- Title Pages
- The George Gund Foundation Imprint in African American Studies
- Shoeboots Family Tree
- Preface to the Second Edition
- Preface to the First Edition
- Part One Bone of My Bone: Slavery, Race, and Nation—East
- One Captivity
- Two Slavery
- Three Motherhood
- Four Property
- Five Christianity
- Six Nationhood
- Seven Gold Rush
- Part Two of Blood and Bone: Freedom, Kinship, and Citizenship—West
- Eight Removal
- Nine Capture
- Ten Freedom
- Epilogue Citizenship
- Coda The Shoeboots Family Today
- Appendix One Research Methods and Challenges
- Appendix Two Definition and Use of Terms
- Appendix Three Cherokee Names and Mistaken Identities
- Appendix Four Primary Sources for Further Study
- Selected Bibliography
- American Crossroads
- (p.64) Four Property
- Ties That Bind
- University of California Press
This chapter explores the Cherokee historical relationship to property, the development of new forms of property valuation and accumulation, and the Creek War of 1813–14, in which elite members of the Cherokee and Creek nations—including Shoe Boots—fought to protect this new way of life. Sustained colonial expansion onto Cherokee lands and U.S. government pressure to adopt Euro-American customs was contributing to a disruption and reformation of Cherokee lifeways. Slaveholding among the Cherokees was one of these new patterns that challenged previous customs; the ownership and accumulation of private property was another. Both these practices were closely interlinked and manifested a revision of the Cherokee relationships to things, animals, and people. The chapter also explores how African and Native people were excluded from the category of whiteness, and thus from the right to property ownership.
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