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Atonement and ForgivenessA New Model for Black Reparations$

Roy Brooks

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780520239418

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520239418.001.0001

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(p.306) (p.307) Index

(p.306) (p.307) Index

Source:
Atonement and Forgiveness
Publisher:
University of California Press
ABC News, 38, 40
abolitionists, 5, 25–26, 32–33, 55–56, 58, 63, 170, 194
accounting, 14, 101
Acheson, Dean, 69
ACS (American Colonization Society), 5, 55
acting white, 85–86
Adams, John, 181
Adams, John Quincy, 181
Adarand Constructors, Inc. v. Peña, 174, 176, 179
Adenauer, Konrad, xv
Administrative Procedures Act, 124
admissions policies, 65–66, 68–69, 71–73, 79–81, 238n134, 240–41n158, 243n179
Aesop, 184
Aetna Insurance Company, 15
affirmative action, xvi, 71–72, 75, 79–82, 90, 172, 175–79, 192–93, 223n20, 261–62n35
Africa, repatriation to, 4–5, 56, 224n13
African governments, 18, 180
African Methodist Episcopal (A.M.E.) Church, 50, 59
African slavery, 181–82, 185, 188, 207–8
agape, 165
Age of Apology, xiii–xiv
Age of Jackson, xii
Alabama State University, 90
Albright, Madeleine, 110, 251n46
Aleuts, xiii, 177
Alexander’s Magazine, 63
Alexander v. Governor of the State of Oklahoma, 127, 130–31, 258n168
Alienikoff, Alexander, 78
Alien Tort Claims Act (ATCA), 99, 104–6, 110, 251–52n47
Allen, Walter, 94
Allen, William G., 51
Allied Forces, xiv–xv, 100, 103
Alpha Phi Alpha, 56
alternative-life argument, 46
American Colonization Society (ACS), 5, 55
American Council on Education, 93
American Dream, 41
(p.308) American Jews, 18, 107–12, 194
American Negro Slavery (Phillips), 149
American Revolution, 21, 32, 85, 96, 133, 185
American Sociological Association, 94
Amherst College, 50, 82, 89
amnesia, 165, 167, 192;
collective, 141, 150
amnesty, 147
Anderson, Jourdon, 6
Anderson, P. H., 6
Andrew Johnson and Reconstruction (McKitrick), 150
anti-affirmative action, 79–81
anti-discrimination laws, 70–71
anti-Israel forces, 16–18
AP (Advanced Placement) exams, 73, 84, 86
apartheid: in Jim Crow era, ix, 44, 69, 124;
in South Africa, xiii, xvi, 35, 140, 147
apology: African governments and, 180;
atonement model and, ix–x, xii–xvii, 143–54, 156–63, 259–60n6, 261n33;
black redress movement and, 10–15, 201;
Federal Republic of Germany and, xv, 107, 143–44;
forced labor litigation and, 112;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 118;
slave-redress litigation and, 123, 138–39, 258–59n170;
tort model and, 100;
U.S. government and, ix–x, 141–43, 156, 169–70, 181, 185, 188, 201
Aristotle, 183
Articles of Confederation, 2, 24, 227n20
Ashmore, Harry, 37–38
Asians, 87, 160–61, 190–91, 262–63n37. See also names of Asian ethnic groups
Askia the Great, 49
assault and battery, 101, 108, 134
asymmetrical social measures, 155, 172, 177, 193, 195–96
ATCA (Alien Torts Claims Act), 99, 104–6, 110, 251–52n47
Atlanta University, 60, 63
atonement: forgiveness and, 143, 166, 168;
racial reconciliation and, ix–x, 194, 201, 202–6, 221n2;
rhetoric of, 19 (see also post-Holocaust vision of redress);
tort model and, 99, 112, 139–40
atonement model, x, xii, xvi–xvii, 3, 6, 10–12, 141–79, 222n7;
apology, anatomy of, 143–54, 188;
forgiveness, anatomy of, 163–69;
political implications of, xii–xiii, 169–71, 201–2, 208;
reparations, anatomy of, 155–63, 191–93;
reparations, constitutionality of, 171–79
atonement money, xvii, 140, 156
atonement syllogism, x, 208
atonement trust fund, xi, 157, 159–63, 169, 172–79, 191, 198–99, 202, 204
atrocities, xii–xvii, 213–17, 222n12;
atonement model and, ix–xii, 11, 141–47, 153, 155–56, 165, 195–96, 259–60n6;
tort model and, 114, 116, 140. see also Jim Crow; slavery
attrition rates, black, 72–74, 89–95
Auerbach, Carl, xiv
Australian aborigines, xiii, 12, 153
Ayres, Ian, 102
backlash, white, 79, 171
Bakke, Regents of the University of California v., 71, 79, 174
Balbus, Ike, 150–51
Ball, Charles, 27–29
Ball, Edward, 3
Banks, Tanya, 160
Banneker, Benjamin, 4
Barkan, Elazar, 148, 155
Barr, Jacobs v., 176–77
Barrett, Paul, 204–5
BASF corporation, 108
basic capital, 2–3, 21
Bayer corporation, 108
(p.309) Belloni (Judge), 116, 139
beneficiaries of slavery, 151, 154, 188–90, 192
Berea College (Ky.), 51, 65
Berkshire Medical School, 56
Berlin, Ira, 32, 52
Berry, Halle, 160
Berry, Mark, 120–22
Berry v. United States, 120–22, 124, 253n85
Beta Kappa Beta, 63
Beverly, James, 126, 129
biases, racial, 38–39, 82–83, 86, 93
bin Laden, Osama, 199
Birmingham (Ala.) church bombing, 210
Birth of a Nation (film), 150
Bittker, Boris I., 162–63, 198
Bivens doctrine, 122
“black,” uniform definition of, 52
black Africans, 18, 27–28, 180–81
Black American Students in an Affluent Suburb: A Study of Academic Disengagement (Ogbu), 85–86, 246n209
black churches, 50, 59
Black Codes, 64
black college professors, 92–94
black colleges, 50, 55–56. see also HBCUs
blackface, 94–95, 205
black graduates. see college graduates, black
“Black Manifesto,” 11, 225n29
black nationalists groups, 14
black preachers, 60
black pride, 142
black progress. see racial progress
Black Reconstruction (Du Bois), 150
black redress movement, xi, xvi–xvii, 1–19, 224n7;
arguments against, 180–206;
civil rights movement and, 208–11;
post-Holocaust era and, 10–19;
post-slavery era and, 6–10;
purpose of, 1–4;
slavery era and, 4–6;
tort model and, 139
Black’s Law Dictionary, 101
black students, 49–51, 56–58, 71, 94–95
“black tax” claims, 13–14
