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Reimagining Greek Tragedy on the American Stage$

Helene P. Foley

Print publication date: 2012

Print ISBN-13: 9780520272446

Published to California Scholarship Online: January 2013

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520272446.001.0001

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(p.277) Appendix E Professional Productions and New Versions of Euripides' Medea

(p.277) Appendix E Professional Productions and New Versions of Euripides' Medea

Reimagining Greek Tragedy on the American Stage
University of California Press

The Archive of Performances of Greek and Roman Drama (www.apgrd.ox.ac.uk/) has fuller cast lists and more information on sources in some cases. These entries are as complete as current information allowed.

* Discussed or mentioned in chapters 1, 2, or 5 of this book

** Black Medeas

*** Drag or cross-dressed Medeas

**** Mad or abused Medeas

( ) Important visiting production

*1798 Medea and Jason, a pantomime, first performed on June 12, 1798, at Boston's Haymarket Theatre.

*1800 Medea and Jason, Mount Vernon Gardens, New York, September 17, 1800, starring a Mr. and Mrs. Barrett.

*1801 Medea and Jason, New York (Seilhamer (1891) 1968, 3: 358; Odell 2: 97; Weekly Museum, May 16, 1801).

*1805 Medea and Jason, performed again “in Benefit” on June 21, 1805, New York's Bedlow Street Theatre (Odell 2: 97 and 236).

*(1828 Mme Pasta on tour in Johann Simon Mayr's 1813 opera Medea in Corinto [Yankee and Boston Literary Gazette, August 6, 1828, 255; August 27, 1828, 275; and 2.3, September 1829, 146–56; Philadelphia Album and Ladies Literary Portfolio, September 24, 1831, 310].)

*Early 1840s Performance or reading of Harriette Fanning Read, Medea in Three Dramatic Poems (Read 1848, actually published in 1847) in Washington, D.C. (book reviews: Union Magazine of Literature and Art 2.3 [March 1848]: 143; Spirit of the Times, April 14, 1849, 85; November 18, 1848, 468; November 25, 1848, 480; Christian Register, Boston, December 25, 1847, 207; Literary World, January 22, 1848, 614; Merchant's Magazine and (p.278) Commercial Review 18.3 [March 1848]: 348; Christian Examiner and Religious Miscellany 44.2 [March 1848]: 311; and the notice in Albion, October 23, 1847, 516).

1850s Fifth Avenue Theatre, New York.

1850s? Undated New York performance of Robert Brough's 1856 contemporary burlesque of Legouvé, The Best of Mothers, with a Brute of a Husband (Burkhard 1961, 33 n. 6, reports from archives at Yale).

*1857 Wallack's Lyceum, New York, E. Legouvé's Medea, translated and adapted by and starring Matilda Heron (Heron 1857) as Medea and Edward A. Southern as Jason. The play premiered in St. Louis in 1856 (Missouri Republican, September 15, 1856). A revival starting September 21, 1857, included two female (rather than the expected male) children, Misses O. and A. Grattan (Odell 6: 535; Brown 1: 491, 494). Heron performed Medea at least another seven times in New York, September 21, 1858–July 1, 1876 (Odell 7: 159; Brown 2: 37), including Boston Theatre, May 14, 1857 (American Antiquarian Society, Ephemera Theat 0067); Niblo's Garden, 1859 (Brown 1: 188; Odell 7: 249) and 1863 (Brown 1: 96); Academy of Music, June 29, 1858 (Brown 2: 34), and December 18, 1859 (Odell 7: 159; Brown 2: 37); Bowery Theatre in 1865–66 (Odell 8: 44; Brown 2: 217); Booth's, June 1876 (Brown 3: 119); also at Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, in January 1860; the Worcester, Massachusetts Theatre in March 29, 1860 (American Antiquarian Society, Ephemera Worc Theat 0195); and a premiere in St. Louis in 1856 (Missouri Republican, September 15, 1856; Ballou's Pictorial Drawing-Room Companion, June 13, 1857, 181; Spirit of the Times, October 18, 1856, 432; New York Times, February 17, 1857; New York Herald, February 17, 1857; Albion, February 21, 1857, 92; Odell 6: 535; Winter 1913, 71).

1857 Medea and My Deary, burlesque of Heron's Medea, Chatham Theatre, New York, starring G. L. Fox as Medea and Miss Hathaway as Jason, March 2, 1857 (Odell 6: 559).

1858–59 Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, adaptation by Oliver C. Wyman, directed by Peter Richings, starring J. M. Davenport as Medea and H. A. Perry as Jason; Davenport again played Medea at this venue in October 1859.

1858–59 Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, Legouvé version in December 1858 and October 1859 (The Philadelphia Theatre Index [1855–2000], Free Library of Philadelphia).

1859 New Metropolitan Theatre (formerly Tripler Hall), O. C. Wyman's version of Legouvé's Medea starring a British Miss J. M. Davenport on May 7 or 9, 1858 (Odell 7: 118; Brown 1: 445; New York Herald, May 7, 1858; New York Leader, May 14, 1859, 5; Albion, May 14, 1859, 235).

(1860 Italian Cortesi Company, Niblo's Garden, New York; Mlle. Cortesi performed Pacini's Medea in New York on September 27, 1860 [Brown 1:189; Odell 7: 322].)

1860 Old Bowery Theatre, New York, a version of Medea starring Misses Charlotte Crampton and Susan Denin (Odell 8: 237; New York Herald, May 22, 1860).

1862 Olympic Theatre, New York, starring Mary Provost (New York Herald, June 27, 1862; New York Times, June 27, 1862; Odell 7: 418; Brown 1: 511).

1863 Grillparzer's Medea, Stadttheatre, New York, starring Frau Becker-Grahn (Odell 7: 587; Leuchs 1966, 56).

1863–64 Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, in November, and April 13–15 and May 2, 1864, Winter Garden Theatre, New York, Legouvé's Medea translated by Matilda Heron, (p.279) starring the British actress Avonia Jones (Odell 7: 556–57; Spirit of the Times, April 23, 1864, 128; New York Times, April 13, 1864; New York Herald, April 16, 1864; Albion, April 23, 1864, 199).

1864 Mary Provost's Theatre, New York (Brown 1: 511).

*(1866 Medea, adaptation by Ernest Legouvé, Théâtre Français, New York, directed by Jacob Grau, starring Adelaide Ristori as Medea [World, September 12, 1866; New York Times, September 12, 1866; New York Herald, September 21, 1866; Odell 8: 345; Brown 2: 57]. After another performance in Brooklyn, Ristori traveled 18, 000 miles across country to thirty cities with 170 performances. Four tours followed; see 1875, Lyceum, New York; 1884, Chestnut Street Opera House, Philadelphia. On her cross-country tour, see Giorcelli 1992 and Brandes 1945, 73–82.)

1867 Broadway Theatre, New York, June 26–27; Julia Dean Hayne played a version of Medea (Brown 1: 517; New York Times, July 26, 1867; New York Herald, July 26, 1867).

*1867 Academy of Music, New York; Chestnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia; Academy of Music, Philadelphia (1868) as part of an extensive tour (Burkhard 1961, 22) for the adaptation by Franz Grillparzer, starring Francesca Janauschek as Medea; repeat performances in New York in 1868, 1869, and 1871; in 1873 and 1874 at the Walnut Street Theater in Philadelphia; in 1874 and 1881 at Booth's Theatre, New York; in 1877, 1879, and 1884 at New York's Thalia Theatre; in 1877, 1878, and 1881 at the Walnut Street Theatre in Philadelphia; and in 1886, Chestnut Street Opera House, Philadelphia (Odell 11: 76 and 12: 271; Burkhard 1961; Leuchs 1966; and Brandes 1945, 83–94).

