Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Gender EffectCapitalism, Feminism, and the Corporate Politics of Development$

Kathryn Moeller

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780520286382

Published to California Scholarship Online: September 2018

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520286382.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2018. All Rights Reserved. Under the terms of the licence agreement, an individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use (for details see www.california.universitypressscholarship.com/page/535/privacy-policy-and-legal-notice). Subscriber: null; date: 12 December 2018

(p.215) Notes

(p.215) Notes

Gender Effect

Kathryn Moeller

University of California Press


(1.) The Girl Effect, The Girl Effect, 2008, www.girleffect.org/media?id=3453.

(3.) Nike Foundation, “Investor News Details: Nike Foundation Steps on to New Field,” Nike News, March 8, 2005, http://investors.nike.com/investors/news-events-and-reports/investor-news/investor-news-details/2005/Nike-Foundation-Steps-on-to-New-Field/default.aspx.

(4.) “United Nations Millennium Development Goals,” United Nations, n.d., www.un.org/millenniumgoals/.

(5.) “International Women’s Day Marked around the World,” an interview between Amy Goodman and Kavita Ramdas, Democracy Now, March 8, 2010, accessed March 13, 2012, www.democracynow.org/2010/3/8/international_womens_day_marked_around_the.

(6.) “International Women’s Day: History of the Day,” United Nations Women, n.d., accessed August 14, 2017, www.un.org/en/events/womensday/history.shtml.

(7.) These include development institutions, such as the World Bank and USAID, private foundations, such as the Gates Foundation, nongovernmental organizations, such as CARE and Plan International, and global forums, such as the World Economic Forum and the Clinton Global Initiative.

(p.216) Introduction

(1.) “Third Billion Seeks to Empower Women, Brooke Says,” Bloomberg TV, accessed February 1, 2012, www.ustream.tv/recorded/20156941.

(2.) Booz & Co. was acquired by PricewaterhouseCoopers in 2014, and its name was changed to Strategy&.PricewaterhouseCoopers,-accessed January 31, 2017, www.pwc.com/us/en/press-releases/2014/pwc-completes-its-acquisition-of-booz-and-company.html.

(3.) “The Third Billion,” strategy + business, accessed December 28, 2017, https://www.strategy-business.com/article/10211?gko=98895

(7.) “The Third Billion,” The Third Billion, accessed July 17, 2013, https://web.archive.org/web/20130625122005/http://thethirdbillion.org/.

(10.) Mulher360, “Corporate Movement for Women’s Economic Development,” Walmart Brasil, 2015, 9, www.walmartbrasil.com.br/wm/wp-content/uploads/2015/08/Movimento-Mulher-360-En.pdf.

(11.) “O Movimento,” Movimento Mulher 360, n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, http://movimentomulher360.com.br/institucional/o-movimento/.

(12.) For reports by development institutions and corporations, see the following: Kristin Lewis, “The Gender Dividend: A Business Case for Gender Equality,” UN Women, 2011, www2.unwomen.org/~/media/headquarters/media/publications/en/unwomenthegenderdividend.pdf?v=1&d=20140917T100949; “The Business of Empowering Women: Where, Why, and How,” McKinsey&Company, January 2010, http://mckinseyonsociety.com/the-business-of-empowering-women/; “The Business Case for Women’s Economic Empowerment: An Integrated Approach,” International Center for Research on Women, Oak Foundation, and Dalberg and Witter Ventures, 2014, www.icrw.org/publications/business-case-womens-economic-empowerment-integrated-approach.

For more critical accounts of the “business case,” see the following: Suzanne Bergeron and Stephen Healy, “Beyond the Business Case: A Community Economics Approach to Gender, Development and Social Economy” (draft paper prepared for the UNRISD Conference on Potential and Limits of Social and Solidarity Economy, Geneva, 2013, 6–80; Juanita Elias, “Davos Woman to the Rescue of Global Capitalism: Postfeminist Politics and Competitiveness Promotion at the World Economic Forum,” International Political Sociology 7, no. 2 (June 1, 2013): 152–69, doi:10.1111/ips.12015; Elisabeth Prügl and Jacqui True, “Equality Means Business? Governing Gender through Transnational Public-Private Partnerships,” Review of International Political Economy 21, no. 6 (2014): 1137–69, (p.217) doi:10.1080/09692290.2013.849277; Adrienne Roberts, “The Political Economy of ‘Transnational Business Feminism,’” International Feminist Journal of Politics 17, no. 2 (January 28, 2014): 209–31.

(13.) “The Global Economy: Strengthening Growth and Job Creation—Statement at G20 Leader’s Summit,” OECD (remarks by Angel Gurria, secretary-general, OECD, Brisbane, 2014), www.oecd.org/g20/summits/brisbane/the-global-economy-strengthening-growth-and-job-creation.htm.

(15.) “Be What’s Possible, Gap, Inc., n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, www.bewhatspossible.com/pace.

(16.) 10,000 Women, Goldman Sachs, accessed December 22, 2011, www.goldmansachs.com/citizenship/10000women/.

(17.) C. K. Prahalad, The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid: Eradicating Poverty through Profits (London: Pearson FT Press, 2009) 6.

(18.) Paul Collier, The Bottom Billion: Why the Poorest Countries Are Failing and What Can Be Done about It (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

(19.) C. K. Prahalad and Stuart L. Hart, “The Fortune at the Bottom of the Pyramid,” Strategy+Business, January 10, 2002, www.strategy-business.com/article/11518?gko=9a4ba.

(20.) Ananya Roy, “Ethical Subjects: Market Rule in an Age of Poverty,” Public Culture 24, no. 1 (2012): 106.

(21.) Thank you to Dinak Rajak for her suggestions on this topic and to Selah Agaba for her work on this section.

(22.) Glenn, Evelyn Nakano. “Yearning for Lightness: Transnational Circuits in the Marketing and Consumption of Skin Lighteners,” Gender & society 22, no. 3 (2008): 281–302.

(23.) Avon, “Experience Avon’s History,” Avon: The Company for Women, n.d., September 5, 2017, http://www.avoncompany.com/aboutavon/history/index.html.

(24.) Linda Scott et al., “Enterprise and Inequality: A Study of Avon in South Africa,” Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice 36, no. 3 (2012): 543–68.

(25.) Matthew Bishop and Michael Green, Philanthrocapitalism: How Giving Can Save the World (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009).

(p.218) (26.) Linsey McGoey, “Philanthrocapitalism and Its Critics,” Poetics 40, no. 2 (April 2012): 185–99.

(29.) Ibid., 197.

(30.) Kohl-Arenas, Erica, The Self-Help Myth: How Philanthropy Fails to Alleviate Poverty (Oakland: University of California Press, 2015).

(31.) “Gap and Walmart in Bangladesh: A History of Irresponsibility and Empty Promises,” Clean Clothes Campaign, n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, https://cleanclothes.org/resources/background/history-gap-and-walmart-bangladesh/.

(32.) Melissa S. Fisher, Wall Street Women (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012).

(33.) Elisabeth Prügl, “Corporate Social Responsibility and the Neoliberalization of Feminism,” in Gender Equality and Responsible Business: Expanding CSR Horizons, ed. Kate Grosser, Lauren McCarthy, and Maureen A. Kilgour, (Sheffield, UK: Greenleaf Publishing, 2016), 46–54; Calkin, “Feminism, Interrupted? Gender and Development in the Era of ‘Smart Economics,’” Progress in Development Studies 15, no. 4 (2015), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1177/1464993415592737; Roberts, “The Political Economy of ‘Transnational Business Feminism’”; Prügl and True, “Equality Means Business? Governing Gender through Transnational Public-Private Partnerships.”

(34.) Nancy Fraser, “Feminism, Capitalism, and the Cunning of History,” New Left Review, no. 56 (April 2009): 97–117.

(35.) ForbesIsobel Coleman, “Women Are the New Global Growth Engine,” Forbes, September 15, 2010, www.forbes.com/2010/09/15/women-growth-globalization-leadership-citizenship-strategy.html.

(37.) Hester Eisenstein, Feminism Seduced: How Global Elites Use Women’s Labor and Ideas to Exploit the World (Boulder, Colo.: Paradigm Publishers, 2009), 133.

(39.) Lucy Ferguson and Daniela Alarcon Moreno, “Gender Expertise and the Private Sector: Navigating the Privatization of Gender Equality Funding,” in The Politics of Feminist Knowledge Transfer: Gender Training and Gender (p.219) Expertise, ed. Maria Bustelo, Lucy Ferguson, and Maxime Forest (Basingstoke, UK: Palgrave Macmillan, 2016).