black teachers, 57–58, 60
black-white binary, 160
Blake, William, 164
Blight, David, 9, 149
“blood money” issue, 135–36
Bodin, Jean, 186
Bok, Derek, 75, 81, 244n188
Bollinger, Gratz v., 174
Bollinger, Grutter v., 79, 81, 174, 243n179, 261–62n35
Bolling v. Sharpe, 173
bounties, 8–9
Bowdoin College (Me.), 50
Bowen, William G., 75, 81, 244n188
boycotts, 69
Branch, Mark Alden, 149
Brandenburg Gate (Berlin), 146
Brandt, Willy, 143–44
Brennan, William J., Jr., 176
Breyer, Stephen, ix, 39, 84
Broder, David, xi
Browder, Gayle v., 67
Brown University, 74–75, 82, 89
Brown v. Board of Education, xvi, 55, 59, 66–69, 99, 124, 138, 150, 171–73, 209, 231n34, 234n72
Bruce, Blanche K., 65
Bruce, Roscoe Conkling, 65
buck, 31
Burke, Edmund, 199, 201
Bush, George H. W., 79, 108
Bush, George W., 17, 157, 181, 207–8
business investments, 162
Butler, Joseph, 164
California constitutional and statutory laws, 102–3, 250n25
California government, 14–15, 79–81
California Supreme Court, 103–4
Cambridge University, 38
(p.310) Canadian-Ukrainians, xiii
capital deficiencies, 2–3, 21–22, 26, 31, 34–35, 37, 42, 45–46, 48, 204, 248–49n245
Carney, Brian M., 202
Carroll, Grace, 94
castration, 23
Catholic Church, 153
Cato v. United States, 122–24, 255n115
census counts, 20, 34, 45, 51–52, 54, 57, 61, 233n59, 262–63n37
Center for Democratic Renewal, 94
Central College (N.Y.), 51
Chavis, John, 50
Chicago City Council, 15
Chinese Americans, 100, 103, 262–63n37
Christianity: forgiveness and, 165–66;
slavery and, 184, 186–87, 267nn16,17
Christ United Presbyterian Church (San Diego, Calif.), 91
Chromatius, 186
City of Richmond v. J. A. Croson Co., 175
civic republicanism, xii, 170, 221–22n6
civil disobedience, 209
Civil Liberties Act (1988), 12, 118–19, 176–77, 193, 255n115
Civil Rights Act, 131
Civil Rights Acts of 1866 and 1871, Title VI (1964), 70–71, 178, 192, 196
civil rights era, 47, 70–74
civil rights legislation, 36, 46–47, 70, 161, 192–93, 210. See also titles of civil rights legislation
civil rights movement, x–xi, xvi–xvii, 1, 38–39, 69, 96, 208–11, 239n138
Civil War era, 193–94;
education in, 50–56, 58–59, 234n72;
museum of slavery and, 158;
slave redress and, xvi, 6–7, 10;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 44, 46;
South’s ideological victory in, 149–50, 170
Clark, Kenneth, 72
class action lawsuits, 7–8, 100, 106, 109–10, 119–20, 125–28, 132
Clay, Henry, 5
Clinton, Bill, xii, 44, 79, 108, 111, 125–26, 208
Cochrane, Johnnie, 14
cognitive ability, 72–73, 84, 240–41nn158,159
cognitive styles, 74
Cold War, 69
College Board, 83, 84
college graduates, black: from Brown to post–civil rights era, 71–74;
from colonial era to Civil War, 50–52, 233n57;
from postbellum era to Brown, 57–59, 61;
from post–civil rights era to present, 81–82, 88–97
Collins, Addie Mae, 210
colonial America, 2, 20–24, 51–52, 85, 105, 123, 186–87, 233n59
colonization, African, 5, 33
Colonization Society of Connecticut, 33
color-blind principle, 172–74, 176
Colored American Magazine, 63
Colored High and Training School (Baltimore, Md.), 56
Comfort Women, xiii, xvi–xvii, 106, 140, 145
commodification question, 135–37, 183
common-law rights of action, 22, 99, 100–102, 108–9, 131, 133–34, 257n151
community rehabilitation, xi, 156–57, 198
compelling governmental interest, 175–76
compensation, x, 9–10, 14–15, 98, 100, 142, 249n2
compensatory reparations, 156–57, 198, 261nn33,34
concentration camps, xiv, 107
Confederacy, 25, 180
Confederate flag, 40, 190
Connerly, Ward, 41, 194, 269n52
(p.311) conservatives, 37–44, 98, 191, 200
Constitutional Convention, 24, 158
Continental Congress, 2, 187
Convention for the Improvement of the Free People of Color (Philadelphia, Pa.), 55
Conyers, John, 1, 11–12
Cooper, Frank, 30–31
coram nobis, 114–17, 139, 252nn65,66
corporations, 3, 6, 14–16, 43, 77, 99–100, 109–11, 132, 134–37, 249n5
correlativity thesis, 136
Cose, Ellis, 18
Court of Claims (U.S.), 118, 121, 124
Cramer, Clayton, 34
Crane, Sallie, 30
criminal convictions, 114–17
Crisis, The (magazine), 63
Cuffe, Paul, 4–5
Dagan, Hanoch, 135–37, 258n166
Danish Institute for Human Rights, 16
Darity, William, 198
Dartmouth University, 50
Davidson, Basil, 181
Davis, David Brion, 21, 25, 149–50, 181, 185–86, 226n1, 268n31
Davis, Jefferson, 25, 30
Dawson, Michael, 266n1
debate clubs, 63
Declaration of Independence (U.S.), 187, 190, 268n35
De Klerk, F. W., xiii
Delany, Martin, 48–49, 231–32n42
Delgado, Richard, 102, 189
democracy, xii, 69, 147, 152, 174, 176, 193, 202, 208, 271n3
descendants, x, xvii;
atonement model and, 142, 145–46, 162–63, 259–60n6, 261n33;
black redress movement and, 2–4, 15, 192, 202–6;
in forced labor litigation settlements, 110;
in slave-redress litigation, 120–23, 132, 136–37
descendants, harms to, 36–97;
from Brown to post-civil rights era, 66–74;
from colonial era to Civil War, 48–56;
from postbellum era to Brown, 56–66;
from post–civil rights era to present, 74–97;
received traditions and, 37–48
desegregation of schools, 55, 62, 67–70, 124, 171, 231n34, 234n72, 237n110
DeWitt, John L., 113–15
Digeser, Peter, 168–69, 264n66
dignity, 142, 191
discrimination, gender-based, 71, 172, 265n76
discrimination, racial: atonement model and, 142, 160, 174–79, 262–63n37;
in employment, 2, 77, 86, 91, 174, 178, 223–24n1;
in higher education, 55, 64–66, 70–71, 81, 93, 96, 174, 234n73;
in housing, 262–63n37;
in suffrage, 81, 174, 243–44n183;
tort model and, 7–8, 123–27
dismemberment, 22–23
distributive justice, 136, 194–96
diversity, racial, 71, 79, 82, 243nn179,180, 261–62n35