1868 Banvard's Opera House, New York, Mrs. E. V. Proudfoot starred in a Medea on February 12 (Odell 8: 319; New York Times, February 13, 1868).

1872 Lyceum, New York, a “Yankee” (American) Miss Bateman starred in a version of Legouvé (Every Saturday: A Journal of Choice Reading, August 24, 1872, 215).

1877 Broadway Theatre, New York; Mrs. J. H. Hackett starred in a version of Medea.

*1879, 1880, and 1884 Thalia, New York, Magda Irschik in Grillparzer's Medea, and in 1884 at the Germantown Theater Guild, Philadelphia (Burkhard 1961; Leuchs 1966; and Brandes 1945, 83–94).

1897 Yiddish version of Grillparzer by Gordin, located during the reign of Antiochus IV, responding to Jewish oppression in New York (Mimoso-Ruiz 1978, 125).

1909 Bryn Mawr Club of Boston performance of Euripides' Medea in Boston, New York, and Philadelphia, directed by George Riddle with Anne S. T. Howe as Medea and Donal M. Payson as Jason (Hains 1910).

*1914 Chicago Little Theatre, Fine Arts Building, Chicago, Illinois, translated by Gilbert Murray, directed by Maurice Browne, starring Ellen van Volkenburg as Medea, Ernest Rowan as Jason, and Vera White as the Nurse (Theater Arts Magazine 1.3 [May 1920]: 403). Performed in the Arts and Crafts Theater in Michigan in 1917 (Detroit Sunday News, November 25, 1917; Hartigan 1995, 23).

1915 The touring theatrical group production by Mitchell and Peters' Art Drama Players, August 2, 1915 (Johnson 1971, 19–20, 49, 242).

*1915 Hearst Greek Theatre, University of California, Berkeley, translated by Gilbert Murray, directed by and starring Margaret Anglin, music by Walter Damrosch, set by Livingston (p.280) Platt, with W. Lawson Butt as Jason (San Francisco Call, August 23, 1915; Christian Science Monitor, August 28, 1915; Theatre 22.175 [September 1915]: 116; LeVay 1989; Johnson 1971).

1915 Legouvé Medea, Art Drama Players at New York University and the People's Theatre in the Bowery, directed by Ada Dow Currier, starring Mme Agathe Barcescu and Thomas Mitchell (New York Times, August 4, 1915).

*1918 Carnegie Hall, New York, translated by Gilbert Murray, music by Walter Damrosch, starring Margaret Anglin as Medea and Fred Eric as Jason (New York Daily Mirror, May 127, 1920; Arthur Hornblow, Theatre Magazine 28 [April 1918]: 217; New York Times, February 21, 1918; Nation 106, February 28, 1918, 244; New York Tribune, February 21, 1918; Brooklyn Eagle, February 21, 1918; LeVay 1989, 186–87; Hartigan 1995, 26–27, 49–50, 90–92).

1919 Actor's Fidelity League, Century Theatre, New York, a version by Thomas Broadhurst.

*1920 Garrick Theatre, New York, translated by Gilbert Murray, Chicago Little Theatre, directed by Maurice Browne, starring Ellen van Volkenburg as Medea and Maroni Olsen as Jason (J. Ranken Towse, New York Evening Post, March 23, 1920; New York World, March 23, 1920; New York Evening Sun, March 23, 1920; Arthur Hornblower, Theatre Magazine May 20, 1920, 403; Ludwig Lewisohn, Nation April 17, 1920, 525–26; Oliver Sayler, New Republic, May 12, 1920, 355; World, March 23, 1920; New York Sun-Herald, March 23, 1920; New York Evening Mail, March 23, 1920; Patterson James, Billboard, April 4, 1920; Agnes Smith, New York Morning Telegraph, March 23, 1920; Dramatic Mirror, March 27, 1920, 576; Spectator, April 14, 1920; Alexander Woollcott, New York Times, March 23, 1920; Kenneth Macgowan, Globe, March 3, 1920; G. W. Firkins, Review, April 3, 1920; Hartigan 1995, 50–51; Arnott 1987, 358).

*1927 Bennett School of Liberal and Applied Arts, Millbrook, New York, directed by Charles Rann Kennedy and Edith Wynne Hamilton, music by Horace Middleton, choreography by Margaret Gage.

*1933 California Club Players, San Francisco, new version by Henry Bertram Lister, directed by and starring Lydia Warren Lister with Mr. Alton Wood as Jason, published in 1936 by the La Bohème Club, San Francisco.

**1935 Adaptation by Countee Cullen, published 1935. A New York performance starring Rose McClendon planned for 1936 was cancelled because of the actress's death. First produced in March 1940 at Atlanta University, directed by Owen Dodson, starring Dorothy Ateca. Over the course of productions in 1959 and 1963 at Washington's Howard University and the Harlem School of the Arts in 1971, the play became Dodson's own (unpublished) Medea in Africa (Hatch and Abdullah 1977, 57; Hatch 1993, 61, 81–82, 96, 122, 310).

*1935 Bennett School of Applied Arts, Millbrook, New York, directed by Charles Rann Kennedy and Edith Wynne Hamilton, music by Horace Middleton, choreography by Margaret Gage (New York Times, May 9, 1935).

*1936 The Wingless Victory by Maxwell Anderson (Anderson 1936), directed by Guthrie McClintic, Empire Theatre, New York, starring Katharine Cornell as Oparre and Walter Abel as Nathaniel (Brooks Atkinson, New York Times, December 24, 1936; New York Sun, January 9, 1937; New York Times, January 3, 1937; and other critics cited by Corti 1998).

(p.281) **1945 Garden of Time, 1939 version of Medea by Owen Dodson (now published in an electronic edition by Alexander Street Press, 2000), performed at the American Negro Theater in Harlem in March 1945.

*1946 Cave of the Heart, choreographed by and starring Martha Graham with Erick Hawkins as Jason, music by Samuel Barber, set by Isamu Noguchi, Columbia University, New York; 1965, 54th Street Theatre, New York; 1982, City Center, New York.

*1947 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, McCarter Theater, Princeton; Locust Street Theatre, Philadelphia; and American National Theater, New York, directed by John Gielgud, produced by Robert Whitehead, music by Tibor Serly, starring Judith Anderson as Medea, Florence Reed as the Nurse, and John Gielgud (later Dennis King) as Jason (Brooks Atkinson, New York Times, October 21, 1947; William A. Henry, Time, April 25, 1994; Hartigan 1995, 51–52 and 55–57; Corti 1998, xix). Production traveled across the country and worldwide. A film adaptation of Robinson Jeffers's adaptation, directed by José Quintero, was made in 1959, now on Ivy Classics Video, Asheville, North Carolina.

*1948 Le Petit Théâtre du Vieux Carré, New Orleans, translated by Frederick Prokosch, directed by Robert Hyde Wilson, starring Mildred Fossier as Medea and Harry Carr as Jason.

