Hands-on experience, accounts in the literature, and several areas of ecological theory can help predict the general course of wetland restoration. There is no cookbook for wetland restoration, nor is there a simple trajectory that describes how restored sites will develop. This chapter discusses the restoration process with examples concerning starting points, institutions that foster wetland restoration, alternative goals, strategic placement of wetland restoration projects within watersheds, site-based tactics, surprises, ways to evaluate progress and outcomes, long-term stewardship, and adaptive restoration. It draws extensively on the author's firsthand experiences in the United States with California estuarine restoration and Wisconsin freshwater wetlands. The chapter explores wetland restoration, focusing on chronic degradation as opposed to catastrophic degradation, how biota can be manipulated, locating wetlands to restore biodiversity and improve water quality, restoration of hydrologic conditions, and restoration of soil and topography as well as vegetation.
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