(40.) Denise Ferreira da Silva, Toward a Global Idea of Race, vol. 27 (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2007), xxx.

(41.) Joan W. Scott, “Gender: A Useful Category of Historical Analysis,” American Historical Review 91, no. 5 (1986): 1053–75.

(42.) In chapter 4, I discuss the ways in which age and gender work together to produce the specific category of adolescent girl within the Girl Effect.

(43.) Chandra Talpade Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses,” in Third World Women and the Politics of Feminism, ed. Talpade Chandra Mohanty, Ann Russo, and Lourdes Torres (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991).

(44.) Examples of texts that do this work include the following: Soujorner Truth, “Women’s Rights,” in Deborah K. King and Beverly Guy-Sheftall, Words of Fire: An Anthology of African-American Feminist Thought (New York: New Press, 1995): 36; Ida B. Wells-Barnett, On Lynchings. (Amherst, N.Y.: Humanity Books, (1892) 2002), www.aspresolver.com/aspresolver.asp?BLTC;S10224; Hazel V. Carby, Reconstructing Womanhood: The Emergence of the Afro-American Woman Novelist (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987); Patricia Hill Collins, Black Feminist Thought: Knowledge, Consciousness, and the Politics of Empowerment (Boston: Unwin Hyman, 1990); Kimberle Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review (1991): 1241–1299; Evelyn Nakano Glenn, “The Social Construction and Institutionalization of Gender and Race: An Integrative Framework,” in Revisioning Gender, ed. Judith Lorber, Myra Marx Ferree, and Beth B. Hess (New York: Sage, 1999); bell hooks, Feminist Theory from Margin to Center (Boston: South End Press, 1984); Paola Bacchetta, “Openings: Reflections on Transnational Feminist Alliances,” (paper presented at the Conference Genre et Mondialisation, Ministère de la Recherche, Paris, March 23, 2007); Combahee River Collective, in Home Girls, a Black Feminist Anthology, ed. Barbara Smith (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983); Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, & Class (New York: Random House, 1981); bell hooks, Feminist Theory from Margin to Center (Boston: South End Press, 1984); Cherie Moraga and Gloria Anzaldúa, This Bridge Called My Back: Writings by Radical Women of Color (New York: Kitchen Table: Women of Color Press, 1983); Gloria Anzaldúa, Borderlands: The New Mestiza = La Frontera (San Francisco: Spinsters/Aunt Lute, 1987); Trinh Minh-ha, Women Native Other (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989); Norma Alarcón, “Theoretical Subjects of This Bridge Called My Back and Anglo-American Feminism,” in Feminist Theory Reader: Local and Global Perspectives, ed. Seung-Kyung Kim and Carole R. McCann (New York: Routledge, 2003); Chela Sandoval, Methodology of the Oppressed (Minneapolis: (p.220) University of Minnesota Press, 2000); Audre Lorde, Sister Outsider: Essays and Speeches (Trumansburg, N.Y.: Crossing Press, 1984).

(45.) Paola Bachetta, “Openings: Reflections on Transnational Feminist Alliances,” vol. 23 (paper presented at the Conference Genre et Mondialisation, Ministère de la Recherche, Paris, March 23, 2007).

(46.) Trinh T. Minh-Ha, Woman, Native, Other: Writing Postcoloniality and Feminism (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2009), 97.

(49.) Ibid., 334.

(50.) Kathryn Moeller, “Searching for Adolescent Girls in Brazil: The Transnational Politics of Poverty in ‘The Girl Effect,’” Feminist Studies 40, no. 3 (2014): 575–601.

(51.) The Girl Effect: I Dare You to See I Am the Answer, Nike Foundation, 2010.

(52.) See: “Nike Watch,” Oxfam, n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, www.oxfam.org.au/what-we-do/ethical-trading-and-business/workers-rights-2/nike/; “Nike,” Clean Clothes Campaign, March 31, 2014, https://cleanclothes.org/livingwage/tailoredwages/company-submissions/nike-submission.pdf/view; “Nike Campaign,” Global Exchange, n.d., accessed November 3, 2010, www.globalexchange.org/fairtrade/sweatfree/nike; Richard Locke, “The Promise and Perils of Globalization: The Case of Nike,” Industrial Performance Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, July 2002, https://ipc.mit.edu/sites/default/files/documents/02-007.pdf.

(53.) “Innovate for a Better World: Nike FY05-06 Corporate Responsibility Report,” (Corporate Social Responsibility Report, Nike, Inc., Beaverton, Ore., 2006, 16.

(54.) Naomi Klein, No Logo: Taking Aim at the Brand Bullies (New York: Picador, 2000)Locke, “The Promise and Perils of Globalization: The Case of Nike.”

(55.) John H. Cushman, “International Business: Nike Pledges to End Child Labor and Apply U.S. Rules Abroad,” New York Times, May 13, 1998, www.nytimes.com/1998/05/13/business/international-business-nike-pledges-to-end-child-labor-and-apply-us-rules-abroad.html.

(56.) Accusations of abusive labor practices at its contract factories continue: Stephen Wright, “Nike Faces New Worker Abuse Claims in Indonesia,” Huffington Post, July 2011, www.huffingtonpost.com/2011/07/13/nike-faces-new-worker-abuse-indonesia_n_896816.html; Jim Keady, “Are Nike’s Factory Workers Paid a Living Wage? (video blog),” Huffington Post, accessed April 24, 2012, www.huffingtonpost.com/jim-keady/nike-sweatshops-wages_b_1021155.html; Nicholas Casey and Raphael Pura, “Nike Addresses Abuse Complaints at (p.221) Malaysia Plant,” Wall Street Journal, August 4, 2008, www.wsj.com/articles/SB121779204898108093; James Hookway and Anh Thu Nguyen, “Vietnam Workers Strike: Factory Employees Seek Higher Wages as Inflation Soars,” Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2008, www.wsj.com/articles/SB120704094273579965.

(57.) Ellen McGirt, “Meet the League of Extraordinary Women: 60 Influencers Who Are Changing the World,” Fast Company, June 2012, www.fastcompany.com/1839862/meet-league-extraordinary-women-60-influencers-who-are-changing-world.

(60.) Ibid., emphasis in original.

(62.) For more information on Nike, Inc.’s strategy over time in emerging markets, see the following: “Cricket Anyone? Sneaker Makers on Fresh Turf; Nike Has a New Rival in Developing Markets,” New York Times, accessed August 14, 2017, http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9E0CE4D7113FF93BA15752C0A9609C8B63&pagewanted=all; “Nike Inc. Makes Emerging Markets Top Priority (NKE, MCD, KO, DPZ),” Investor Place, accessed August 14, 2017, http://investorplace.com/2010/05/nike-inc-nke-emerging-markets-mcdonalds-mcd-coca-cola-ko-dominos-pizza-dpz/#.WZH_ciMrL0E; “Nike CEO: How we’ll reach $50B in sales,” CNBC, accessed August 14, 2017, www.cnbc.com/2015/10/14/nike-ceo-how-well-reach-50b-in-sales.html.

(64.) Nike Manufacturing Map, Nike, Inc., accessed August 29, 2017, http://manufacturingmap.nikeinc.com/.

(65.) Since I conducted my fieldwork and finished my dissertation in 2012, there has been a proliferation of publications on the Girl Effect. Michelle Murphy, Seizing the Means of Reproduction: Entanglements of Feminism, Health, and Technoscience (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2012); Emily Bent, “A Different Girl Effect: Producing Political Girlhoods in the ‘Invest in Girls’ Climate,” in Youth Engagement: The Civic-Political Lives of Children and Youth, ed. Sandi K. Nenga and Jessica K. Taft (Bingley, UK: Emerald Group Publishing, 2013), 3–20; Heather Switzer, “(Post)Feminist Development Fables: The Girl Effect and the Production of Sexual Subjects,” Feminist Theory 14, no. 3 (December 1, 2013): 345–60, doi:10.1177/1464700113499855; Jason Hickel, “The ‘Girl Effect’: Liberalism, Empowerment and the Contradictions of Development,” Third World Quarterly 35, no. 8 (October 3, 2014): 1355–73, doi:10.1080/014365 97.2014.946250; Sydney Calkin, “Post-Feminist Spectatorship and the (p.222) Girl Effect: ‘Go Ahead, Really Imagine Her,’” Third World Quarterly 36, no. 4 (May 18, 2015): 654–69.

