This chapter discusses the anatomy, evolution, stratigraphy, paleoecology, biogeography, and taxonomic nomenclature of therizinosauroids. Therizinosauroidea currently is represented by eleven species in ten genera, all but one from Asia. The ten definitive members of the group are from the Cretaceous, but Eshanosaurus deguchiianus, from the Lower Jurassic Lower Lufeng Series of China, is tentatively referred to Therizinosauroidea. Therizinosauroid discoveries, and the naming of taxa, can be divided into three historical groups: (1) discoveries of enigmatic, fragmentary material by the first American and Soviet expeditions to the dinosaur deposits of Asia in the 1920s and 1950s; (2) discoveries of more substantial specimens by Soviet-Mongolian expeditions in the 1970s, which signaled the presence of an endemic group of peculiar dinosaurs; and (3) discoveries of primitive members of the group in China, which have helped clarify relationships.
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