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Empire at the MarginsCulture, Ethnicity, and Frontier in Early Modern China$
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Pamela KyleCrossley

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780520230156

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520230156.001.0001

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Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing: The Hainan Highlands, 1644–1800

Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing: The Hainan Highlands, 1644–1800

Chapter:
(p.229) 8 Ethnicity, Conflict, and the State in the Early to Mid-Qing: The Hainan Highlands, 1644–1800
Source:
Empire at the Margins
Author(s):

Anne Csete

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520230156.003.0009

From Han times, policies toward Hainan and the Li fell into two general categories: expansionists pushed for more roads, garrisons, colonists, and counties; anti-expansionists argued that such efforts were costly and unnecessary. Han “guest merchants,” called “guest people” (Kemin), were a significant economic and social presence in Li areas in the mid-eighteenth century. The activities of the “guest people” threatened the interests of the Li, and in 1766 an antiguest campaign carried out by some Li shattered the High Qing peace on Hainan. This chapter uses local gazetteers, an essay on the highlands written in 1756 by a magistrate, confessions of captured Li after the 1766 campaign, and memorials by local officials to look at this campaign in detail with a view to defining the nature of Qing governance and the function of ethnicity in local economic and political systems.

Keywords:   Hainan, Han, Li, guest merchants, High Qing peace, local gazetteers, ethnicity

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