(66.) “The Girl Effect: What Do Boys Have to Do with It?,” International Center for Research on Women, 2010, 1, www.icrw.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/The-Girl-Effect-What-Do-Boys-Have-to-do-with-it.pdf.

(67.) “Our Work,” Nike, Inc., n.d., accessed October 10, 2009, http://nikeinc.com/pages/our-work.

(68.) Maria Eitel, “Day 1 at Davos: Girls, Economies and Green Innovation,” Huffington Post, March 30, 2010, www.huffingtonpost.com/maria-eitel/day-1-at-davos-girls-econ_b_440715.html.

(69.) Guardian, March 23, 2012, accessed September 5, 2017, www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2012/mar/23/girl-hub-strength-weaknessesGuardianSlate

(70.) Switzer, “(Post)Feminist Development Fables: The Girl Effect and the Production of Sexual Subjects”; Ofra Koffman and Rosalind Gill, “‘The Revolution Will Be Led by a 12-Year-Old Girl’: Girl Power and Global Biopolitics,” Feminist Review 105, no. 1 (November 2013): 83–102; Michelle Murphy, “Economization of Life: Calculative Infrastructures of Population and Economy,” in Relational Architectural Ecologies: Architecture, Nature and Subjectivity, ed. Peg Rawes (London: Routledge, 2013), 139–55; Farzana Shain, “‘The Girl Effect’: Exploring Narratives of Gendered Impacts and Opportunities in Neoliberal Development,” Sociological Research Online 18, no. 2 (2012): 9.

(71.) Lyndsay Hayhurst, “Corporatising Sport, Gender and Development: Postcolonial IR Feminisms, Transnational Private Governance and Global Corporate Social Engagement,” Third World Quarterly 32, no. 3 (May 20, 2011): 531–49.

(73.) Moeller, “Searching for Adolescent Girls in Brazil: The Transnational Politics of Poverty in ‘The Girl Effect.’”Kathryn Moeller, “Investing in the Girl Effect in Brazil: Corporatized Development, Girls’ Education, and the Transnational Politics of Poverty.” (PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 2012).

(74.) Michael Goldman, Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of Globalization (New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 2005).

(76.) Richard Peet, Unholy Trinity: The IMF, World Bank and WTO (London: Zed Books, 2003).

(77.) Dinah Rajak, In Good Company: An Anatomy of Corporate Social Responsibility (Palo Alto, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2011).

(p.223) (78.) In education, for example, see the following: Stephen J. Ball, Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neo-liberal Imaginary (London: Routledge, 2012); Susan Robertson, Karen Mundy, and Antoni Verger, eds., Public Private Partnerships in Education: New Actors and Modes of Governance in a Globalizing World (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2012).

(79.) Gillian Hart, Disabling Globalization: Places of Power in Post-Apartheid South Africa (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

(82.) Tania Murray Li, The Will to Improve: Governmentality, and the Practice of Politics (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2007), https://books-google-com.ezproxy.library.wisc.edu/books/about/The_Will_to_Improve.html?id=U-7JGmMm3a4C.

(83.) Andrew Barry, “Ethical Capitalism,” in Global Governmentality: Governing International Spaces, ed. Wendy Larner and William Walters (London: Routledge, 2004), 195–221.

(84.) Thomas Wuil Joo, “Corporate Governance: Law, Theory and Policy,” Social Science Research Network, October 10, 2004.

(86.) Ibid., 201.

(87.) Ibid., 196.

(88.) Ibid., 196.

(90.) Anke Fleur Schwittay, “Digital Citizens, Inc: Producing Corporate Ethics, Flexible Networks and Mobile Entrepreneurs in the Global Marketplace” (PhD thesis, University of California, Berkeley, Calif., 2006)Rajak, In Good Company

(93.) Sophia Muirhead, “Corporate Contributions: The View from Fifty Years,” (research report, Conference Board, New York, June 1999), www.conference-board.org/publications/publicationdetail.cfm?publicationid=429.

(94.) “The Good Company: Is Corporate Philanthropy Worthwhile?,” Economist, February 23, 2006, www.economist.com/node/5517678.

(95.) Dinah Rajak, “‘HIV/AIDS Is Our Business’: The Moral Economy of Treatment in a Transnational Mining Company,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 16, no. 3 (August 5, 2010): 568.

(96.) Fernanda Duarte, “What Does a Culture of Corporate Social Responsibility ‘Look’ Like? A Glimpse into a Brazilian Mining Company,” International Journal of Business Anthropology 2, no. 1 (April 2011): 106–22; Rajak, In Good Company; Jessica Smith and Frederico Helfgott, “Flexibility or Exploitation? (p.224) Corporate Social Responsibility and the Perils of Universalization,” Anthropology Today 26, no. 3 (June 2010): 20–23, doi:10.1111/j.1467-8322.2010.00737.x.

(97.) UN Global Compact, “The Ten Principles,” United Nations Global Compact, n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, www.unglobalcompact.org/what-is-gc/mission/principles.

(98.) WBCSD, “WBCSD—World Business Council for Sustainable Development,” n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, www.wbcsd.org/home.aspx.

(99.) “Clinton Global Initiative,” Clinton Foundation, n.d., accessed September 5, 2017, www.clintonfoundation.org/clinton-global-initiative.

(101.) Thomas Piketty, Capital in the Twenty-First Century, trans. Arthur Goldhammer (Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2014); Kathryn Moeller, “A Critical Feminist and Race Critique of Thomas Piketty’s Capital in the Twenty-First Century,” British Journal of Sociology of Education 37, no. 6 (2016): 810–22, doi:10.1050/01425692.2016.1165085.

(102.) Suzana Sawyer, “Disabling Corporate Sovereignty in a Transnational Lawsuit,” PoLAR: Political and Legal Anthropology Review 29, no. 1 (May 2006): 23–43, doi:10.1525/pol.2006.29.1.23.

(103.) ICRW was one of the Nike Foundation’s first NGO partners, originally contracted to design the foundation’s initial monitoring and evaluation strategy, before differences between the institutions led to a change in this relationship.

(104.) The event was hosted by the International Center for Research on Women in Washington, D.C., March 7, 2012.

(106.) Jennifer Bair, “Signs,” Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 36, no. 1 (2010): 203.

(107.) Silvia Federici, Caliban and the Witch: Women, the Body and Primitive Accumulation (Brooklyn, N.Y.: Autonomedia, 2004), 12.

(108.) Ibid., 61.

(109.) Colette Guillaumin, Racism, Sexism, Power and Ideology (London: Routledge, 2002); Anibal Quijano, “Coloniality of Power, Eurocentrism, and Latin America,” Nepantla: Views from the South, 1, no. 3 (2000): 533–80; Stuart Hall, “Europe’s Other Self,” Marxism Today, no. 25 (August 1991): 18–19; (p.225) Cedric J. Robinson, Black Marxism: The Making of the Black Radical Tradition (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1983).

(112.) Ibid., 2.

(113.) See for example: Jodi Melamed, “Racial Capitalism,” Critical Ethnic Studies, 1, no. 1 (2015): 76–85; Ramon Grosfoguel, Colonial Subjects: Puerto Ricans in a Global Perspective (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003); Ramon Grosfoguel and Margarita Cervantes-Rodriguez, eds., The Modern/Colonial/Capitalist World-System in the Twentieth Century: Global Processes, Antisystemic Movements, and the Geopolitics of Knowledge (Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 2002).

(115.) See earlier discussion on the categories of Third World women and girls.

(117.) Ibid., xxx.

(118.) Maria Lugones, “Heterosexualism and the Colonial Modern Gender System,” Hypatia 22, no. 1 (2007): 186.

(121.) Ibid., 187.

(123.) Angela Y. Davis, Women, Race, & Class (New York: Vintage Books, 1983), 23–24.

(124.) Ibid., 29.

(126.) Ibid., 2.

(129.) Uma Kothari, “Critiquing ‘Race’ and Racism in Development Discourse and Practice,” Progress in Development Studies 6, no. 1 (2006): 1–7; Uma Kothari, ed., A Radical History of Development Studies: Individual, Institutions, and Ideologies (London: Zed Books, 2006), http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/pdf/10.1191/1464993406ps123ed; Sarah White, “Thinking Race, Thinking Development,” Third World Quarterly 23, no. 3 (2002): 407–19.

