predators, camouflage, body-flattening, background-color matching, disruptive coloration, defense responses

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