diversity jurisdiction, 108–9, 251n45
diversity of citizenship statute, 132–33
Dixiecrats, 39
doctoral degrees, 61, 63
Dole, Bob, 19
dominant theory of rights, 105
Douglas, William O., 47
Douglass, Frederick, 22, 26, 44, 55, 150, 236–37n108
Downie, R. S., 164–65, 264n55
Downing, Edward, 23
Dred Scott v. Sanford (1857), 22, 50, 54, 185, 268n21
dropout rate, 72–73, 90–91, 94
D’Souza, Dinesh, 38, 43, 96, 194, 199–201, 262–63n37
Du Bois, W. E. B., 62, 150, 237n109
Duke University, 89
(p.312) Dunbar Debating Club, 63
Dunning, William S., 150
Durban Conference, 16–18, 226n42
Durban Declaration and Programme of Action (UN), 17
Dutch-Roman law remedies, 258–59n170
dysfunctional black culture, 43–45, 231nn36,37
Ebonics, 74
Economic Consequences of the Peace, The (Keynes), xiv
egalitarianism, xv–xvi, 11, 19, 141, 211
Egyptian slavery, 184
Eizenstat, Stuart E., 111, 251n46, 252n50
elementary education, 59, 67–68, 73–74, 77–78, 84, 86, 96, 160, 162
elite schools, 37, 48, 70, 75–76, 79–82, 90, 229n5, 244n188. See also names of elite colleges
Elizabeth II (queen), xiii
Elkin, Stanley, 150
Emancipation Proclamation, 194
employment, 2–3, 33, 44, 64, 77, 223–24n1
Encyclopedia Britannica, 38
English Debating Club, 63
enrollment in higher education: deficiencies in, 52–56, 61–66, 75–88, 96, 241n165, 242n167;
improvements in, 70–71, 79, 239n143
Enron, 135
Equal Credit Opportunity Act (ECOA), 125, 128
Equal Employment Opportunity Act (1972), 2, 223–24n1
equal protection clause, 172, 174–77
equitable tolling doctrine, 122, 124–26, 131, 136–37, 254n102, 258n165
Essence, 13
European Convention for the Protection of Human and Fundamental Freedoms (1950), 105
Evacuation Claims Act (1948), 114
Ewing, A. C., 164
exceptionalism, 199–200
Executive Order 9066, 112–13
“Ex-slave Pension and Bounty Bill” (1890), 8–9
Extempore Debating Club, 63
external causes: of enrollment deficiencies, 54–56, 64–66, 79–88;
of enrollment improvement, 70;
of graduation deficiencies, 73–74, 90–95
extracurricular activities, 63
false arrest/imprisonment, 101, 108, 131
family data bases, 3, 198
family-history requirements, 197
family wealth gap, 48, 91–92, 162–63, 204. see also financial capital
Farmer-Paellmann, Deadria, 132
farmers, black, 6–8, 125–30, 256n128
Farrakhan, Louis, 4, 14, 224n7
faultless whites, 152–53
FCC, Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v., 176–77
Feagin, Joe, 42 –43, 102, 152, 154, 161, 189, 202
federal government. see U.S. government
Federal Republic of Germany, xv, 107–8
Federal Republic of Germany, Princz v., 107–9
Federal Tort Claims Act (FTCA), 118, 124
Federal Writers’ Project (FWP), 26–27
Fehrenbacher, Don, 25, 52
female-headed households, 45
Fifteenth Amendment, 57
Fifth Amendment, 172, 176
financial aid packages, 71, 73, 74, 79, 90–91, 239n146
(p.313) financial capital, 2–3, 21, 26, 31, 34, 42, 46, 74, 90–93, 159–60, 204
financial institutions, 43, 109, 111, 132
Finkelman, Paul, 24, 52
First Amendment, 131
Fisk University, 60, 63, 69
For Cause & Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (McPherson), 194
forced labor litigation, 100–112;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 117;
Japanese forced labor litigation, 100–106;
Nazi forced labor litigation, 106–12, 251–52nn46,47
Ford, Gerald, xiii
Fordice, United States v., 68, 238n134
Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act (FSIA), 106, 108–10
forgiveness, ix–x, xvii, 143–44, 146–47, 163–69, 195, 221n3, 264n55
“Forgiveness ‘Written Within & Without’ Law” (Moskal), 164
Forman, James, 11
“forty acres and a mule,” 6–8, 13, 120–22
forward-looking potential of slave redress, x, 141, 143, 169, 195, 259n1
Foster, Robert L., 14
Foundation Law (Germany), 109–12, 118, 218–20, 251n46
founding fathers, 21, 24–25, 185, 187, 271n3. See also names of founding fathers
Fourteenth Amendment, 54, 57, 70, 120–21, 131, 172–73, 176, 192, 265n76
Frank, Dania, 198
Frankfurter, Felix, xv
Franklin, Benjamin, 187
Franklin, John Hope, 5, 51
free blacks, x, xvii;
black redress movement and, 2–5;
census counts and, 51–52;
harms to, 20–35;
higher education and, 49–59, 78, 97;
illiteracy and, 53–54;
legal status of, 22–25, 133;
lives of, 32–35;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 45, 46, 48
freedmen, 6–10, 46, 57–59
Freedmen’s Bureau, 6–7, 58, 120–21
Freedmen’s Bureau Act (1865), 6, 120–22
“freeze” theory, 81, 243–44n183
French, Howard, 181
Friedman, Leon, 115
Friedman, Paul L., 6–7, 126, 129
frontier thesis, xii, 221–22n6
FSIA (Foreign Sovereign Immunity Act), 106, 108–10
FTCA (Federal Tort Claims Act), 118, 124
Fugitive Slave Act (1850), 52
“fugitive-slave clause,” 24, 34
fugitive slaves, 32
Fultz, Michael, 63
funding for schools, 59, 70–71, 235n93
gain-based theory of restitutionary law, 99, 135–37
Garrison, William Lloyd, 25, 55
Garvey, Marcus, 4, 224n7
Gayle v. Browder, 67
Gazzman, Joseph, 48
gender-based discrimination, 71, 172, 265n76
gender gap, black, 76–78, 242n167
gender studies, 87–88
Geneva Convention, 107
genocide, xiv–xv, 251n37
Gibney, Mark, 147
Gilder-Lehrman Center for the Study of Slavery, Resistance & Abolition (Yale Univ.), 149
Ginsburg, Ruth Bader, ix, 39, 84, 111
Glickman, Dan, 125
Glickman, Pigford v., 119, 124–30, 253n82, 255n116, 256n128
Gnacadja, Luc, 180
“Gold Train” case, 254n102
Gone with the Wind (film), 150
(p.314) Good Black, The (Barrett), 204–5
good faith purchaser doctrine, 136–37
grade performances, 73–74, 83, 86–87, 90, 94
graduates, black. see college graduates, black
Grahame, James, 5–6, 9