(132.) Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, A Critique of Postcolonial Reason: Toward a History of the Vanishing Present (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1999), 200.

(p.226) (133.) Mary Beth Mills, “Gender and Inequality in the Global Labor Force,” Annual Review of Anthropology 32, no. 2003 (2003): 41–62, doi:10.1146/annurev. anthro.32.061002.093107; Jane L. Collins, “Mapping a Global Labor Market: Gender and Skill in the Globalizing Garment Industry,” Gender & Society 16, no. 6 (December 2002): 921–40, doi:10.1177/089124302237895; Aihwa Ong, “The Gender and Labor Politics of Postmodernity,” Annual Review of Anthropology 20, no. 1991 (1991): 279–309.

(134.) David Harvey, Spaces on Neoliberalization: Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development (Stuttgart, Germany: Franz Steiner Verlag (1656), 2005); Collins, “Mapping a Global Labor Market: Gender and Skill in the Globalizing Garment Industry”; June C. Nash and Maria P. Fernandez-Kelly, eds., Women, Men, and the International Division of Labor (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1984).

(138.) Jane L. Collins, Threads: Gender, Labor, and Power in the Global Apparel Industry (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003), 14.

(139.) David Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2000), 108.

(140.) Melissa W. Wright, Disposable Women and Other Myths of Global Capitalism (New York: Routledge, 2006), 2.

(141.) Ibid., 150.

(142.) Mills, “Gender and Inequality in the Global Labor Force”; Ong, “The Gender and Labor Politics of Postmodernity”; For specific ethnographic examples, see: Pun Ngai, Made in China: Women Factory Workers in a Global Workplace (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2005); Lisa Rofel, Other Modernities: Gendered Yearnings in China after Socialism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1999).

(143.) Leslie Salzinger, Gender in Production: Making Workers in Mexico’s Global Factories (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

(144.) Nicholas Kristof, “Where Sweatshops Are a Dream,” New York Times, January 14, 2009, www.nytimes.com/2009/01/15/opinion/15kristof.html.

(145.) Dina M. Siddiqi, “Do Bangladeshi Factory Workers Need Saving? Sisterhood in the Post-Sweatshop Era,” Feminist Review 91, no. 1 (2009): 154–74, doi:10.1057/fr.2008.55.

(p.227) (146.) Manisha Desai, “Transnational Solidarity: Women’s Agency, Structural Adjustment, and Globalization,” in Women’s Activism and Globalization: Linking Local Struggles and Transnational Politics, ed. Nancy A. Naples and Manisha Desai (New York: Routledge, 2002), 17.

(148.) “Just Pay It: Wage Compensation for Indonesian Nike Workers,” Clean Clothes Campaign, January 12, 2012, https://cleanclothes.org/news/2012/01/12/just-pay-it-wage-compensation-for-indonesian-nike-workers.

(152.) Lata Mani, Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1998).

(153.) Lata Mani, “Production of an Official Discourse on Sati in Early Nineteenth-Century Bengal,” in Women and Social Reform in Modern India: A Reader, ed. Sumit Sarkar and Tanika Sarkar (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 2008), 38–57Mani, Contentious Traditions: The Debate on Sati in Colonial India

(157.) Gillian Hart, “From ‘Rotten Wives’ to ‘Good Mothers’: Household Models and the Limits of Economism,” IDS Bulletin 28, no. 3 (July 1997): 14–25, doi:10.1111/j.1759-5436.1997.mp28003002.x.

(158.) Gillian Hart, Disabling GlobalizationDrucilla K. Barker and Edith Kuiper, eds., Toward a Feminist Philosophy of Economics (London: Routledge, 2003).

(159.) Gary S. Becker, “Altruism in the Family and Selfishness in the Market Place,” Economica 48, no. 189 (February 1981): 1–15, doi:10.2307/2552939.

(161.) Barker and Kuiper, Toward a Feminist Philosophy of EconomicsHart, “From ‘Rotten Wives’ to ‘Good Mothers’: Household Models and the Limits of Economism”Gillian Hart, “Gender and Household Dynamics: Recent Theories and Their Implications,” in Critical Issues in Asian Development: Theories, Experiences and Policies, ed. M. G. Quibria (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995), 39–74.

(p.228) (162.) Naila Kabeer, Gender Mainstreaming in Poverty Eradication and the Millennium Development Goals: A Handbook for Policy-Makers and Other Stakeholders (London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 2003).

(163.) Cecile Jackson, “Rescuing Gender from the Poverty Trap,” World Development 24, no. 3 (March 1996): 489–504.

(164.) Sylvia Chant, “Re-thinking the ‘Feminization of Poverty’ in Relation to Aggregate Gender Indices,” Journal of Human Development 7, no. 2 (July 2006): 206, doi:10.1080/14649880600768538.

(165.) Ananya Roy, “Millennial Woman,” in International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy, ed. Sylvia Chant (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, 2010), 548–553.

(166.) Shahra Razavi, “Fitting Gender into Development Institutions,” World Development 25, no. 7 (July 1977): 1111–1125, doi:10.1016/S0305-750X(97)00023-5.; Christine Ewig, “Hijacking Global Feminism: Feminists, the Catholic Church, and the Family Planning Debacle in Peru,” Feminist Studies 32, no. 3 (2006): 632–660.

(167.) Elaine Unterhalter, Gender, Schooling and Global Social Justice: Foundations and Futures of Education (London: Routledge, 2007).

(169.) Frances Katherine Vavrus, Desire and Decline: Schooling amid Crisis in Tanzania, Society and Politics in Africa (Bern, Switzerland: Peter Lang Publishing, 2003); Regina Cortina and Nelly P. Stromquist, eds., Distant Alliances: Promoting Education for Girls and Women in Latin America (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2000); Christine Heward and Sheila Bunwaree, eds., Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment (London: Zed Books, 1998); World Bank, Priorities and Strategies for Education: A World Bank Review (Washington, D.C.: The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/World Bank, 1995).

(171.) Barbara Knapp Herz and Gene B. Sperling, What Works in Girls’ Education: Evidence and Policies from the Developing World (Washington, D.C.: Council on Foreign Relations Press, 2004); George Psacharopoulos and Harry Anthony Patrinos, “Returns to Investment in Education: A Further Update,” (scholarly paper, Social Science Research Network, Rochester, N.Y., September 30, 2002).

(172.) Jackie Kirk, “Impossible Fictions: The Lived Experiences of Women Teachers in Karachi,” Comparative Education Review 48, no. 4 (2004): 374–95; Regina Cortina, “Global Priorities and Local Predicaments in Education,” in Distant Alliances: Promoting Education for Girls and Women in Latin America, ed. Regina Cortina and Nelly P. Stromquist (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2000), 179–200.

(p.229) (173.) Lamia Karim, Microfinance and Its Discontents: Women in Debt in Bangladesh (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2011); Ananya Roy, Poverty Capital: Microfinance and the Making of Development (New York: Routledge, 2010); Katharine N. Rankin, “Governing Development: Neoliberalism, Microcredit, and Rational Economic Woman,” Economy and Society 30, no. 1 (2001): 18–37, doi:10.1080/03085140020019070.

(174.) Jamie Peck, “Geographies of Policy from Transfer-Diffusion to Mobility-Mutation,” Progress in Human Geography 35, no. 6 (February 21, 2011): 773–97, doi:10.1177/0309132510394010; Mercedes González de la Rocha, “Gender and Ethnicity in the Shaping of Differentiated Outcomes of Mexico’s Progresa-Oportunidades Conditional Cash Transfer Programme,” in The International Handbook of Gender and Poverty: Concepts, Research, Policy, ed. Sylvia Chant (Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010), 248–53; Jamie Peck and Nik Theodore, “Mobilizing Policy: Models, Methods, and Mutations,” Geoforum 41, no. 2 (March 2010): 169–174; Maxine Molyneux, “Mothers at the Service of the New Poverty Agenda: Progresa/Oportunidades, Mexico’s Conditional Transfer Programme,” Social Policy & Administration 40, no. 4 (July 19, 2006): 425–49, doi:10.1111/j.1467-9515.2006.00497.x.

(178.) International Finance Corporation, “Private Sector Solutions in Development: Frontier Markets,” International Finance Corporation, accessed September 3, 2017, www.ifc.org/wps/wcm/connect/corp_ext_content/ifc_external_corporate_site/ifc+news/pressroom/frontiermarkets.

