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The Rhetoric of ManhoodMasculinity in the Attic Orators$
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Joseph Roisman

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780520241923

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520241923.001.0001

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Men in the Military

Men in the Military

(p.105) CHAPTER 5 Men in the Military
The Rhetoric of Manhood

Joseph Roisman

University of California Press

This chapter explores the ethos that sustained masculine perceptions, and the tension that existed between the realities of war and its ideology. Three speeches reveal that hoplitic values and ideology remained highly relevant to the assessment of men and of government policy in the second half of the fourth century. Courage and contribution to the city's war efforts are juxtaposed with poor performance or cowardice. The ambiguities surrounding the questions of what courage was and when it was displayed also informed the rhetoric of war and peace. Despite the changing realties of war in the fourth century, Athenian public discourse held on tenaciously to archaic values and perceptions of military service. The importance of military service as a measure of manhood and a man's fitness for public office did not mean that military men were unequivocally idealized, or that all men who failed to serve were unequivocally condemned.

Keywords:   war, military men, peace, Athenian public discourse, military service, government policy, courage

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