grandfather clauses, 243–44n183
Grandy, Moses, 30
Grant, Ulysses, 2, 187
gratefulness, 151, 154, 189
Gratz v. Bollinger, 174
Gray-Little, Bernadette, 88
Greek slavery, 183–84, 268n25
Greener, Richard T., 58
Gregory, Dick, 270n66
Gregory VII (pope), 143
Grutter v. Bollinger, 79, 81, 174, 243n179, 261–62n35
guilt, 98, 150–51
Habermas, Jürgen, 148
Hacker, Andrew, 39
Haley, Alex, 3
Hall, Gwendolyn, 3, 224n5
Hall, Tony, 13, 15, 225n33
Hamilton, Alexander, 187
Hammon, Jupiter, 4
Hancock, John, 187
Harlan, John M., 173–74, 262n36
Hartford Courant (Conn.), 15
Harvard University, 65–66, 70, 71, 75–76, 81–82, 89–90, 149
Harvard University. Medical School, 48–49, 231–32n42
Haverford College, 89
Hawaiians, xii, 12
HBCUs (historically black colleges and universities), 58–61, 63, 67–68, 70, 73, 75, 90, 92, 235n90, 238n134
Heim, David, 166
Hemmings, Anita Florence, 56
Henderson, Leonard, 134, 257n151
Henderson, Michael, 165
Henry, Patrick, 187
Henry, Stuart, 42, 44
Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor, 143
Hernstein, Richard, 84
Higginbotham, A. Leon, 22–23
Higginbottom, Larry, 41
higher education, xvii, 37, 48–97, 229n5, 231n31;
atonement model and, 162, 175;
from Brown to post-civil rights era, 66–74;
from colonial era to Civil War, 48–56;
from postbellum era to Brown, 56–66;
from post–civil rights era to present, 74–97
high schools. see secondary education
Hillyer, Morris, 29
hip-hop, 202–3, 270n66
Hirabayashi, Gordon, 114, 116
Hirabayashi v. United States, 114, 116
historically black colleges and universities. see HBCUs
historically white colleges and universities. see HWCUs
historical record, 116–17, 139–40, 148–51, 177, 259n173
Hitler, Adolf, xiv, 147
Hoechst corporation, 108
Hohri v. United States, 114, 117
Holden, Nate, 16
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, 48
Holmes, Oliver Wendell, Jr., 48
Holocaust Museum (Washington, D.C.), 157
Holocaust Remembrance site (Berlin), 146
Holocaust survivors, 107–11
Holocaust Victim Insurance Relief Act (HVIRA; Calif.), 110–11
Homestead Act (1866), 8, 225n20
Hoover, J. Edgar, 113
Hopwood v. State of Texas, 79, 81, 243n179
(p.315) Houston, Charles Hamilton, 57
Howard, John, 153
Howard, O. O., 58
Howard University, 58, 60–61, 63
Howard University, Law School, 57
H.R. 40, 11–13, 15, 177, 210
Hughes, Langston, 57
human capital, 2–3, 21, 26, 31, 34, 46, 204;
in higher education, 48, 51–56, 59–66, 70–72, 75–97
human rights, xvi, 16, 22–23, 133, 135–36, 140
Hurdle, Andrew, 132
Hurdle, Chester, 132
Hurdle, Timothy, 132
Hutchinson, Ida, 31
HVIRA (Holocaust Victim Insurance Relief Act; Calif.), 110–11
HWCUs (historically white colleges and universities), 57–58, 61–76, 93
identity politics, 188–92
I. G. Farben corporation, 107, 108
“I Have a Dream” (King), 210
illiteracy. see literacy rates
immigrants: of color, 190–91, 197, 203;
white, 188, 190
incarceration of black men, 77, 92–93, 242n167
indentured servants, 20–21, 23
Indian Claims Commission (U.S.), xvi, 12
innocent whites, 151–54, 188–92
inquisitorial process, 138, 258n169
In re Nazi Era Cases against German Defendants Litigation, 109, 218
In re World War II Era Japanese Forced Labor Litigation, 100, 102–4, 106, 108–9
“insane and idiots,” 34, 54
insurance, 14–15, 109–11, 163
integration, racial, 4, 60, 68, 72. see also desegregation of schools
internal causes: of enrollment deficiencies, 53–54, 62–63, 76–79;
of graduation deficiencies, 72–73, 90
Internal Revenue Tax and Raw Cotton Act (1862), 120
International Commission on Holocaust Era Insurance Claims (ICHEIC), 111
International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966), 105
international law, 100, 104–6, 133, 140, 251n37, 257n144
International Law Commission (ILC), 105
international redress movement, xiii–xvi, 12–13, 16–18, 156, 195, 261n31
internment centers, 112–13
intertemporal law, doctrine of, 105
In the Matter of Color (Higginbotham), 22
intraracial progress, 46–47
Iredell, James, 24
IRS (Internal Revenue Service), 13–14
Islam, 199–200
Israel, xv, 107, 194
Italian Americans, xiii, 12, 177, 265–66n92
Jackson, Andrew, xii, 5, 187
Jackson, Jesse, 4, 38
Jacobs v. Barr, 176–77
J. A. Croson Co., City of Richmond v., 175
Japanese American removal and internment, 12, 18–19, 99, 112–19, 122, 147, 154–55, 176–77, 196, 255n115, 265–66n92
Japanese forced labor litigation, 99, 100–106
Japanese government, xiii, xvii, 12, 99, 100–106, 145
Japanese Imperial Army, xiii, xvi, 106
Jefferson, Thomas, 5, 21, 187
Jencks, Christopher, 83, 85
(p.316) Jennings, Cedric, 74–75, 83
Jensen (Judge), 121–22, 124
Jensen, Robert, 188–89
Jewish Americans, 18, 107–12, 194
Jewish students, 65
Jim Crow, ix–xii, xvi–xvii;
atonement model and, 141–42, 156–63, 169–71, 173–75, 177, 262n36;
black redress movement and, 1–3, 188, 194, 201, 208, 223–24nn1,2;
capital deficiencies and, 37;
harms to descendants of, 58–59, 64–66, 74, 81, 84–86, 90–93, 96–97, 192, 196 –97;
slave-redress litigation and, 119, 124, 127, 130–31;
socio-economics of slavery and, 43–48;
tort model and, 100, 101, 115–16
Johnson, Andrew, 7, 187
Johnson, Lyndon B., 208
Johnson, Robert, 5
Johnson v. MacAdoo, 119–20
Jones, Edward, 50
Jones, Joseph E., 58
Jordan, Michael, 148
Jordan, Winthrop D., 54
Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 84
Judaic view of forgiveness, 166
judicial review, doctrine of, 174–76, 257n149
jus cogens, 104–6, 251n37
justice, racial, 43, 98, 136, 163, 169, 204. see also distributive justice; restorative justice