(179.) Derek Gregory, The Colonial Present: Afghanistan. Palestine. Iraq (Malden, Mass.: Blackwell Publishing, 2004), 17, https://middleeastgeographies.files.wordpress.com/2014/12/gregory-the-colonial-present.pdf.

(p.230) (180.) Hiba Bou Akar, “Contesting Beirut’s Frontiers,” City & Society 24, no. 2 (August 23, 2012): 150–72, doi:10.1111/j.1548-744X.2012.01073.x.

Chapter 1

(1.) I am drawing on the work of James Ferguson, Michael Goldman, Tania Li, and Ananya Roy, among others, who have looked at development as an apparatus, drawing on Foucault’s notion of the apparatus.

(2.) Michel Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977, ed. Colin Gordon (New York: Harvester Press, 1980).

(3.) Michel Foucault, Discipline and Punish: The Birth of the Prison, trans. Alan Sheridan (New York: Vintage Books, 1977)Foucault, Power/Knowledge: Selected Interviews and Other Writings, 1972–1977

(4.) Giorgio Agamben, The Signature of All Things: On Method, trans. Luca D’Isanto and Kevin Attell (Cambridge: MIT Press, 2009).

(5.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(6.) Verisk Maplecroft, “Risk Calculators and Dashboards,” accessed September 3, 2017, https://maplecroft.com/about/news/child_labour.html.

(9.) James Ferguson, The Anti-Politics Machine: Development, Depoliticization, and Bureaucratic Power in Lesotho (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1994), 255.

(10.) My first ethnographic observations began in 2007 and continued until 2014.

(11.) Stuart Kirsch, Mining Capitalism: The Relationships between Corporations and Their Critics (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014); Jill P. Koyama, Making Failure Pay: For-profit Tutoring, High-stakes Testing, and Public Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2010); Rajak, In Good Company; Sawyer, “Disabling Corporate Sovereignty in a Transnational Lawsuit”; Marina Welker, Enacting the Corporation: An American Mining Firm in Post-Authoritarian Indonesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014).

(13.) Laura Nader. “Up the Anthropologist: Perspectives Gained from Studying Up,” in Reinventing Anthropology, ed. Dell Hymes, (New York: Pantheon, 1972), 284–311.

(15.) Chris Ballard and Glenn Banks, “Resource Wars: The Anthropology of Mining,” Annual Review of Anthropology 20, no. 15 (May 15, 2003): 294.

(16.) Kirsch, Mining Capitalism: The Relationships between Corporations and Their CriticsPeter Benson and Stuart Kirsch, “Capitalism and the Politics of Resignation,” Current Anthropology 51, no. 4 (2010): 459–86Ballard and Banks, “Resource Wars: The Anthropology of Mining.”

(18.) The names of the NGOs are pseudonyms to protect the anonymity of the individuals and organizations in my study. The word empoderamento has been borrowed from the English word empowerment and adopted in Portuguese.

(20.) Doreen Massey, Space, Place and Gender (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 1994).

(26.) Akhil Gupta and James Ferguson, Anthropological Locations: Boundaries and Grounds of a Field Science (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1997), 37.

(27.) Donna Haraway, “Situated Knowledges: The Science Question in Feminism and the Privilege of Partial Perspective,” Feminist Studies 14, no. 3 (1988): 589.

(31.) Spivak Gayatri Chakravorty and Sneja Gunew, “Questions of Multiculturalism,” in The Cultural Studies Reader, ed. Simon During (London: Routledge, 1993), 197.

(32.) George E. Marcus, “Ethnography in/of the World System: The Emergence of Multi-Sited Ethnography,” Annual Review of Anthropology 24 (1995): 95–117.

(34.) Ibid., 100.

(p.232) (35.) Jean Lave and Etienne Wegner, Situated Learning: Legitimate Peripheral Participation (London: Cambridge University Press, 1991).

(37.) Peter McLaren, “The Ethnographer as Postmodern Flaneur: Critical Reflexivity and Posthybridity as Narrative Engagement,” in Representation and the Text: Re-Framing the Narrative Voice, ed. William G. Tierney and Yvonna S. Lincoln (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1997), 143–78.

Chapter 2

(1.) Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, trans. Quentin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (London: Electric Book Company, 1999), 625, http://abahlali.org/files/gramsci.pdf.

(2.) Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks of Antonio Gramsci, ed. and trans. Quintin Hoare and Geoffrey Nowell Smith (New York: International Publishers, 1971), 630.

(3.) Stuart Hall, “The Problem of Ideology: Marxism without Guarantees,” Sage Publications, Fall 1986, 42.

(5.) Michael W. Apple, Educating the “Right” Way: Markets, Standards, God, and Inequality (Abingdon, UK: Taylor & Francis, 2006).

(7.) Stuart Hall, The Hard Road to Renewal: Thatcherism and the Crisis of the Left (New York: Verso, 1988), 130.

(9.) The World Bank Group is comprised of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA).

(10.) For additional information on this history, see www.un.org/esa/ffd/ffd3/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/WBG-UN-Brochure.pdf, accessed February 23, 2017.

(11.) Goldman, Imperial Nature: The World Bank and Struggles for Social Justice in the Age of GlobalizationKaren Mundy, “Retrospect and Prospect: Education in a Reforming World Bank,” International Journal of Educational Development 22, no. 5 (September 2002): 483–508.

(12.) educationmenwomengirlsgirls’ educationgenderpovertyeconomic growth“Documents (p.233) and Reports,” World Bank, accessed October 23, 2011, www-wds.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/EXTWDS/0,,detailPagemenuPK:64187510~menuPK:64187513~pagePK:64187848~piPK:64187934~searchPagemenuPK:64187283~siteName:WDS~theSitePK:523679,00.html.

(13.) “World Bank Group Historical Chronology,” World Bank: Chronology, n.d., www.worldbank.org/en/about/archives/history/chronology.

(14.) The UNGEI archives are available online by date, theme, region, or title from 1999–2014. I reviewed all included documents for this period. The UNFPA electronic archive begins in 2000 and includes all documents to the present day, searchable by thematic area, publication type, or title. I selected the thematic categories “gender equality,” “human rights,” “ICPD,” “population,” and “development” and reviewed all available findings. The UNDP website, which does not specify the parameters of its archive by date, offers the option of sorting documents by theme or through an open search. I ran open searches for the following keywords: girls’ education, the girl effect, population and education, girls’ education and fertility, and women’s empowerment. UNESCO offers a database of resources called UNESDOC, although many sources are only accessible in physical form at the organization’s IBE library in Geneva. Others link from UNES-DOC to scholarly journals or the World Bank. I ran both basic and advanced keyword searches for population and women’s empowerment, as each term yielded thousands of results from advanced search options. Finally, UNICEF’s Office of Research offers a basic search by keyword, an advanced search by thematic area, author, or geographic region, as well as the option to browse publications by year (between 1989 and 2014). I used the same keyword search at UNICEF as at UNESCO for all available resources. Lastly, I used documents from the UN Women website that holds documents focused on women from the inception of the CSW in 1944 until the present, including products of the UN Conferences on Women.

(16.) The IBRD is one of the institutions under the World Bank Group.

(18.) Teodor Shanin, “The Idea of Progress,” in The Post-Development Reader, ed. Majid Rahnema and Victoria Bawtree (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1997), 65–71, http://pages.uoregon.edu/aweiss/intl422_522/The%20Idea%20of%20Progress.pdf.

(19.) W. W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth. A Non-Communist Manifesto (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1960), 167.

(20.) Ibid., 29.

(24.) Theodore W. Schultz, “Investment in Human Capital,” American Economic Review 51, no. 1 (May 1961): 1.

(25.) Jerome Karabel and A. H. Halsey, eds., Power and Ideology in Education (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1977), 12.

(28.) Auturo Escobar, Encountering Development: The Making and Unmaking of the Third World (Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1995).

(29.) Ibid., 2.

(30.) Mundy, “Retrospect and Prospect: Education in a Reforming World Bank” Devesh Kapur, John P. Lewis, and Richard Webb, Perspectives (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 1997), http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1997/01/13074578/world-bank-first-half-century-vol-2-2-perspectives.

(31.) World Bank, “World Bank Education Sector Working Paper 1971” (working paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1971), 13, emphasis mine, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/149071468338353096/Education-sector-working-paper.

(33.) Nancy Kendall, “Global Policy in Practice: The ‘Successful Failure’ of Free Primary Education in Malawi” (doctoral dissertation, Stanford University, Palo Alto, Calif., 2004).