*1949 City Center, New York, adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Guthrie McClintic, starring Judith Anderson as Medea, Henry Brandon as Jason, and Hilda Vaughn as the Nurse. The production traveled to Hanna Theatre in Cleveland and Forrest Theatre in Philadelphia among many other places.

1951 Medea, dance-theater version, choreographed by Lester Horton, music by Audree Covington, Dance Theater Company, Ojai Music Festival, Los Angeles, California.

1953 Medea, dramatic monologue for contralto (or soprano) and orchestra, composed by Ernst Krenek, using Robinson Jeffers's text, Ojai Music Festival, Los Angeles, California.

1958 City Center, New York, ballet by Birgit Cullberg, based on Robinson Jeffers's Medea, music by Herbert Sandburg from piano pieces by Bela Bartok, starring Jacques d̓Amboise and Melissa Hayden.

*1956 Medea at Kolchis: The Maiden Head by Robert Duncan (R. Duncan 1965), Black Mountain College, North Carolina (see further Corti 1998, 183–84).

**1959 Medea in Africa, new version of the adaptation of Medea by Countee Cullen, directed by Owen Dodsen, Howard University, Washington, D.C., 1963, starring Shirley Sadler/Judith Eason as Medea and Joseph C. D. Mello as Jason.

1960 Staged reading by The Living Theatre, New School for Social Research, New York.

1961 Boston Conservatory of Music, Boston, Massachusetts, chamber opera version by William Van Lennep and composed by Harold Faberman, starring Corinne Curry.

1961 Channel 13, television version starring Eartha Kitt, directed by Louis Freiman.

**1963 Medea in Africa, adapted from Medea by Countee Cullen, directed by Owen Dodson at Howard University, starring Shirley Sadler and Judith Eason, with music by William Madden and choreography by Charles Davis (Coe 1963).

(1964 City Center, New York, The Greek Tragedy Theatre, Elsa Vergi and Aspasia Papathananassiou alternated as Medea and A. Xenakis as Jason [Lewis Funke, New York Times, September 1, 1964; Edward Southern Hipp, Newark Daily News, September 1, 1964; Whitney Bolton, Morning Telegraph, September 2, 1964; Arthur Sainer, Village (p.282) Voice, September 10, 1964; Jack Thomson, New York Journal American, September 1, 1964; George Oppenheimer, Newsday, September 1, 1964; Walter Kerr, New York Herald Tribune, September 1, 1964; Richard Watts Jr., New York Post, September 1, 1964; Louis Chapin, Christian Science Monitor, September 4, 1964].)

*1965 Martinique Theatre, New York, adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Cyril Simon, starring Gloria Foster as Medea and Michael Higgins as Jason (Howard Taubman, New York Times, November 30, 1965; Village Voice, December 4, 1965; Arnott 1987, 364).

*1968 The Golden Fleece, an adaptation by A. R. Gurney (Gurney 1995), first produced in the Albee-Bart-Wilder Playwrights unit at the Van Daur Theatre, directed by Jered Barclay, and at the Mark Taper Forum in Los Angeles in 1968 and revived frequently since.

**1968 Medea in Africa by Jim Magnuson, directed by Mikal Whitaker, New York, East River Players, James Weldon Johnson Theatre Arts, starring Detra Lambert as Medea (A.D.C., Village Voice, June 13, 1968; Wetmore 2003, 149–63). Re-performed 1969, Hudson's Guild, New York; and 2001, San Diego Black Ensemble Theater.

1969 Riverside Theatre Workshop, St. John's Episcopal Church, New York, adapted by Richard Ronan, starring Joanna Wilkowski as Medea.

1970 Opera by Alva Henderson based on Robinson Jeffers's Medea, San Francisco.

1970 Todd Wehr Theater, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, translated by Philip Vellacott, directed by Tunc Yalman, starring Sirin Devrim as Medea and Alan Zampese as Jason.

1970 Opera composed by Jonathan Elkus, University of Wisconsin Opera Theatre, Milwaukee.

**1970–71 Deafman Glance, adapted and directed by Robert Wilson, University Theatre, Iowa City; Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York; 1987, Alice Tully Hall, Lincoln Center, New York, starring Sheryl Sutton (Deborah Jowett, Village Voice, March 4, 1971; Arthur Sainer, Village Voice, March 4, 1971; Frank Rich, New York Times, July 20, 1987; Bill Marvel, National Observer, May 3, 1971).

1971 Forest Theatre Guild, Carmel by the Sea, California, staged reading of Robinson Jeffers's Medea, directed by Bernald Szold, starring Ruth Warshawsky with Lloyd Jenkins as Jason and Betty Fowlston as the Nurse.

*1972 La MaMa, E.T.C., New York, adapted and directed by Andrei Serban, with music by Elizabeth Swados, starring Priscilla Smith as Medea and Jamil Zakkai as Jason (Clive Barnes, New York Times, January 25, 1972; Menta 1995; Arnott 1987, 772–73, Hartigan 1995, 45–46, 52–53). Revived in 1974, 1986, 1999, and 2004.

1973 Circle in the Square, New York, adapted and directed by Minos Volonakis, starring Irene Papas as Medea and John P. Ryan as Jason (Clive Barnes, New York Times, January 18, 1973; John Beaufort, Christian Science Monitor, January 22, 1973; Kim Friedman, Variety, January 24, 1973; Richard Watts, New York Post, January 18, 1973; Douglas Watt, Daily News, January 18, 1973; Walter Kerr, New York Times, January 28, 1973; Martin Gottfried, Women's Wear Daily, January 19, 1973; John Simon, New York, February 5, 1973; T. E. Kalem, Time, January 29, 1973; Brendan Gill, New Yorker, January 27, 1973; Hartigan 1995, 53–55).

1973 Players Theatre, New York, adapted from Rex Warner's translation, directed by George Arkas, Greek Art Theatre, starring Yula Gavala as Medea and Joseph Corral as Jason (Margaret Kay, Villager, November 8, 1973; Richard Watts, New York Post, October 30, (p.283) 1973; Clive Barnes, New York Times, October 30, 1973; Martin Oltarsh, Show Business, November 8, 1973; Douglas Watt, Daily News, October 31, 1973; Village Voice, November 15, 1973; John Simon, New York, November 19, 1973; Albert Bermel, New Leader, March 5, 1973).

1973 New version, directed by Samy Shmuel, Primitive Theater Company, starring Erk Bjornstad as Medea.

1973 Court Theatre, Chicago.

*1974 La MaMa, E.T.C., New York, Medea in Fragments of a Trilogy, adapted and directed by Andrei Serban, with music by Elizabeth Swados, starring Priscilla Smith as Medea, Jamil Zakkai as Jason, and Natalie Grey as the Nurse (New York Times, November 17, 1974; Hartigan 1995, 45–46, 52). Revived in 1986, 1999, and 2004.

1974 Medea and Jason, adapted from Robinson Jeffers's version and directed by Eugenie Leontovich, Little Theater, New York, starring Maria Aho as Medea and Richmond F. Johnson as Jason (David Sterritt, Christian Science Monitor, October 7, 1974; Douglass Watt, Daily News, October 4, 1974; Martin Gottfried, New York Post, October 4, 1974; Clive Barnes, New York Times, October 4, 1974).

1975 Dume Spanish Theatre, New York, directed by Herberto Dume, starring Virginia Arrea as Medea and Enrique Gomez as Jason (Edmund Newton, New York Post, March 17, 1975).

