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The Life and Times of the Shah$
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Gholam RezaAfkhami

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780520253285

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520253285.001.0001

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Toward the Abyss

Toward the Abyss

Chapter:
(p.137) 7 Toward the Abyss
Source:
The Life and Times of the Shah
Author(s):

Gholam R. Afkhami

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520253285.003.0007

On 20 July 1952, the day Qavam's fate was sealed, the International Court at The Hague ruled it had no jurisdiction in the case of the oil dispute between England and Iran. By the end of 1952 xenophobia had reached a new peak, extending beyond things and people English. Iran broke off relations with Great Britain on 22 October 1952. On 23 December, Foreign Minister Hossein Fatemi announced a decree issued by Mosaddeq forbidding the reassignment “of foreign nationals who have been serving in this country whatever their titles before the enactment of this decree.” The summer and fall of 1952 were hellish for the shah, the nadir of his power and prestige. For him, the Qavam fiasco represented more than losing in a political game, for he came face to face with a possibility that his countrymen rejected him.

Keywords:   Qavan, Mosaddeq, oil issue, Iran, England, Great Britain

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