(35.) Maria Mies, Patriarchy and Accumulation on a World Scale: Women in the International Division of Labour (London: Zed Books, 1986), ix.

(36.) Geeta Chowdhry, “Engendering Development: Women in Development (WID) in International Development Regimes,” in Feminism/Postmodernism/Development, ed. Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart (London: Routledge, 1995), 30.

(37.) Thank you to Nancy Kendall for this insight.

(38.) “Introducing UNESCO,” UNESCO, accessed June 24, 2014, http://en.unesco.org/about-us/introducing-unesco.

(39.) “United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO),” United Nations in Ethiopia, n.d., accessed August 17, 2017, (p.235) http://et.one.un.org/content/unct/ethiopia/en/home/resources/un-agencies-profiles/united-nations-educational—scientific-and-cultural-organization.html.

(40.) The other mandates of UNESCO were “building intercultural understanding,” “pursuing scientific cooperation,” and “protecting freedom of expression.”

(41.) Karen Mundy, “Educational Multilateralism in a Changing World Order: UNESCO and the Limits of the Possible,” International Journal of Educational Development 19, no. 1 (1999): 28.

(42.) “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights,” United Nations, December 10, 1948, www.un.org/en/universal-declaration-human-rights/index.html.

(43.) “Access of Girls and Women to Education in Rural Areas: A Comparative Study,” UNESCO, 1964, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0000/000013/001322eo.pdf.

(44.) “Short History of the Commission on the Status of Women,” UNCSW, n.d., accessed August 17, 2017, www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/CSW60YRS/CSWbriefhistory.pdf.

(45.) “Access of Women to Out-of-School Education,” UNESCO, accessed April 1, 2016, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001262/126287EB.pdf; UNESCO, “Access of Girls and Women to Education in Rural Areas: A Comparative Study” “Access of Women to the Teaching Profession,” UNESCO, 1961, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0012/001262/126291EB.pdf.

(50.) “World Bank Education Sector Working Paper 1974,” 1 (working paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C.

(51.) World Bank, “World Bank Education Sector Working Paper 1974,” 14–15, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/868961468741007167/Education.

(52.) Ibid., 15.

(55.) “General Conference, 15th Session: International Education Year,” UNESCO, September 12, 1968, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0016/001601/160197eb.pdf.

(56.) Jacqueline Chabaud, The Education and the Advancement of Women (Paris: UNESCO, 1970), preface.

(p.236) (57.) Ibid., 10.

(58.) Ibid., 10.

(59.) Nelly P. Stromquist, “The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes in Africa and Latin America,” in Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment, ed. Christine Heward and Sheila Bunwaree (London: Zed Books, 1998), 17–32; Jane Parpart, “Deconstructing the Development ‘Expert’: Gender, Development and the ‘Vulnerable Groups,’” in Feminism/Postmodernism/Development, ed. Marianne H. Marchand (London: Routledge, 2003), 221–43.

(61.) Diane Elson, “Male Bias in Macro-Economics: The Case of Structural Adjustment,” in Male Bias in the Development Process, ed. Diane Elson, 2nd ed. (Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press, 1995), 164–90.

(62.) Sally Baden, “The Impact of Recession and Structural Adjustment on Women’s Work in Selected Developing Countries” Interdepartmental Project on Equality for Women in Employment, International Labour Office, December 1993, 45, www.bridge.ids.ac.uk/sites/bridge.ids.ac.uk/files/reports/re15c.pdf.

(63.) Commonwealth Secretariat, Women and Structural Adjustment: Selected Case Studies Commissioned for a Commonwealth Group of Experts, (London: Commonwealth Secretariat, 1991); UNICEF, The Invisible Adjustment: Poor Women and the Economic Crisis” (Santiago, Chile: UNICEF, 1989).

(68.) Joseph E. Stiglitz, Globalization and Its Discontents (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2003)Vavrus, Desire and Decline: Schooling amid Crisis in Tanzania

(69.) Paul Streeten et al., “Poverty and Basic Needs” (working paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., September 1, 1980), 3, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1980/09/6454349/poverty-basic-needs.

(73.) Across all of the UN sources, there is a gap between sources from the late 1970s and into the 1980s. Sources begin again in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

(74.) Karl Polanyi, The Great Transformation: The Political and Economic Origins of Our Time (Boston: Beacon Press, 1944).

(75.) George Psacharopoulos and Maureen Woodhall, Education for Development: An Analysis of Investment Choices (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986).

(76.) T. Paul Schultz, “Women and Development: Objectives, Frameworks, and Policy Interventions” (policy research working paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., April 30, 1989), 1, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1989/04/437022/women-development-objectives-frameworks-policy-interventions.

(77.) Ibid., 96.

(78.) Elizabeth M. King, “Does Education Pay in the Labor Market? The Labor Force Participation, Occupation, and Earnings of Peruvian Women. Living Standards Measurement Study Working Paper Number 67” (working paper, World Bank, Washington, D.C., 1990), v, http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/174511468776408219/pdf/multi-page.pdf.

(81.) Lawrence Summers, Investing in All the People (Eighth Annual General Meeting of the Pakistan Society of Development Economists) (Islamabad: World Bank, 1992), 1, www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/1992/05/01/000009265_3961003011714/Rendered/PDF/multi_page.pdf.

(82.) Ibid., 15.

(83.) Ibid., 16.

(85.) Elizabeth M. King and Anne Hill, eds., Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policies (Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 1993), http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/1993/06/440603/womens-education-developing-countries-barriers-benefits-policies.

(86.) John Hobcraft, “Women’s Education, Child Welfare and Child Survival: A Review of the Evidence,” Health Transition Review 3, no. 2 (October 1993): 159–75King and Hill, Women’s Education in Developing Countries: Barriers, Benefits, and Policies

(87.) Sandra D. Lane, “From Population Control to Reproductive Health: An Emerging Policy Agenda,” Social Science & Medicine 39, no. 9 (November 1, 1994): 1303–14.

(p.238) (88.) “Resolution 1838: Population Growth and Economic Development,” United Nations, December 18, 1962, 25, www.un.org/en/ga/search/view_doc.asp?symbol=A/RES/1838(XVII).

(89.) M. Bahati Kuumba, “A Cross-Cultural Race/Class/Gender Critique of Contemporary Population Policy: The Impact of Globalization,” Sociological Forum 14, no. 3 (1999): 447–63.

(90.) Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton, eds., Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender and Health in Neo-Liberal Times (New Delhi: SAGE Publications India, 2010), 6.

(91.) Steven Polgar, “Birth Planning: Between Neglect and Coercion,” in Population and Social Organisations, ed. Moni Nag (The Hague: Mouton Publisher, 1975), 177–202.

(92.) Dorothy E. Roberts, Killing the Black Body: Race, Reproduction, and the Meaning of Liberty, 2nd ed. (New York: Vintage Books, 2017)M. Bahati Kuumba, “A Cross-Cultural Race/Class/Gender Critique of Contemporary Population Policy: The Impact of Globalization.”

(94.) For further discussion of the political economy of reproductive control of racialized women’s bodies from slavery and the birth of capitalism forward, see: Ibid.; M. Bahati Kuumba, “Reproductive Imperialism: Population and Labor of Underdeveloped World Women” (working paper, Women in International Development, Michigan State University, East Lansing, 1996).

(95.) Michelle Murphy, “Economization of Life: Calculative Infrastructures of Population and Economy,” in Relational Architectural Ecologies: Architecture, Nature and Subjectivity, ed. Peg Rawes (London: Routledge, 2013), 140Murphy, Seizing the Means of Reproduction: Entanglements of Feminism, Health, and Technoscience

(98.) Ibid., 144.

(101.) “Family Planning Timeline,” USAID, n.d., accessed August 17, 2017, www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1864/timeline_b.pdf.

(104.) “About Us,” United Nations Population Fund, n.d., accessed August 17, 2017, www.unfpa.org/about-us.

(107.) Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton, eds., Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender and Health in Neo-Liberal Times (New Delhi: SAGE Publications India, 2010). For a discussion of Puerto Rico, see: Laura Briggs, Reproducing Empire: Race, Sex, Science, and US Imperialism in Puerto Rico (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2003).

(108.) World Health Organization, “Eliminating Forced, Coercive and Otherwise Involuntary Sterilization: An Interagency Statement OHCHR, UN Women, UNAIDS, UNDP, UNFPA, UNICEF and WHO” (joint statement, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014), 2, http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/112848/1/9789241507325_eng.pdf.