“Justice and Greed: Black and White Support for Reparations” (Dawson and Popoff), 266n1
Justinian Code, 186, 268n28
Kennedy, John F., 208–10
Kerekou, Mathieu, 180
Keynes, John Maynard, xiv
Kinderheim children, 110
King, Martin Luther, Jr., xii, 1, 4, 11, 69, 196, 201, 209–10, 224n7
Kitchen, Earl, 128–29
K.K.K. College Fund, 94
Klamath tribes, 254n91
Kochman, Thomas, 78
Koreans, 100, 103, 250n25
Korematsu, Fred, 114, 116
Korematsu v. United States, 114, 116
Krauthammer, Charles, 98
Kujichagulia-Seitu, Taiwo, 13
Kwasniewski, Aleksandr, 145
labor, control of, 135–37
Lafayette, marquis de, 33
Laing, Daniel, 48
land grant colleges, 65
land restitution, 120–22, 254n89
Latinos, 160–61, 191, 262–63n37
Lauritzen, Paul, 164–65, 167
lawyer abuse, 98, 127–30, 138
League of Nations, 170
legislative approach to slave redress, 8–9, 14, 98, 138, 171, 195–96, 249n2, 258n168
Leland University, 60
Le Moyne, Julius, 48
Leo Africanus, 49
“Letter from Birmingham City Jail” (King), 209
lex non scripto (the unwritten law), 22, 133
lex scripto (the written law), 22, 133
liability, denial of, 138, 140
liberals, 37–44
Liberian repatriation movement, 224n13
liberty, principle of, 21, 200
Life and Times of Frederick Douglass, The (Douglass), 22, 150
Limbaugh, Rush, 270–71n68
Lincoln, Abraham, 5, 7, 56, 58, 169–70, 181
Lincoln University (Pa.), 50, 56–58, 60
Lipinski Resolution, xiii, xv
literacy rates, 53, 55, 62
literary clubs, 63
(p.317) litigation peace, 110–11
Locke, John, 268n31
Los Angeles City Council, 15–16, 141
Lott, Trent, 38–39
Louisiana State University, 3, 198
Loury, Glenn, 42
Lowell, A. Lawrence, 65–66
lynchings, 44, 46, 130, 193
MacAdoo, Johnson v., 119–20
MacFarlen, Moses v., 135
Madison, James, 25, 187
Mansfield, Lord, 135
manual labor, 62, 236–37n108
Maori people, xiii
Marbury v. Madison, 103
March on Washington, 210
Marshall, John, 103, 134, 257n149
Marshall, Thurgood, 1, 56–57
Martin, Vivian, 190
Marxist scholars, 182–83
Massachusetts slave codes, 23
master-slave interchangeability, 182–84, 188
McCall, Nathan, 92–93
McCoy, John J., 147
McCullough, David, 187
McGregor, Lorna, 165
McKitrick, Eric, 150
McLaurin, George, 57
McNair, Denise, 210
McPherson, James M., 194
McQuoid-Mason, David, 258–59n170
McWhorter, John, 43, 188
medical experimentation, 110
Meet the Press, 17
Meharry Medical School, 61
Melania, Saint, 186
memorials, 10, 15, 142, 144, 157–59
mentors, 92
Messerschmitt factory, 107, 108
Metro Broadcasting, Inc. v. FCC, 176–77, 265–66n92
Meyers, Lukas, 152, 154
middle class, black, 44–45, 63, 82–87, 231nn36,37, 246n210
middle passage, 28–29, 34–35, 49, 157, 180, 207
migrations, great northern, 57
“Millions for Reparations” rally, 14
Milovanovic, Dragan, 42, 44
Mims, Sekou, 41
Miner, Myrtilla, 55
minorities, racial, 15, 43, 160–61, 190–91, 193, 201, 203, 262–63n37
missionary groups, northern, 58, 59–60
Monroe, James, 5, 187
Moore, Kathleen Dean, 164
moral imperative, 143, 166–68
morality, heightened: atonement model and, xii, 143–54, 259–60n6;
post-Holocaust vision of, xiv–xvi, 11, 19, 141, 211;
tort model deficiency of, 139–42
moral prerogative, 167–68
More, Thomas, 186
Morehouse University, 63
Morrill Act (1862), 65
Morris, Dick, 169–70
Moses v. MacFarlen, 135
Moskal, Jeanne, 164
mourning, work of, 151
Munson, Curtis B., 113
Murphy, Jeffrie, 164
Murray, Charles, 84
Musa, Mansa Kankan, 49
museum of slavery, xi, 157–59, 163, 169, 172, 179, 198, 202, 207
Mystery (Pittsburgh, Pa.), 48
NAACP (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People), 4, 9, 62, 66, 237n110
Nanjing (China) massacre, xiii
National Black Economic Development Conference (Detroit, Mich.), 225n29
(p.318) National Ex-Slave Mutual Relief Bounty and Pension Association, 9
National Institute against Prejudice and Violence, 94
“National Museum of African American History and Culture,” 10, 157, 225n28
National Negro Business League, 9
National Sorry Day (1998), 153
Nation of Islam, 11, 13–14
Native Americans, xii–xiii, xvi, 12, 121–22, 161, 190–91, 221–22n6, 223n19, 254n91
Nazi forced labor litigation, 99, 106–12, 118, 140, 251–52nn46,47
Nazi war crimes, xv, 251n37
NCAA (National Collegiate Athletic Association), Division I, 89
N’COBRA (National Coalition of Blacks for Reparations in America), 12–13
“Negro,” definition of, 52, 270n66
“New African Initiative,” 18
Newberry, Paul, 164
New England slave codes, 23, 187, 269n36
Newman, Joanna, 78
Newman, Louis, 166
Newsweek, 18
Newton, Nell Jessup, xvi
New York Times, 39, 146
NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), 16
Nietzsche, Friedrich, 166
9/11 terrorist attacks. see September 11 terrorist attacks
nonjusticiability. see political question doctrine
nonsubordination principle, 172–74
norms, 42, 46, 64, 148, 189, 194
North Star (Rochester, N.Y.), 48
Norton, Gale, 254n91
Oberlin College, 50–51, 58
O’Brien, Eileen, 202
O’Conner, Sandra Day, 175, 265n86
Ogbu, John, 85–86, 246n209
Ogletree, Charles, 14, 130, 266n1
Ohio University, 50
Oklahoma Commission to Study the Tulsa Race Riot, 131, 195
Olivet College (Mich.), 95
opinion polls, xi, 201–2, 208
Otis, James, 187
out-of-wedlock babies, 43, 96
Ovidius, Saint, of Gaul, 186
Oxford University, 38
Page, Sara, 130
Paglia, Camille, 188
parenting, 85–87
Paterson, William, 24
patriotism, 199, 201
Patterson, Mary Jane, 50
Patterson, Orlando, 181, 226n1
Payne, Daniel Alexander, 50
PBCs (predominantly black colleges), 59, 235n90
Peculiar Institution: Slavery in the AnteBellum South, The (Stampp), 150
Pell Grant Program, 239n146
Peña, Adarand Constructors, Inc. v., 174, 176, 179
