This concluding chapter resumes the Shoeboots family story in the Dawes Allotment era of the 1890s, and analyzes Doll and Shoe Boots' youngest son's failed application for Cherokee citizenship. As more outsiders of various racial backgrounds crossed Cherokee borders, distinctions between former slaves of Cherokees, Afro-Cherokees, and newcomer blacks began to blur. The overwhelmed Cherokee government seized on a strategy that would strictly determine who had the right to settle on Cherokee land and practice the privileges of citizenship. However, the U.S. government was developing a policy that would further disempower the Cherokees and other Native nations. In 1887, the General Allotment Act was passed, which intended to dissolve Indian tribalism and foster assimilation into American society.
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