(112.) “United Nations Conferences on Population,” UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, accessed April 3, 2016, www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/events/conference/index.shtml.

(113.) Geoffrey Gilbert, World Population: A Reference Handbook (Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2005), 68.

(114.) Robert Cassen, Population and Development: Old Debates, New Conclusions (New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers, 1994), ix.

(115.) Sonia Corrêa and Rebecca Lynn Reichmann, Population and Reproductive Rights: Feminist Perspectives from the South (Londony: Zed Books, 1994).

(p.240) (118.) “Population Dynamics and Educational Development: A Selection of Papers Presented at the Seminar,” UNESCO Regional Office for Education in Asia, 1974, 24, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0001/000122/012293eo.pdf.

(119.) Lisa Ann Richey, “Reproductive Health, Family Planning, and HIV/AIDS: Dangers of (Dis)integration in Tanzania and Uganda,” in Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender and Health in Neo-Liberal Times, ed. Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton (New Delhi: SAGE Publications India, 2010), 265–98.

(120.) “Family Planning Timeline” (Population Assistance policy paper, USAID, Washington, D.C., September 1982), www.usaid.gov/sites/default/files/documents/1864/populat.pdf; Kamran Asdar Ali, “Structural Adjustment, Impotence, and Family Planning: Men’s Voices in Egypt,” in Markets and Malthus: Population, Gender and Health in Neo-Liberal Times, ed. Mohan Rao and Sarah Sexton (New Delhi: SAGE Publications India, 2010), 219.

(121.) United Nations International Conference on Population, “Text of Declaration by International Population Conference in Mexico City,” New York Times, August 16, 1984, www.nytimes.com/1984/08/16/world/text-of-declaration-by-international-population-conference-in-mexico-city.html.

(125.) “Part IV: An Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century,” United Nations, April 1983, www.un.org/popin/confcon/poped/part4wp.htm.

(126.) Federico Mayor, “94-09-06: Statement of UNESCO, Mr. Federico Mayor,” United Nations International Conference on Population and Development, 1994, www.un.org/popin/icpd/conference/una/940906194128.html.

(128.) Jan Visser, “Learning without Frontiers—Distance Education for the Nine High-Population Countries,” UNESCO, February 1994, www.unesco.org/education/lwf/doc/de9.html.

(132.) As recently as November 2014, questions of coerced sterilization of poor women in the Indian state of Chhattisgarh continued, see: Babatunde Osotimehin and Melesse Tewodros, “Joint Statement in Response to the Tragic Deaths and Injuries Sustained by Women Undergoing Sterilization in the Indian (p.241) State of Chhattisgarh,” United Nations Population Fund and International Planned Parenthood Federation, November 13, 2014, www.ippf.org/news/Joint-statement-response-tragic-deaths-and-injuries-sustained-women-undergoing-sterilization-In; For a critical discussion on the economic and human rights case for population control policies, see: Gita Sen, Adrienne Germain, and Linda Chen, eds., Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment, and Rights, Harvard Series on Population and International Health (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1994), https://iwhc.org/resources/population-policies-reconsidered-health-empowerment-rights/.

(133.) Ester Boserup, Woman’s Role in Economic Development (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1970); Naila Kabeer, Reversed Realities: Gender Hierarchies in Development Thought (London: Verso, 1994); Christine Heward, “Introduction: The New Discourses of Gender, Education, and Development,” in Gender, Education and Development: Beyond Access to Empowerment, ed. Christine Heward and Sheila Bunwaree (London: Zed Books, 1998), 1–14.

(138.) United Nations Department of Public Information, “The Four Global Women’s Conferences 1975–1995: Historical Perspective,” UN Women, June 2000, www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/followup/session/presskit/hist.htm.

(141.) “Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women,” UN Women, June 30, 2014, www.un.org/womenwatch/daw/cedaw/.

(146.) Ibid., 28.

(147.) Marianne H. Marchand and Jane L. Parpart, eds., Feminism/Postmodernism/Development (London: Routledge, 1995).

(148.) Eva M. Rathgeber, “WID, WAD, GAD: Trends in Research and Practice,” Journal of Developing Areas 24, no. 4 (1990): 489–502.

(155.) “EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/4: Gender and Education for All—The Leap to Equality.” United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, 2003, http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0013/001325/132513e.pdf.

(160.) Elizabeth Boner Helene, “The Making of the ‘Entrepreneur’ in Tanzania: Experimenting with Neo-Liberal Power through Discourses of Partnership, Entrepreneueship, and Participatory Education” (doctoral dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, 2011), http://escholarship.org/uc/item/6cj0p3dh#page-5.

(162.) All interviews were conducted in confidentiality, and the names of interviewees are withheld by mutual agreement. Interview with Nike Foundation official, 2007.

(163.) Interview with official in one of the Nike Foundation partner organizations, 2009.

(164.) I was invited to participate in the World Bank’s Global Symposium on Gender, Education, and Development, a small, closed event at its headquarters in Washington, D.C., in fall 2007, as a graduate student researcher.

(165.) “President Robert B. Zoellick Announces 6 New World Bank Group Commitments on Gender Equality,” World Bank, April 11, 2008, http://go.worldbank.org/S1YV8VKGL0.

(166.) “The World Bank Launches Private-Public Initiative to Empower Adolescent Girls,” World Bank: News & Broadcast, October 10, 2008, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/NEWS/0,,contentMDK:21935449~pagePK:34370~piPK:34424~theSitePK:4607,00.html.

(168.) “CGI Annual Meeting 2008: Multimedia: Global Health—Healthy Transitions for Adolescent Girls,” Clinton Global Initiative (CGI), 2008, accessed August 17, 2017, www.clintonglobalinitiative.org/ourmeetings/2008/meeting_annual_multimedia.asp?Section=OurMeetings.

(p.243) (169.) Amanda Ellis, “Bringing the Private Sector on Board,” accessed August 17, 2017, www.slideshare.net/AlexandraBrunais/world-bank-gender-action-plan-newsletter-spring-2009.

(170.) The members of the Private Sector Leaders Forum included: Boeing International, Carlson, CISCO Systems Inc., Ernst & Young, Goldman Sachs, Grupo Inter-Quimica S. A., Hendrick & Struggles, Husnu Foundation, INSEAD, Nike Foundation, Norfund, McKinsey & Company, Monte Rio Power Corp., PriceWaterhouseCoopers, Shalaknay Law Office, Standard Chartered PLC, SunMedia, Sungjoo International, Unilever, Women Private Equity Fund.

(171.) Family Planning = The Girl Effect Dividend, DFID-UK Department for International Development, July 13, 2013, www.flickr.com/photos/dfid/7561275206/in/album-72157630556042220/.

(172.) Jad Chaaban and Wendy Cunningham, “Measuring the Economic Gain of Investing in Girls: the Girl Effect Dividend,” (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper No. 5753, 2011).

Chapter 3

(1.) “The Other Billanthropy: Doing Good the Clinton Way,” Economist, September 21, 2006, www.economist.com/node/7946259.

(3.) “Rex Tillerson Is Confirmed as Secretary of State amid Record Opposition,” New York Times, February 1, 2017, www.nytimes.com/2017/02/01/us/politics/rex-tillerson-secretary-of-state-confirmed.html?mcubz=0&_r=0.

(5.) “Exxon-Mobil $82B Deal Done after FTC Approval,” CNN Money, November 30, 1999, http://money.cnn.com/1999/11/30/deals/exxonmobil/.

(6.) John Manfreda, “Exxon Mobil Is No Longer the World’s Largest Oil Company,” Business Insider, May 14, 2015, www.businessinsider.com/exxon-mobil-is-no-longer-the-worlds-largest-oil-company-2015-5?r=UK.

(7.) “Learn about the History of ExxonMobil,” ExxonMobil, n.d., accessed October 25, 2017, http://corporate.exxonmobil.com/en/company/about-us/history/overview.

(8.) Michael Watts, “Petro-Violence: Community, Extraction, and Political Ecology of a Mythic Commodity,” in Violent Environments, ed. Nancy L Peluso and Michael Watts (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 2001), 189.

(p.244) (9.) Ibid.

(10.) “ExxonMobil,” Fortune, accessed October 23, 2017, http://fortune.com/fortune500/exxon-mobil/.

(11.) Alan Taylor, “The Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: 25 Years Ago Today,” Atlantic, March 24, 2014, www.theatlantic.com/infocus/2014/03/the-exxon-valdez-oil-spill-25-years-ago-today/100703/.