pensions, ex-slave, 8–10
people-as-enduring-institution argument, 152, 154
Perelman, S. J., 166
Personal Justice Denied (report), 119
persons of color, nonblack, 190–91. See also names of racial groups
phenotype, 160, 182
Phi Beta Kappa, 65
philanthropists, northern, 59–60
Phillips, Meredith, 83, 85
Phillips, Ulrich Bonnell, 149–50
Phillips, Wendell, 25
Phillips Exeter Academy, 65
(p.319) Pigford v. Glickman, 119, 124–30, 253n82, 255n116, 256n128
Pittsfield Medical School, 56
plantation life, 30, 91–92, 133, 157
Plessy v. Ferguson, 64, 67, 173–74, 224n2, 262n36
Polish officials, xiii, 145
political implications of atonement model, xii–xiii, 169–71, 201–2, 208
political question doctrine, 99, 103–4, 106, 119, 124, 127, 250n25
Polk, James, 187
poll tax, 81, 243–44n183
poor parenting practices theory, 85–87, 245n207
poor whites, 83–86, 245n207
Popoff, Rovana, 266n1
post-Holocaust vision of redress, xiv–xvi, 10–11, 19, 141, 148, 211
post-traumatic slavery disorder (PTSD), 41, 44
Poussaint, Alvin, 41, 74
Powell, Colin, 4, 17, 40, 148, 226n42
Powell, Joe, 66
Powell, Lewis F., 71, 79
power, 36, 40, 47, 74, 92, 96, 189, 229n5, 240–41n158
Power Plays: Win or Lose—How History’s Great Political Leaders Play the Game (Morris), 169
prejudice, racial, 33, 78, 94, 115, 177, 234n72
President’s Commission on Higher Education (1950), 61
primary education. see elementary education
Princeton University, 50, 65, 70, 75–76, 81–82, 89–90
Princz, Hugo, 107–9
Princz v. Federal Republic of Germany, 107–9
private redress, 3–4, 6, 14, 99, 132–38, 249n5, 258n165
private schools, 59, 70, 73. See also names of private schools
privilege, xii, 36, 40, 42–43, 47, 188–89;
higher education and, 74, 81, 92, 96, 240–41n158
privity, 177–78, 179, 192, 266n94
professional blacks, 63, 82, 86
Proposition 209 (Calif.), 79–81
pro se plaintiffs, 120–23, 255n115
protest marches and rallies, xii, 10, 69, 209, 222n7
psychological detachment, 87–88
psychology of slavery, 37–41
PTSD (post-traumatic slavery disorder), 41, 44
public actions. see state governments; U.S. government
public-finance theory, 198
public schools, 48, 53–55, 73–74, 91, 160, 162, 204
public shaming, 147
Pugh, Darrell L., 162–63, 198
punishment, x, 98, 142
al-Qaeda, 199
Quakers, 33, 55, 181
quantum meruit, 101, 108, 133, 249–50n8
quasi-contract claims, 108–9
quasi-slaves, 52, 53, 185
Quiet Title Act, 121–22
quilombos, 32
quotas, racial, 71
Race and Reunion: The Civil War in American Memory (Blight), 149
race riots, 14, 130–31, 261n34
racial anger, 202–4, 270n66
racial differential in higher education, 71–72, 76, 79–83, 88–90, 96, 241n165, 242n167, 248–49n245
racial disadvantage. see capital deficiencies
racial equality, x–xii, 2, 46–47, 194
racial hierarchy, 160, 174, 188, 262n36
(p.320) “racially neutral” justifications, 62, 81, 243–44n183
racial preferences, 2, 71, 79 –80, 90, 174, 192–93, 243n179, 261–62n35
racial profiling, 40, 42, 230n15
racial progress, 45–47, 51, 159, 169, 171, 231n37
racial reconciliation: atonement model and, ix–x, xii, xvi–xvii, 141–43, 157, 163–64, 168–69, 171;
black redress movement and, 194–95, 202–6;
in South Africa, 147;
tort model and, 99–100, 139, 258–59n170
racial slavery, 20–21, 23, 148–49, 157, 180, 182–83, 187–88
racism: atonement model and, 171, 200–201, 204, 270n61;
free blacks and, 33;
higher education and, 50, 54–56, 73–74, 93–96, 240–41nn158,159, 248n237;
as justification for racial slavery, 183 –85, 188;
psychology of slavery and, 38–40;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 46;
Zionism and, 16–18
racist heritage, 190
racist rhetoric, 37, 54, 87
railroad cars, 67, 173, 224n2
rappers, 86, 202–3, 270n66
Reagan, Ronald, xii, xiii, 39, 79, 118
Reason, Charles L., 51
received traditions, 37–48;
psychology of slavery, 37–41;
socioeconomics of slavery, 41–48
Reconstruction, 2, 7–8, 44, 70, 120–22, 149–50, 169, 194, 223–24n1, 243–44n183
Red Cross, 107
reduction, harms of, 42, 44
Regarding the Pain of Others (Sontag), 207
Rehabilitation Act (1973), 71
rehabilitative reparations, 156–57, 198
Rehnquist, William, 175, 265n86
Reid, Omar, 41
Renaissance, 186
“Repairing the Past: New Efforts in the Reparations Debate in America” (Ogletree), 266n1
reparations: in atonement model, ix–x, xiii–xiv, xvii, 142–43, 155–63, 171–79;
black redress movement and, 11–19, 197–99;
Federal Republic of Germany and, xv, 107–8, 188;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 118, 176–77;
tort model and, 139;
U.S. government and, 142–43, 169–71, 208
Reparations Coordinating Committee, 130
repatriation to Africa, 4–5, 33, 56, 224n13 representative democracy, xii, 152, 202, 208, 271n3
repression, harms of, 42, 44, 53
resentment, overcoming of, 164–65, 167–69, 264n66
responsibility: civic, 143, 152, 154;
moral, 156;
personal, 138, 144
restitutionary law, 99, 101, 135–37
restorative justice, xv–xvi, 6, 11, 19, 141, 147–48, 195–96, 211
retention rates, black, 72–73
retributive justice, 147
Rice, Condoleeza, 17, 226n42
Rice University, 80
Richmond Theological Seminary, 58
rights of action, 99, 132–37. see also common-law rights of action
Riley, Jason, 45
Riley, Richard W., 79
Ringle, Kenneth D., 113
Riverside Church (New York City), 11
Robertson, Carol, 210
Roberts v. City of Boston, 234n72
Robinson, Randall, 14
Rodriguez, Patricia, 161
role models, 77, 86, 92
Roman slavery, 184, 186, 267n16, 268n28
Roosevelt, Franklin, xiii, 10, 112
(p.321) Roots (Haley), 3
Roots (television series), 158
Rosewood Compensation Act (1994), 14, 249n2, 261n34
Ross, Marilyn, 53