*1975 Westbeth Playwrights Feminist Collective, New York, adapted by Gloria Albee, directed by Patricia Carmichael. Script available at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center (Villager, January 1, 1975). Also produced at Western Washington State College in 1975.

1976 St. Peter's Episcopal Church, New York, directed by Donald Brooks, starring Maria Amsell as Medea and Michael Parrish as Jason (Show Business, April 24, 1976).

1976 Medea, dance drama, choreographed by Norman Walker, Alvin Theatre, New York, starring Emily Frankel as Medea (New York Times, September 29, 1976; Daily News, September 29, 1976; Backstage, October 15, 1976).

1976 Uris Theatre, New York, American Ballet Theatre, choreographed by John Butler with music by Samuel Barber, starring Carla Fracci and Mikhail Baryshnikov. Also at the Spoleto Festival, Charleston, South Carolina.

*1976 Black Medea, adaptation by Ernest J. Ferlita, S. J. Marquette Theatre, Loyola University, New Orleans; 1977, Dock Street Theatre, Charleston, at the Spoleto Festival, U.S.A.; 1978–79, New Federal Theatre, Harry DeJur Playhouse, New York City, directed by Glenda Dickerson; at Loyola again in 1984 and 1987; Actor's Outlet Theatre, New York, twice in 1987 and again in 1990. The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center, has a partial tape; New York's Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture has a copy of the script (Wetmore 2003, 164).

1977 San Francisco, California, ballet choreographed by Michael Smuin, music by Samuel Barber. See further productions below.

1977 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Bruce Caro, Stage 73, New York, starring Anita Lobel as Medea.

*1978 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, Daragon Associates, Basketball Court at Manhattan Plaza, New York, directed by Darryl Croxton, starring Minne Gentry as Medea and (p.284) Peter Flint as Jason (Mary Sheeran, Show Business, July 7, 1978; Townsend Brewster, New York Amsterdam News, August 19, 1978).

1979 New England Conservatory, Boston, Massachusetts, opera composed by Ray Edward Luke, libretto by Carveth Osterhaus.

1979 Kent, Ohio, version by Jean-Claude van Italie.

1980 Helen Spencer Auditorium, Kansas City, Missouri, Missouri Repertory Theatre, directed by Erik Vos.

1980 Juilliard School of Music, New York, cantata for soprano and twelve musicians by Ronald Caltabiano.

***1980 Club S.N.A.F.U., adapted and played by Ethyl Eichelberger, New York (Duncan Scott McLaren, Villager, December 25, 1980; Bethany Haye, Soho Weekly News, July 9, 1980; Jeffreys 1996; Parnes 1998).

1980–81 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, Denver Center Theatre Company, Colorado.

1980–81 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, The Enid Jackson Center for the Performing Arts, Kansas City, Missouri, Missouri Repertory Theatre, starring Juliet Randall as Medea.

1981 Studio Theatre, Washington, D.C.

1982 Cave of the Heart, choreographed by Martha Graham, music by Samuel Barber, City Center, New York (see premiere in 1946).

*1982 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Robert Whitehead, starring Zoe Caldwell as Medea, Judith Anderson as the Nurse, and Mitchell Ryan as Jason, opened at the Clarence Browne Theatre at the University of Tennessee, moved to the Eisenhower Theater at Washington's Kennedy Center in March, then in May to New York's Cort Theatre for sixty-five performances (William A. Henry, Time Magazine, April 25, 1994; Walter Kerr, New York Times, May 16, 1982; Frank Rich, New York Times, May 13, 1982; Sy Syna, News World, May 4, 1982; Eileen Blumenthal, Village Voice, May 16, 1982; T.E. Kalem, Time, May 31, 1982; Variety, May 5, 1982; Clive Barnes, New York Post, May 31, 1982; Howard Kissel, Women's Wear Daily, May 4, 1982; Jack Kroll, Newsweek, May 17, 1982; John Beaufort, Christian Science Monitor, May 18, 1982; Brendan Gill, New Yorker, May 17, 1982; John Simon, New York, May 17, 1982; Hartigan 1995, 55–56). WQED television version in 1983, directed by Mark Cullingham at the Kennedy Center, Washington, D.C., by Q. Productions and available from Films for Humanities.

1983 Playhouse in the Park, Cincinnati, Ohio, directed by Amy Saltz.

*1983 Kabuki Medea by William Missouri Downs (Bill Streib) and Lou Anne Wright, directed by Shozo Sato, kabuki (“jikata”) music recorded by the National Theatre of Japan mixed with electronic music by Michael Cerri, Hope Alexander Willis as Medea, University of Illinois, Champaign, Illinois; 1984 (revived in 1993), Wisdom Bridge Theater, Chicago, Illinois, starring Barbara Robertson as Medea; 1985, Hanna Theatre in Cleveland; 1985 Kennedy Center in Washington, D.C., starring Barbara Robertson and Dean Fortunato; 2001, Berkeley Repertory Theatre, starring Hope Alexander Willis and David Booth. Video available at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center (Richard Christiansen, Chicago Tribune, January 12, 1984 and October 23, 1993; Rick Kogan, Chicago Sun-Times, January 11, 1984; Robert Finn, Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 6, 1985; Marianne Evett, Cleveland Plain Dealer, January 9, 1985; Tony Mastroianni, Akron Beacon Journal, January 10, 1985; Jae-Ha Kim, Chicago Sun-Times, (p.285) October 20, 1993; Steve Winn, San Francisco Chronicle, June 12, 1984; David Richards, Washington Post, July 15, 1985; Megan Rosenfeld, Washington Post, July 8, 1985; Louise Sweeny, Washington Post, August 15, 1985; Hartigan 1995, 57). Also performed at the International Theatre Festival, Israel (1987), the Durban Performing Arts Center in South Africa (1994), University of South Dakota (1994), and Memphis State University (1994).

*1983 Public Theater, New York, “Medea” from Orgasmo Adulto Escapes from the Zoo, one-act mime by Dario Fo and Francesca Rame, Public Theater, New York, starring Estelle Parsons as Medea.

*1983 Medea Sacrament, adaptation by Conrad Bishop and Elizabeth Fuller, starring Elizabeth Fuller, Classic Stage Company, New York, and Theatre Project, Baltimore, Maryland (Alisa Solomon, Village Voice, June 21, 1983; Pamela Hunt, Other Stages, June 2, 1983, 8; Tish Dace, Villager, June 2, 1983, 15).

*1983 Medea in Sodom, Theater for a New City (Village Voice, January 12, 1993).

1983–84 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, Repertory Theatre of St. Louis, Missouri.

*1984 Medea: A Noh Cycle Based on Greek Myth by Carol Sorgenfrei (Sorgenfrei 1975), Department of Dramatic Art, directed by Yuriko Doi at San Francisco's Theatre of Yugen/ Noh Space; 1975, U.C. Santa Barbara and American College Theatre Festival, Los Angeles, and Kennedy Center for the Arts, Washington, DC.; 1987, University of Denver, directed by Margaret Mancinelli; August 1991, St. Mary's College of Maryland.

** and ****1984 Medea and the Doll, adaptation by Rudi Gray, directed by Randy Frazier, Frank Silvera Writers Workshop, Harlem, New York, and Samuel Beckett Theater, New York, starring Maria E. Ellis as Nilda and Morgan Freeman/Juney Smith as Winston (New York Amsterdam News, March 3, 1984; Stephen Holden, New York Times, October 14, 1984; Sy Syna, New York Tribune, October 16, 1984). The two scripts are available at the Schomberg Center for Research in Black Culture in New York; the play was revived by the North Carolina Black Repertory Company in 1996, starring Dan Martin and Ella Joyce (Von H. Washington, Black Masks, April 30, 1996, 4).

