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Proof through the NightMusic and the Great War$
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Glenn Watkins

Print publication date: 2002

Print ISBN-13: 9780520231580

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520231580.001.0001

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The 100% American

The 100% American

(p.282) 16 The 100% American
Proof through the Night

Glenn Watkins

University of California Press

In a speech to the State Republican Party Convention on July 19, 1918, Theodore Roosevelt said: “There can be no fifty-fifty Americanism in this country. There is room here for only 100% Americanism, only for those who are Americans and nothing else.” However, it was not clear just what constituted “100% Americanism.” A doctrine of Manifest Destiny, based upon principles inherent in the Declaration of Independence, had been published as early as 1839 by John O'Sullivan, editor of the Democratic Review. Despite the prevailing isolationist mood, it was apparent that music scholars from America were anything but oblivious to contemporary developments in Europe. As America waited for the appearance of its “great Expressor,” another repertoire was ready and waiting to serve the needs of the moment. The power attendant to war tunes, hymns, and national anthems was reviewed in the very first issue of The Musical Times published in London following the declaration of the Great War.

Keywords:   Great War, America, Europe, national anthems, Americanism, Manifest Destiny, war tunes, hymns

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