Rowland, Richard, 130
Roxstrum, Erik, 147
runaway slaves, 52
Russwurm, John Brown, 50
Sacerdote, Bruce, 45–47
SAT scores, 42, 72–73, 81–84, 87, 240–41n158
Scalia, Antonin, 111
scholarship programs, 15, 79, 155–56, 198, 261nn33,34
school discipline, 40, 77–79
school governance, 59–60
scrutiny, levels of, 175–76
Sebok, Anthony, 134–35, 137
secondary education, 53–54, 67–68, 71, 73–74, 77–79, 83–84, 86, 96, 160, 162
segregation, racial, 2, 142, 223–24nn1,2;
segregationists, 38–39, 210
Seid, Omar ibn, 49
self-defeating behavior, 37, 43
self-directed life, 200
self-esteem, 87–88
self-help, 191
self-identification, 78, 197, 203, 270–71n68
self-interest, xi–xii, 18, 163
self-respect, 166, 191
“senior death discount,” 163
separate-but-equal laws. see Jim Crow
separatists, 4, 62
September 11 terrorist attacks, xi, 16, 159, 198–201, 269n54
settlements, 109–11, 126–29, 256n128
sexual enslavement, xiii, xvi–xvii, 106
Shakespeare, William, 164
Shakur, Tupac, 270n66
Sharpe, Bolling v., 173
Shaw University, 60
Shell, Robert, 186
Sherman, William T., 6, 120
Shriver, Donald, 148
Simon Wiesenthal Center Museum of Tolerance (Los Angeles, Calif.), 157
sit-ins, 66, 69
Slater, Bruce, 77
slave auctions, 15, 29–30, 35, 95
slave breeding, 29–30
slave codes, 22–23, 64, 187, 269n36
slaveholders, 3, 6, 9, 14–15, 25, 33, 52, 132, 233n60
slave laborers, 110–12, 117–18, 182–83
slave narratives, 25–31, 49, 157
slave redress, x–xii, xvi–xvii, 221n4, 222n7;
arguments against, 180–206;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 45–47. see also atonement model; black redress movement; slave-redress litigation
slave-redress litigation, 9–10, 98–100, 119–38;
forced labor litigation and, 104–6, 109, 110, 111–12;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 115–17;
private actions, 132–38, 258n165;
public actions, 119–31
slavery, ix–xii, xvi–xvii;
atonement model and, 141–42, 156–63, 169–71, 174, 177;
black redress movement and, 1–10, 18, 188, 194, 201, 208;
capital deficiencies and, 37, 45, 48;
harms to descendants of, 48–56, 74, 78, 81, 84–87, 90–93, 96–97, 196–97;
psychology of, 37–41;
slave-redress litigation and, 119, 127, 257n144;
socioeconomics of, 41–48, 82, 117, 148;
tort model and, 100, 101;
U.S. Constitution and, 24–25, 34, 52, 117, 124, 227n16, 233n60, 255n110
Slavery (Elkin), 150
(p.322) “Slavery and the Intergenerational Transmission of Human Capital” (Sacerdote), 45–46
Slavery Convention (1926), 105
slavery disclosure ordinances, 15–16, 141
slaves: census counts and, 51–52;
harms to, 20–35;
illiteracy and, 53–54;
legal status of, 22–25, 133–34, 257n151;
lives of, 25–31. see also freedmen; slavery
Slaves in the Family (Ball), 3
slave trade, 13, 15, 20, 23, 27–29, 105, 157, 180–82, 185–88, 207, 267n9, 268n31
“slave-trade clause,” 24
small businesses, 162
Smith, George Walker, 91–92
snapshots, 80
Snowden, Isaac, 48
social capital, 2–3, 21, 26, 31, 34, 42, 46
social harms theory, 42, 44
social reproduction theory, 42–43
socioeconomics of slavery, 41–48, 82, 117, 148
“Solidarity of Self-Interest, The” (Cose), 18
Solorzano, Daniel, 94
Sonni Ali, 49
Sontag, Susan, 207
Sophie’s Choice (Styron), 167, 202
“Sorry Books,” 153
South African government, xiii, 12, 120–21, 147
South African Truth and Reconciliation Commission, 147, 165, 170
Southern Homestead Act (1866), 8, 225n20
Southern Justice (Friedman), 115
sovereign immunity, 99, 100, 106, 108, 110, 117–20, 122–24, 131–32
Sowell, Thomas, 95
Special Field Order No. 15, 7–8, 120
Stampp, Kenneth, 150
standardized tests, 42, 72–74, 81–84, 86–87, 240–41n158
state constitutional and statutory laws, 100, 102–3, 250n25
state governments, 2, 14–15, 32–34, 54–55, 65, 79, 130–31, 152, 234n72
State of Florida, ex rel Hawkins v. Board of Control, 67–68
statute of limitations, 99;
in forced labor litigation, 100, 102–4, 108, 251–52n47;
in Japanese American removal and internment litigation, 117–19;
moral, 144–45;
in private actions, 132, 134, 136–37, 258n165;
in public actions, 121–22, 124–27, 131, 254n102
Steele, Claude, 83, 87–88
Steele, Shelby, 43, 188
steering, 262–63n37
stereotype threat theory, 87–88, 246n214
stereotyping, 40, 42, 48, 54, 87–88
Stevens, John Paul, 111
Stewart, T. McCantis, 57–58
stigmatization, 42, 123
Stowe, Harriet Beecher, 181
strict scrutiny test, 175, 177
Styron, William, 167, 202
subject-matter jurisdiction, 99–100, 103–4, 108–9, 120–21, 127, 131–33
subordination, racial: atonement model and, 161, 173, 206;
black redress movement and, 3, 194;
higher education and, 64, 78, 91, 93, 97;
psychology of slavery and, 40;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 46–47;
tort model and, 123
suffrage, 32–33, 81
Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States of America, 1638–1870, The (Du Bois), 150
symmetrical social measures, 155, 160–61, 171, 179, 192, 195–96
Synnott, Marcia, 65
systemic racism theory, 42–43, 161
Talented Tenth, 62, 237n109
Taney, Roger Brooke, 22, 133
(p.323) Taylor, Zachary, 187
TBIs (traditionally black institutions), 59, 235n90
teacher-student relationships, 77–79
technologies, new, 137, 258nn165,166
test bias theory, 82–83
test score gap, 81–88
Texas A&M University, 94
Texas government, 79–81
Texas Southern University, 90
textbooks, 148, 149–50
Thernstrom, Abigail, 38, 43, 72, 81–82, 90
Thernstrom, Stephen, 38, 43, 72, 81–82, 90
“Think Ghetto” parties, 94
Thirteenth Amendment, 105, 120–21, 123–24, 131
Thomas, Clarence, 68, 111
Thomas Aquinas, Saint, 186
“three-fifths clause,” 24, 34
Thurmond, Strom, 38–39
Tocqueville, Alexis de, 33, 182, 184–85