1985 Directed in ancient Greek by Peter Steadman, New York Greek Drama Company, Triplex II Theater, New York, starring Lavinia Lorch as Medea and Peter Steadman in all the male roles. Video distributed in 1986.

1986 Pan Asian Repertory Company, Susan Bloch Theatre, New York, adapted by Claire Bush and Alkis Papoutis, starring Ching Valdes-Aran as Medea and Ismail Abou-El-Knater as Jason (New York Times, February 23, 1986; Alisa Solomon, Village Voice, March 11, 1986).

1986 A Medea, Requiem for a Boy with a White Toy, written and directed by Reza Abdoh, starring Jessica Peterson as Medea, Eric Marx as Jason, Hollywood Recreation Center, Los Angeles, California. Videotape at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center.

(1986 Toho Company, in Japanese, directed by Yukio Ninagawa, Delacorte Theater, Central Park, New York, Mikijiro Hira as Medea [Jennifer Dunning, New York Times, August 31, 1986; Smethurst 2002].)

***1987 Adaptation by Charles Ludlam, Ridiculous Theatre Company, Charles Ludlam Theater, New York, directed by Lawrence Kornfeld, music by Peter Golub, Medea and the Nurse played alternately by Black-Eyed Susan and Everett Quinton. Videotape at the (p.286) New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center (Frank Rich, New York Times, November 9, 1987; David Lidov, Women's Wear Daily, November 9, 1987; Don Nelson, Daily News, November 11, 1987; David Sterritt, Christian Science Monitor, January 15, 1988; Allan Wallach, Newsday, November 10, 1987; Marilyn Stasio, New York Post, November 13, 1987; David Kaufam, Downtown, November 18, 1987; Michael Feingold, Village Voice, November 17, 1987; Ludlam 1989, 802–13; Corti 1998, 187–89).

1989–90 Medea Speaks by Lawrence Addeo and Peter Daito, Quirk Productions, New York, starring Maria Ranaldi.

1990 St. Mark's Church in the Bowery, New York, dance theatre, based on Heiner Müller, Medeamaterial, choreographed by Ann Papoulis, Danspace project.

**1990 Pecong, new version by Steve Carter (Carter 1993), directed by Dennis Zacek, Victory Gardens Theater, Ruth Page Dance Center, Chicago, starring Celeste Williams as Mediyah and Daniel Oreskes as Jason; 1992, American Theater Festival, Symphony Hall, Newark, New Jersey, starring Tonia Rowe and Earl Whitted; 1993, American Conservatory Theatre, San Francisco, California (Hedy Weiss, Chicago Sun-Times, January 1, 1990; Alvin Klein, New York Times, April 26, 1992; Steven Winn, San Francisco Chronicle, October 22, 1993; Calvin Ahlgren, San Francisco Chronicle, October 17, 1993); 2009, Take Wing and Soar productions, National Black Theater in Harlem, directed by Arthur French and Timothy J. Stickney and starring Lorna Houghton (Rachel Saltz, New York Times, March 25, 2010).

1990 Pearl Theater Company, New York, translated by E. P. Coleridge, directed by Shephard Sobel, starring Joanne Camp as Medea (Stephen Holden, New York Times, February 8, 1990; Katherine Dieckmann, Village Voice, February 6, 1990).

*1991 Guthrie Theater, Minneapolis, Minnesota, translated by Philip Vellacott, directed by Garland Wright, starring Brenda Wehle as Medea and Stephen Yoakam as Jason (Tad Simons, Twin Cities Reader, June 24, 1992, 20, 22; Mike Steele, Minneapolis Star Tribune, January 11 and 14, 1991; Hartigan 1995, 58–59).

1991 Adaptation by Beverly Smith-Dawson, directed by Wendy Knox, Frank Theatre, Minneapolis, Minnesota.

1991 Gorilla Theatre, Kansas City, Missouri.

***1992 New version, directed by Keenan Hollahan, Greek Active, USA, Tugs Bar, Seattle, Washington, starring Mark Mitchell as Medea (Sue-Ellen Case, Theatre Journal 45.2 [1993]: 246–49).

**1992 Women Are Waiting: The Tragedy of Medea Jackson, adaptation by Eldris Cooper for the Medea Project: Theatre for Incarcerated Women, San Francisco, directed by Rodessa Jones (Fraden 2001, 56–64; Wetmore 2003, 198–202).

1992 Ballet by Michael Smuin, music by Samuel Barber, “Medea Suite,” Op. 23, Dance Theater of Harlem, State University of New York Performing Arts Center, Purchase, starring Lisa Attles as Medea, and City Center, New York, starring Leonore Pavlakos. Videotape at New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center (Jack Anderson, New York Times, May 7, 1992; Janice Berman, Newsday, March 25, 1993).

***1993 Medea in Sodom, by Exavier Wardlow Muhammed, starring Thresher Pace, Theater for the New City, New York (Pamela Penna, Village Voice, January 12, 1993).

(p.287) *1994 Kokoro by Velina Hasu Houston (Houston 1997), Theatre of Yugen, San Francisco, directed by Yuriko Doi after a special presentation at Japan Society in New York; 1995, Tina Chen directed the play at New York's 28th Street Theatre; 1998, The Perseverance Theatre Company, Alaska; 1999, Hiroshima University; 2000, Sacramento Theatre Company; 2003, Morgan Wixon-Theatre; 2004, The Actors Workshop (Usui 2000 cites reviews).

1994 Medea by Christopher Durang and Wendy Wassterstein (Durang 1995, 195–202), Juilliard School, New York, April 25, 1994, directed by Gerald Gutierrez, choreographed by Christopher Chadman, starring Harriet Harris as Medea and Kevin Spacy as Jason.

(1994 Longacre Theatre, New York, translated by Alistair Elliott, directed by Jonathan Kent, starring Diana Rigg as Medea and Tim Woodward as Jason. Videotape at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center [Vincent Canby, New York Times, April 17, 1994; William A. Henry, Time, April 25, 1994; Edwin Wilson, Wall Street Journal, April 13, 1994; Marianne McDonald, Didaskalia 1.3 [1994]; Hartigan 1995, 49, 59].)

(1994 Medée, opera by Marc-Antoine Charpentier, directed by Jean-Marie Villégier, Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York. Video at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center).

***1995 Medea the Musical, adapted and directed by John Fisher, with choreography by Jan Paik for Sassymouth USA, Lorraine Hansberry Theatre; 1996, Stage Door Theatre, San Francisco, California; 1999, Hudson Mainstage Theater, Hollywood, California; 2000, Arts West Theatre, Seattle, Washington; first performed at University of California Berkeley in 1994 (Robert Hurwitt, San Francisco Examiner, July 14, 1995; Steven Winn, San Francisco Chronicle, July 21, 1995; San Jose Morning News, August 9, 1996; American Theatre 13.10 [1996]: 7; Daedalus Howell, Sonoma Country Independent, November 19–24, 1998; Sandra Ross, LA Weekly, July 16–22, 1999; Foley 2004, 108–10).

