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Tales of the Ex-ApesHow We Think about Human Evolution$
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Jonathan Marks

Print publication date: 2015

Print ISBN-13: 9780520285811

Published to California Scholarship Online: September 2016

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520285811.001.0001

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Human Evolution as Bio-cultural Evolution

Human Evolution as Bio-cultural Evolution

(p.129) Chapter Six Human Evolution as Bio-cultural Evolution
Tales of the Ex-Apes

Jonathan Marks

University of California Press

Contemporary research in primatology and social anthropology is refocusing attention on the emergence of new social relations in human evolution. The human mother needed material assistance because of the large-brained, slowly maturing children she bore. The invention of marriage involved not merely mate choice but a series of reciprocal obligations between families. This, in turn, created a fundamental social tension between the two classical sources of material assistance to a human mother: husband and mother-in-law (or grandmother). Concomitant with the emergence of spouse and mother-in-law/grandmother comes a new familial relationship: siblings. These are “invisible aspects of human evolution” since they are social relationships, not recoverable in the fossil record.

Keywords:   social evolution, biocultural, grandmother, marriage, human behavior

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