token black students, 66
Torpey, John, 152, 171
tort model, 98–140;
deficiencies of, 138–40, 143;
forced labor litigation, 100–112;
Japanese American removal and internment, 112–19;
slave-redress litigation, x, xii, xvii, 3–4, 119–38, 222n7, 249nn13
Torture Victim Protection Act, 104, 251–52nn28,47
Treaty of Berlin (1885), 105
Treaty of Peace (San Francisco, Calif.), 103, 250n25
Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany (1991), 108
truth commissions, 147, 165, 170
Tucker Act, 118, 121–22
Tulsa Race Riot (1921), 130–31, 195
Tulsa Tribune, 130
Turner, Frederick Jackson, xii, 221–22n6
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (Ala.), 236–37n108
Tutu, Desmond, 165
Twenty-Fourth Amendment (1964), 243–44n183
Tyler, John, 187
underlaw, southern, 115–16
Union Army, 57, 58
Union Literary Club (Fisk University), 63
United Nations, xv, 11, 13, 16–17, 107
United Nations: Charter of, 142;
General Assembly of, 17
United Negro College Fund, 90
Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948), 105
University of California (UC) system, 71, 80
University of Maryland Law School, 57
University of Massachusetts—Amherst, 95
University of Michigan, 94, 261–62n35
University of North Carolina, 66–67, 69, 95
University of Oklahoma Graduate School, 57
University of Sankore, 49
University of South Carolina, 58
University of Texas, 80
University of Virginia, 89
University of Wisconsin, 94–95
unjust enrichment, 101–2, 133–37, 152, 154, 250n11
U.S. Congress, xii–xiii, xvi, 223n19;
atonement model and, 162, 172, 175–78;
black redress movement and, 1, 11–15;
harms to slaves and free blacks and, 24;
higher education and, 65;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 114, 117–18, 147, 154, 176–77;
slave-redress litigation and, 119, 121, 124–26;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 46–47. see also civil rights legislation
(p.324) U.S. Constitution: atonement model and, 171–79;
slavery and, 2, 21, 24–25, 34, 52, 117, 124, 187, 227n16, 233n60, 255n110;
tort model and, 99. See also titles of court cases
U.S. Department of Agriculture, 7–8, 125–29, 256n128
U.S. Department of Education, 81
U.S. Department of State, 108, 113
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 163
U.S. government: atonement and, ix–x, 141–42, 148–49, 151–54, 156–63, 169–70, 181, 185, 188, 201;
black redress movement and, ix–xiii, xvi, 2–18;
constitutional or statutory law, 100, 104–6, 109, 121–24;
free blacks and, 32, 34;
higher education and, 60–61, 65, 70–71, 239n146;
Indians and, xvi, 12;
slave-redress litigation against, 99–100, 119 –30, 255nn110,115;
slavery and, 21, 138
U.S. Internal Revenue Service, 13–14
U.S. Supreme Court: atonement model and, 159, 171–79;
higher education and, 65, 248–49n245;
Japanese American removal and internment and, 113–15, 118;
psychology of slavery and, 40;
tort model and, 110–11. See also titles of court cases
U.S. Treasury Department, 9
Valien, Preston, 69
Vashon, George B., 51
Vassa, Gustavus, 4
Vassar College, 56, 82, 89–90
Vatican, 16
Vaughan, Walter, 9
venture capital funds, 162
Versailles, Treaty of, xiv
Verwoerd, Wilhelm, 147
veterans: black, 10, 69, 130;
white, 100, 103, 194
victim groups, 17–18
victimhood, 188, 191
“victimization by self-fulfilling prophecy,” 73
victimology, black, xvii, 41, 43
victim-perpetrator identification: atonement model and, xv–xvii, 141–47, 156, 163–70, 177–79, 195, 201, 259–60n6;
lack of, 34–35;
post-Holocaust vision of, 11, 19, 141, 148, 211;
tort model and, x, 100
violence, racial, 14, 44, 46, 64, 94, 130–31, 142, 171
Virginia slave code, 22–23
virtue, 200–201
Voice of the Negro (magazine), 63
Voting Rights Act (1965), 193
Wall Street Journal, 17–18, 38, 45
War Relocation Authority, 112
Warsaw Ghetto, 143
Washington, Booker T., 62, 236–37nn108,109
Washington, Bushrod, 5
Washington, George, 5, 21, 187
Washington, Valora, 78
Washington Post, 92
wealth: higher education and, 74, 91, 92–93, 96, 240–41n158;
psychology of slavery and, 40;
redistributed, 102;
socioeconomics of slavery and, 42–43, 47
wealthy black families, 162
wealthy white families, 3, 99, 137
Webster, Daniel, 5
welfare, xvii, 142, 155, 196
Wesley, Cynthia, 210
West Georgia College, 261n33
Weyl, Nathaniel, 184, 186
What’s Great about America (D’Souza), 199
Wheatley, Phillis, 4, 63
whipping, 30–31
(p.325) White, Byron, 175, 265n86
white Americans: free blacks and, 32;
innocence of, 151–54, 188–92;
psychology of slavery and, 38–40;
slave redress and, xi–xii, 148–54, 196, 201–2;
tort model and, 3, 6, 98
white guilt, 98, 150–51
white-on-black oppression, 161, 196, 203
White over Black: American Attitudes toward the Negro, 1550–1812 (Jordan), 54
white Southerners, 2, 9, 190
white supremacy, 38
Wiesel, Elie, 146–47
Wiggins, Edith, 95
Wilberforce, William, 181
Wilberforce University (Ohio), 50, 56, 59, 60
Wilkens, Roy, 69
Williams, Armstrong, 43, 188
Williams, Nancy, 29–30
Williams, Patricia, 102, 152
Williams, Vanessa, 160
Williams College, 89
Williamson, Joel, 66
Wilson, Ella, 31
Wilson, Henry, xiv
Wilson, Woodrow, 170
Winfrey, Oprah, 148
Winthrop, Governor, 23
Woods, Tiger, 148
Woodson, Carter G., 51
World Conference against Racism, Racial Discrimination, Xenophobia and Related Intolerance (Durban, S.A.), 16–18, 226n42
World War I, xiv, 44, 130
wrongful death, 131, 134
Wu, Frank, 191, 262–63n37
Yale Alumni Magazine, 149
Yale University, 65, 70, 75–76, 82, 89, 95, 162
Yasui, Minoru, 114, 116
Yasui v. United States, 114, 139
Young, Whitney, 69
Zionism, 16–18