1995 Walnut Street Theatre, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, directed for Red Heel Theatre by Jacqueline Yancey, starring Elizabeth H. Piccio as Medea and Amani Gethers as Jason (Philadelphia Inquirer, May 23, 1995).

***1995 Planet Earth MultiCultural Theatre, Phoenix, Arizona, Arawak Medea, directed by Peter James Cirino, starring Mollie Kellogg Cirino as Medea and David Akin as Jason (www.phoenixnewtimes.com/issues/1995–04–20/stages.html).

**1995 American Medea, adaptation by Silas Jones, workshop production at the Mark Taper Forum, Los Angeles; 1996, workshop production at the Arena Stage Theatre, Washington, D.C.; 2002, Northwest Asian-American Theatre, Seattle Washington (Wetmore 2003, 187–98).

1996 Theater Schmeater, Seattle, Washington (Joe Adcock, Seattle Post-Intelligencer, May 29, 1996).

1997 Cave of the Heart, choreographed by Martha Graham, music by Samuel Barber, Fairbanks, Alaska.

1997 Medeamaterial, adaptation by Heiner Müller, translated by Mark von Henning, directed by Stephan Suschke, Castillo Theater, New York.

*1997 La Malinche by Carlos Morton, directed by Abel Lopez at the Arizona Theatre Company, Center Stage at Herberger Theatre Center in Phoenix, Arizona, starring Dawnnie (p.288) Mercado as La Malinche and Christopher Michael Bauer as Cortés (Robert L. Pela, Phoenix New Times, February 13, 1997, www.phoenixnewtimes.com/issues/1997–02–13/stages.html).

**1997–98 Ensemble Theatre of Cincinnati, Ohio, adapted and directed by Michael Blankenship, Deborah Brock-Blanks as Medea, with a white Southern Jason, Jeff Roper (Jerry Stern, Cincinnati Post, January 8, 1998, http://www.cincypost.com/living/1998/medea010898.html).

(1998 City Center, New York, National Theatre of Greece, translation by Giorgos Chaeimonas, directed by Niketi Kontouri, music by Savina Gianattou, starring Karofyllia Karabeti [Peter Marks, New York Times, September 25, 1998; Michael Sommers, Star Ledger, September 25, 1998; Jan Stuart, Newsday, September 26, 1998; Glenda Frank, Backstage, October 9, 1998; Clive Barnes, New York Post, September 25, 1998].)

***1998 Adaptation by Jennifer Spahr with a male Medea, Expanded Arts, New York, 85 Ludlow Street (Randy Gener, www.nytheatre-wire.com/gene925b.htm).

**1998 Woodruff Arts Center, Alliance Theatre Company, Atlanta, Georgia, directed by Kenny Leon, starring Phylicia Rashad as Medea and Curt Hotstetter as Jason (Wetmore 2003, 145–49; Dan Hulbert, Atlanta Journal and Constitution, May 6 14, 1998).

*1999 Medea (Fragments of a Trilogy), adapted and directed by Andrei Serban, with music by Elizabeth Swados, La Mama, E.T.C., New York. See 1972 and 1974; revived again in 2004.

****1999 Medea Redux (Bash), version by Neil LaBute (LaBute 1999), directed by Joe Mantello, Douglas Fairbanks Theater, New York, starring Callista Flockhart.

***1999 Medea, adapted from Charles Ludlam by Ryan Landry, Gold Dust Orphans, Doll-house Theatre, Boston (Boston Herald, October 14, 1999).

1999 Not Medea by Yuriy Tarnawsky, directed for Mabou Mines/Suite by Gregory Hlady, starring Tania Mara Miller, 122 Community Center, Toronada Theater, New York (www.ukrweekly.com/Archive/1998/229823.shtml).

1999 Moonwater Theatre Company, University Drive Theatre, Dallas, Texas, starring Deborah Kirby as Medea and Chuck Huber as Jason (Dallas Observer, February 4, 1999, www.dallasobserver.com/issues/1999–02–04/stage.html)

**1999–2000 Marie Christine, A New Musical, adaptation by Michael John LaChiusa, directed by Graciela Daniele, Vivian Beaumont Theater, Lincoln Center, New York, starring Audra McDonald as Marie Christine and Anthony Crivello as Dante; lighting by Jules Fisher and Peggy Eisenhauer; set by Christopher Barreca (David Johnson, http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_mOCVQ/is_334/ai_60058651; Michael Feingold, Village Voice, December 8–14, 1999; Charles Isherwood December 3, 1999, http://www.variety.com/review/VE1117907426.html?categoryid=31&cs=1; Terry Teachout, New York Times, January 2, 2000; John Simon, nymag.com/nymetro/arts/theater/reviews/1652; David Finkle, http://bmi.com/musicworld/features/199912/mjlachiusa.asp; Elyse Sommer, http://curtainup.com/mariechristine.html; Ben Brantley, New York Times, December 3, 1999; Russell Bouthiller, www.broadwaybeat.com/russell/rumarie.htm; Jonathan Frank, www.talkinbroadway.com/cabaret/lachiusa.html; Barry Singer, New York Times, August 31, 1997; Robin Pogrebin, New York Times, November 5, 1999; Russell Bouthiller, www.broadwaybeat.com/russell/rosmarie.htm).

(p.289) ***2000 All about Medea (play within a play about a drag performance of Medea), Re-bar, Seattle, Washington, directed by Ilya Perlman, written by Mark Mitchell (www.thestranger.com/2000–07–13/theater_listings.html).

2000 Jean Cocteau Repertory, New York, translated by Philip Vellacott, directed by Eve Adamson, starring Elise Stone as Medea and Jolie Garrett as Jason (Wilborn Hampton, New York Times, May 24, 2000; Irene Backalenick, Backstage, April 21, 2000, 64).

(2000 New York Fringe Festival, August, Die Ungarische Medeia, adapted by Apad Gantz, Westentache Theater Company of Ulm, Germany, directed by Thomas Dentler.)

2000 Solo dance-drama by Celeste Miller, La MaMa, E.T.C., New York; Women in Theatre Conference, Washington, D.C.; 2002, Washington, D.C. (Sarah Kaufman, Washington Post, January 14, 2002).

*2000 The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea by Chérríe Moraga, the Border Festival, Magic Theater of San Francisco, directed by Chérrie Moraga; staged readings by Tony Kelly, Berkeley Repertory Company and at the Mark Taper Forum's New Works Festival in Los Angeles in 1995 among others. There have been several productions on college campuses since: Stanford University, 2002, directed by Chérrie Moraga and Adelina Anthony; Brown University, April 2006, directed by Patricia Ybarra; University of Massachusetts, Amherst, May 2008; Stanford University, May 15, 2005 (see Nicole Eschen, Theatre Journal 58.1 [March 2006]: 103–6; Straile-Costa 2010).

2000 Medea in Exile by Douglas Anderson, American Chamber Opera Theatre, New York.

2000 Sacramento Ballet, Community Center Theater, dance version created by Ron Cunningham, starring Kirsten Bloom.

2000 Medeamaterial by Heiner Müller, City Garage, Los Angeles, directed by Frédérique Michel.

2000 Philadelphia Fringe Festival, The Theater Cooperative, starring Lili Beta.

Ca. 2000? Medea, directed by Frank Silvestra, Theatre of Being, Los Angeles, starring Beah Richards as Medea (no date in Wetmore 2003, 147 or in S. Pearl, Black Masks 14, March 31, 2001).

