Chapter 5 explores how the context of war shaped urban policies. Demographic shifts associated with emigration and exile, as well the Spanish policy of military reconcentration, radically altered the demographics of Havana and helped residents create long-lasting associations between the perception of bodily threat and blackness, as well as between hygiene, politics, and race. Concern over the mounting independence struggles also caused the administration to indefinitely postpone urbanization plans, which residents interpreted as evidence of the colonial administration’s inability to guarantee the safety of the city in the face of an internal Cuban threat.
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