This chapter explores the Cherokee historical relationship to property, the development of new forms of property valuation and accumulation, and the Creek War of 1813–14, in which elite members of the Cherokee and Creek nations—including Shoe Boots—fought to protect this new way of life. Sustained colonial expansion onto Cherokee lands and U.S. government pressure to adopt Euro-American customs was contributing to a disruption and reformation of Cherokee lifeways. Slaveholding among the Cherokees was one of these new patterns that challenged previous customs; the ownership and accumulation of private property was another. Both these practices were closely interlinked and manifested a revision of the Cherokee relationships to things, animals, and people. The chapter also explores how African and Native people were excluded from the category of whiteness, and thus from the right to property ownership.
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