2001 Love, Medea, adapted from Euripides and Seneca, directed by Charles Schick, starring Regina Bartkoff, Bullet Space, New York City.

*2001 Medea Bali, Green Tea Productions, directed by Kathy Welch, Old Arizona Studio, Minneapolis, Minnesota, with Virginia Haggart as Medea and Brian Stemmler as Jason (Rohan Preston, Star Tribune, October 7, 2001; Max Sparber, Performing Arts, October 10, 2001).

2001 Seattle Center House, Seattle, Washington, translated by Paul Roche, directed for Next Step Theater group by Rachel Rutherford, composed by John W. Bartley.

2001 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Heidi Helen Davis, Will Geer Theatricum Botanicum, Los Angeles, starring Ellen Geer as Medea (Carl R. Mueller, Didaskalia 5.2 [2001]).

2001 By the Bogs of Cats (a new Irish version) by Marina Carr, directed by Timothy Near, San Jose Repertory, San Jose, California.

***2001 Here Arts Center, New York, Klytaemnestra's Unmentionables (includes a monologue by Medea), script by Rob Grace, directed by Jennifer Wiseman, performed by Bradford Louryk (Foley 2004, 93–98).

(p.290) 2001–2 Pittsburgh Public Theater, directed by Ted Pappas, starring Lisa Harrow.

***2001–2 My Deah, adaptation by John Epperson (Epperson 2007), directed by David Schweizer, Workshop Reading, New York Theatre Workshop, January 2002, starring Betty Buckley as Mydeah; May 2003, Zipper Theater, New York, The Art Party at the Belt Theater and Bar, starring Patty Lupone as Mydeah and T. Scott Cunningham as Gator; performances at the Abingdon Theatre Company, September 2005 and 2006, directed by Mark Waldrop, starring Nancy Opel with Maxwell Caulfield as Gator (Charles Isherwood, New York Times, October 25, 2006; Michael Feingold, Village Voice, October 31, 2006; Rob Kent, Newsday, October 18, 2006; Jerry Talmer, Villager, November 1–7, 2006; Adam Feldman, Time Out New York, November 2–6, 2006; and Dan Bacalzo, www.theatermania.com/content/news.cfm/story/9308).

*2002 The Hungry Woman: A Mexican Medea by Cherrie Moraga, Northwest Asian-American Theatre, Seattle, Washington.

****2002 MedeaMachine adapted and directed by Ian Belton, The Present Company The-atorium, New York International Fringe Festival (Jonathan Mandell, New York Times, August 21, 2002).

**2002 and 2005 Classical Theatre of Harlem, New York, adapted and directed by Alfred Preisser, starring April Yvette Thompson as Medea, Lawrence Winslow as Jason, and Earle Hyman as Creon (D. J. R. Bruckner, New York Times, April 16, 2002; David Finkle, Village Voice, April 23, 2002; Hilton Als, New Yorker, October 3, 2005, 104; Mark Dundas Wood, Backstage, May 3, 2002; Neil Genzlinger, New York Times, September 27, 2005; Time Out New York, September 29, 2005, 187; Linda Armstrong, NY Amsterdam News, September 29, 2005; David Rosenberg, Backstage, October 20, 2005, 41).

2002 Bad Women (including Medea as a character) by Talking Band, written and directed by Sidney Goldfarb and Tina Sheperd, Here Arts Center, New York (Foley 2004).

2002 Theater de la Jeune Lune, Minneapolis, Minnesota, directed by Steven Epp, Barbra Berlovitz as Medea (Rohan Preston, Star Tribune, March 5, 2002).

2002 Vortex Repertory Company, Austin, Texas, Liz Lochhead's translation, directed by Lorelia Loftus, with four Medeas/chorus: Paula Gilbert, Wendy Goodwin, Betsy McCann, Regina Yonker (www.austinchronicle.com/issues/dispatch/2002–11–29/arts_exhibitionism2.html).

2002 Medea/Macbeth/Cinderella, adapted and directed by Bill Rauch and Tracy Young, music by Shishir Kurup, choregraphy by Sabrina Peck, and Caroline Stephanie Clay as Medea and Jennifer Griffin as Jason, Yale Repertory Theatre, New Haven, Connecticut. Videotape at the New York Public Library for the Performing Arts, Lincoln Center (Yale Bulletin & Calendar 31.2, 9/13/2002, www.rnh.com/news/triple.html, yaledailynews.com/article.asp?AID=19865).

2002 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, The Shotgun Players, Berkeley, California, directed by Russell Blackwood, starring Beth Donohue as Medea and Jason Frazier as Jason (Ben Barron, www.dailycal.org/article.php?id=8661; Lisa Drostova, East Bay Express, May 15, 2002, www.eastbayexpress.com/issues/2002–05–15/theater2.html/1/index.html; Michael Scott Moore, www.sfweekly.com/issues/2002–05–08/stage.html).

2002 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, Culver City Public Theatre, California, directed by Kenneth Macfarlane, starring Andrea Westby as Medea and James Lunsford as Jason.

(p.291) Medea Noir by Arthur Meiselman, Talos Ensemble, an American traveling company, a multimedia production first commissioned for Ancient Theater Alive Festival in Greece, starring Lia Beachy (www.talosensemble.com/html/medeanoir.html).

(2002 Brooklyn Academy of Music, New York, translation by Kenneth McLeish and Fredric Raphael, National Theater of Ireland, directed by Deborah Warner, starring Fiona Shaw as Medea and Jonathan Cake as Jason; part of a cross-country tour.)

2003 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, Tor House, Pacific Repertory Theatre, Carmel by the Sea, California.

2003 The Warehouse Theatre, Greenville, South Carolina, The Mythmakers.

**2003 Ghetto Ghost Girl Productions from Jersey City, National Black Theater Festival, August 2003, Winston Salem, N.C. (New York Times, August 8, 2003).

2003 The Medea Monologue, adaptation by Laylage Courie, Access Theater, New York.

2003 Translated by Kenneth McLeish and Frederic Raphael, directed by Sharon Lee Glassman, music by Steve Reisteter, Civic Theatre, Allentown, Pennsylvania.

2003 Classic Greek Theatre of Oregon, adapted and directed by Keith Scales, Reed College, Portland, Oregon, and Portland State University, music by Rebecca Becker, starring Quigley Provost-Landrum as Medea and Jason Connell as Jason.

** and ***2003 Medea, Queen of Colchester, adaptation by Marianne McDonald, directed by Kirsten Brandt and David Tierney, Sledgehammer Theater, St. Cecilia's Playhouse, San Diego, starring George Alphone Walker as Medea and Robert MacAulay as James Elliot (Tiffany Lee-Youngren, San Diego Union Tribune, August 21, 2003).

2003–4 Greek Shards: Medea, Thunder River Theatre Company, Roaring Fork Valley, Colorado, directed and designed by Lon Winston, starring Valerie Haugen, Richard Lyon, Kelley Mauldin, Michael Miller, and Linda White.

