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Balancing on a PlanetThe Future of Food and Agriculture$
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David A. Cleveland

Print publication date: 2013

Print ISBN-13: 9780520277410

Published to California Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520277410.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use (for details see www.california.universitypressscholarship.com/page/535/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice).date: 18 December 2018

Managing Evolution

Managing Evolution

Plant Breeding and Biotechnology

Chapter:
(p.125) Five Managing Evolution
Source:
Balancing on a Planet
Author(s):

David A. Cleveland

Publisher:
University of California Press
DOI:10.1525/california/9780520277410.003.0006

Farmers (beginning in the Neolithic), amateur and professional plant breeders in the last several centuries, and now molecular biologists have greatly increased our ability to genetically manipulate crop plants to increase desired outputs. The two key steps in plant breeding are the creation of diversity followed by selection of resulting plants with the desired characteristics. Two important relationships determining the outcome of selection are those between plant phenotype and genotype and between heritability of a trait and the selection pressure. Similarities and differences between breeding by farmers and scientists are illustrated by the contrast between yield and yield stability; understanding of basic biological principles, their application and effects; and transgenic varieties. Participatory plant breeding is attempting to reunite farmers and scientists.

Keywords:   plant breeders, molecular biologists, diversity, selection, phenotype, genotype, yield, yield stability, transgenic crop varieties, participatory plant breeding

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