*2004 wAve, new version by Sung Rno (Rno 2011), directed by Will Pomerantz, Ma-Yi Theater Company, The Ohio Theatre, New York, starring Michi Barall as M and Ron Domingo as Jason (Margo Jefferson, New York Times, March 23, 2004; Helen Shaw, New York Sun, March 23, 2004; David Ng, Village Voice, March 24–30, 2004; Alexis Soloski, Time Out New York, March 25–April 1, 2004; Martin Denton, www.newtheatre.com/nytheatre/archweb/arch2004_w.htm; Les Gutman, www.curtainup.com/wave.html; Nizhen Hsieh, www.tribes.org/cgi-bin/form.pl?karticle=385). Originally commissioned by Center Theater Group/Mark Taper Forum, wAve received readings at Northwest Asian-American Theatre, Seattle, Washington (the artistic director Chay Yew proposed the project to the Mark Taper Forum) and staged readings at Mark Taper Forum, Ma-Yi Theater, New Work Now! at the Public Theater, Arena Stage, Asian American Theater Company, and Fluid Motion Theatre at the Public Theatre, directed by Christine Simpson.

2004 Adaptation by Robinson Jeffers, directed by Jim Lawer, Teen Theatre, Ferndale Repertory Theatre, Ferndale, California.

**2004 M̓Dear, The Venue @ St. James, 409 West 141st Street, New York, written and directed by Ron Beverly, music by Ron Beverly and Christophe Pierre; M̓Dear is a singer, and JaShaun is in the music business (Linda Armstrong, NY Amsterdam News, July 22–28, 2004).

2004 Tampa Bay Performance Center, Shimberg Playhouse, Tampa, Florida, translated by Kenneth McCleish and Frederic Raphael, Stageworks Theatre Company, directed by (p.292) Anna Brennan, starring Dawn Truax as Medea and Eric Davis as Jason (Mark E. Leib, weekly planet 17.4, April 21–27, 2004; Marty Clear, St. Petersburg Times, April 22, 2004; Joanne Milani, Tampa Tribune, April 20, 2004).

*2004 Medea in Jerusalem, adapted by Roger Kirby, directed by Steven Little, Rattlestick Theater, New York, starring Rebecca Wisocky as Medea and Sean Haberle as Jason (D. J. R. Bruckner, New York Times, August 11, 2004; Adam Feldman, Time Out New York, August 19–26, 2004, 137; Helen Shaw, New York Sun, August 13, 2004; Frank Scheck, New York Post, August 10, 2004; Celia McGee, Daily News, August 10, 2004; Charles McNulty, Village Voice, August 11, 2004; Irene Backalenick, Backstage, September 10, 2004).

2004 Theatre Works, New Milford, Connecticut.

2004 Staten Island, New York, Midland Beach, Theater San Greal, directed by Bill Conte as part of a “City Dionysia” (including Prometheus Bound and Antigone), starring Marie Abbatiello as Medea and Mike Baver as Jason.

2005 Jean Cocteau Repertory, Bouwerie Lane Theatre, New York, translated and adapted by Joseph Goodrich, directed by Ernest Jones, starring Ramona Floyd as Medea and Pascal Beauboeuf as Jason (Jason Zinoman, New York Times, November 2, 2005).

****2005 Washington Shakespeare Company, translation by Alistair Elliot, directed by Jose Carrasquillo and Paul MacWhorter, starring Delia Taylor as a pathological Medea (Jayne Blanchard, Washington Post, June 13, 2005).

2005 Medead (Medea in Corinth and Medea on the Argo) by Fiona Templeton, Mabou Mines Suite, 9th Street, New York, starring Clarinda Maclow.

2005 New version based on Euripides and Seneca, Club at La MaMa, E.T.C., New York, adapted and directed by Jay Scheib, music by Margaret Kammerer, Actors Without Borders, starring Zishan Ugurlu and Dan Illian as Jason (Jason Zinoman, New York Times, January 20, 2005; Helen Shaw, New York Sun, January 17, 2005; Jordy Yager, Show Business, February 2, 2005, 12; Adam Feldman, Time Out New York, January 27, 2005, 139; Campbell 2010).

**2005 Boston Court, Pasadena, California, translated by Paul Roche, directed by Stefan Novinski, Lisa Tharps as Medea and Andrew Borba as Jason (Kathleen Foley, Los Angles Times, February 25, 2005; Amy Nicholson, Pasadena Star News, February 25, 2005; Arian Mufson, A Curtain Up Los Angeles review, February 26, 2005; Terry Morgan, Backstage, February 23, 2005; Tom Sime, Dallas Morning News, March 16, 2005; all quoted at www.aldrichpr.com/MedeaReviews.htm).

2005 Purgatorio by Ariel Dorfman, Seattle Repertory Theatre, Seattle, Washington, directed by David Esbjornson, starring Charlayne Woodard and Dan Snook as Medea and Jason figures (Brendan Kiley, Stranger, November 10, 2005, 29).

2006 The Looking Glass Theatre, New York, directed by Candace O̓Neil Cihocki, starring April Grace Lowe as Medea and Dain Geist as Jason.

2007 Producer's Club Theatre, New York, directed by Hilary Krishan.

2007 Nebunele Theater, Seattle, Washington, advised by Ruby Blundell.

2007 Medea by Eddie Kim, Here Arts Theatre, New York.

(2007 La MaMa, E.T.C., New York, Company East, choreographed and directed by Kanji Kawarasaki, starring Hiroshi Jin as Medea and Sho Tohno as Jason (Jennifer Dunning, New York Times, January 6, 2007.)

(p.293) *2007 The House of Chaos by Velina Hanu Houston, directed by Peter Cirino, San Diego Asian American Repertory Theatre, AART, starring Elise Presser as Mina Takahashi and Tony Perez as Tillman (Michael L. Greenwald, Union Tribune, July 16, 2007, www.signonsandiego.com/news/features/20070716–9999–lz1c16chaos.html). The play will reportedly be published in a volume in process, The Myth Strikes Back: Medea Plays by Women, edited by Houston and Marianne McDonald.

2008 La MaMa, E.T.C., Theodora Skiptares' puppet Medea; Nicky Paraiso operated the Medea puppet (Caryn James, New York Times, March 19, 2008; Andy Probst, Backstage.com, March 17, 2008; Rayhane S. Sanders, Show Business, March 3, 2008).

**2008 National Black Theatre, 2301 Fifth Avenue at 125th Street, New York, musical version, Take Wing and Soar Productions, directed by Petronia Paley and starring Trezana Beverley as Medea and Dathan Williams as Jason (Linda Armstrong, NY Amsterdam News, March 6–12, 2008).

(2008 MedEia by Dood Paard, P.S. 122, New York, starring Kuno Bakker, Manja Topper, and Oscar van Woensel [Tom Sellar, Village Voice, October 10, 2007; Caryn James, New York Times, March 19, 2008; Andy Probst, Backstage.com, March 17, 2008].)

*2009 UCLA's Freud Playhouse, translated by Kenneth McLeish and Frederic Raphael, directed by Lenka Udovicki, starring Annette Bening as Medea and Angus Macfadyen as Jason (Steven Leigh Morris, http://www.laweekly.com/2009–10–01/stage/me-and-my-shadows/).

*2009 Pious Poetic Pie by Yubelky Rodriguez, directed by Denyse Owens, Fluid Motion Theatre, Hudson Guild Theatre, New York, starring Athena Colón as Melinda and Darian Dauchan as Jerome.

***2010 Access Theater, New York, adapted and directed by Rubén Polendo for Theater Mitu, starring Justin Nestor as Medea and Aysan Celik as Jason and the Chorus leader, with Nathan Elam as the Nurse, and Nikki Calonge as Creon. (p.294)