(12.) Bassey Udo, “Nigeria: Protesters Shut Down ExxonMobil Operations in Eket Over N26.5b Oil Spill Compensation,” Premium Times, October 25, 2013, www.premiumtimesng.com/news/147277-protesters-shut-exxonmobil-operations-eket-n26-5b-oil-spill-compensation.html.

(13.) Lesley Curwen, “Science Climate Conflict Warms Up,” BBC News, April 26, 2007, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/business/6595369.stm.

(14.) Neela Banerjee, Lisa Song, and David Hasemyer, “Exxon’s Own Research Confirmed Fossil Fuels’ Role in Global Warming Decades Ago,” Inside Climate News, September 16, 2015, http://insideclimatenews.org/news/15092015/Exxons-own-research-confirmed-fossil-fuels-role-in-global-warming.

(15.) Justin Gillis and Clifford Krauss, “ExxonMobil Investigated for Possible Climate Change Lies by New York Attorney General,” New York Times, November 5, 2015, www.nytimes.com/2015/11/06/science/exxon-mobil-under-investigation-in-new-york-over-climate-statements.html.

(16.) Kolawole Olaniyan, “Nigeria Oil Judgment a Small Step in the Journey from Travesty to Justice,” Business and Human Rights, Amnesty International, December 29, 2012, www.amnesty.org/en/latest/campaigns/2012/12/nigeria-oil-judgment-a-small-step-in-the-journey-from-travesty-to-justice/.

(17.) “ExxonMobil Lawsuit (re Aceh),” Business and Human Rights Resource Centre, accessed August 25, 2015, http://business-humanrights.org/en/exxonmobil-lawsuit-re-aceh.

(18.) “Women Leaders,” ExxonMobil, accessed March 7, 2008, www.exxonmobil.com/Corporate/news_features_20080306_womenleaders.asp.

(19.) “ExxonMobil Announces New Community Investment Initiative; Programs in Africa, Asia, Middle East, Caspian,” ExxonMobil, July 7, 2005, http://ir.exxonmobil.com/phoenix.zhtml?c=115024&p=irol-newsArticle_pf&ID=727331&highlight=.

(20.) “ExxonMobil—2005 Grants,” ExxonMobil, accessed December 9, 2005, http://exxonmobil.com/Corporate/Citizenship/gcr_women_girls_2005grants.asp; ExxonMobil Foundation Awards $5 Million to Educate Women, Girls in Developing Countries,” Philanthropy News Digest, accessed September 6, 2017, http://philanthropynewsdigest.org/news/exxonmobil-foundation-awards-5-million-to-educate-women-girls-in-developing-countries.

(p.245) (22.) Andrea Newell, “Investing in Women’s Economic Opportunities at Exxon-Mobil: Lorie Jackson,” Triple Pundit: People, Planet, Profit, April 4, 2011, www.triplepundit.com/2011/04/exxonmobil-women-interview-lorie-jackson/.

(23.) “ExxonMobil Launches Technology Program to Support Women’s Economic Advancement at Clinton Global Initiative,” Business Wire, September 23, 2009, www.businesswire.com/news/home/20090923005135/en/ExxonMobil-Launches-Technology-Program-Support-Women%E2%80%99s-Economic.

(25.) See the following reports on Goldman Sachs: “Goldman Sachs 2009 Annual Report,” Goldman Sachs, April 2009, www.goldmansachs.com/investor-relations/financials/archived/annual-reports/2009-complete-annual.pdf; “Financial Highlights,” Goldman Sachs, accessed March 4, 2015, www.goldmansachs.com/our_firm/investor_relations/financial_reports/annual_reports/2005/pdf/Page_IFC_Financ_High.pdf; “Goldman Sachs 2013 Annual Report,” April 2014, www.goldmansachs.com/s/2013annualreport/assets/downloads/GS_AR13_Complete_Fin.pdf; “Goldman Sachs 2011 Annual Report,” Goldman Sachs, accessed October 25, 2017, www.goldmansachs.com/investor-relations/financials/fulfillment/reports/GS_AR11_AllPages.pdf.

(26.) Louise Story and Gretchen Morgenson, “S.E.C. Accuses Goldman of Fraud in Housing Deal,” New York Times, April 16, 2010, www.nytimes.com/2010/04/17/business/17goldman.html.

(27.) “Senate Subcommittee Investigating Financial Crisis Releases Documents on Role of Investment Banks,” Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs: Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, April 24, 2010, www.hsgac.senate.gov/subcommittees/investigations/media/senate-subcommittee-investigating-financial-crisis-releases-documents-on-role-of-investment-banks.

(30.) Matt Taibbi, “The Great American Bubble Machine,” Rolling Stone, April 5, 2010, www.rollingstone.com/politics/news/the-great-american-bubble-machine-20100405.

(31.) Greg Smith, “Why I Am Leaving Goldman Sachs,” New York Times, March 14, 2012, www.nytimes.com/2012/03/14/opinion/why-i-am-leaving-goldman-sachs.html.

(32.) Owen Davis, “Goldman Sachs Improves to ‘Poor’ in Reputation Poll, Still Ranks Dead Last,” International Business Times, February 7, 2015, www.ibtimes.com/goldman-sachs-improves-poor-reputation-poll-still-ranks-dead-last-1808420.

(33.) “Regional Grocer Wegmans Unseats Amazon to Claim Top Corporate Reputation Ranking,” Harris Poll, February 4, 2015, www.theharrispoll.com/business/Regional-Grocer-Wegmans-Unseats-Amazon.html.

(p.246) (34.) Stephanie Strom, “Gift to Teach Business to Third-World Women,” New York Times, March 6, 2008, www.nytimes.com/2008/03/06/us/06gift.html.

(35.) Candida G. Brush et al., “Investing in the Power of Women: Progress Report on the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Women Initiative,” Babson College, September 11, 2014, www.goldmansachs.com/citizenship/10000women/news-and-events/10kw-progress-report/progress-report-full.pdf.

(36.) Sandra Lawson, “Global Economics Paper No. 164: Women Hold Up Half the Sky,” Goldman Sachs, March 4, 2008, 1, www.goldmansachs.com/our-thinking/investing-in-women/bios-pdfs/women-half-sky-pdf.pdf.

(39.) “Goldman Sachs’ Reputation Tarnished,” Financial Times, accessed October 23, 2017, www.ft.com/content/ae3d459a-7f8e-11de-85dc-00144feabdc0?mhq5j=e6.

(40.) Lisa Chiu, “Goldman Sachs Sets New Standard for Strategic Philanthropy,” Deveximpact, June 10, 2013, www.devex.com/news/goldman-sachs-sets-new-standard-for-strategic-philanthropy-81187.

(46.) Ibid., 1.

(48.) Antonio Gramsci, The Gramsci Reader: Selected Writings 1916–1935, ed. David Forgacs (New York: New York University Press, 2000), 323.

(51.) Bob Jessop, “Spatial Fixes, Temporal Fixes, and Spatio-Temporal Fixes,” in David Harvey: A Critical Reader, ed. Noel Castree and Derek Gregory (Oxford: (p.247) Blackwell Publishing, 2006), 142–66, http://bobjessop.org/2014/01/16/spatia-fixes-temporal-fixes-and-spatio-temporal-fixes/.

(52.) Ibid., 147.

(53.) David Harvey, The Condition of Postmodernity: An Enquiry into the Origins of Cultural Change (Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, 1992), 182–83.

(55.) Wal-Mart Stores, Inc. v. Betty Dukes et al., Supreme Court Reporter (Supreme Court of the United States 2011) No. 10-277.

(56.) “Wal-mart Settles Sex Bias Claims, but Class Action Refiled,” Bloomberg BNA, accessed October 23, 2017, www.bna.com/walmart-settles-sex-n73014444958/.

(58.) Penny Abeywardena, “How Walmart Is Reimagining Its Investments to Empower Girls and Women,” Clinton Foundation, April 29, 2014, www.clintonfoundation.org/blog/2014/04/29/how-walmart-reimagining-its-investments-empower-girls-and-women.

(59.) “Walmart Launches Global Women’s Economic Empowerment Initiative,” Walmart, September 14, 2011, http://corporate.walmart.com/_news_/news-archive/2011/09/14/walmart-launches-global-womens-economic-empowerment-initiative.

(60.) “Wal-Mart Class Website,” CohenMilstein, accessed April 4, 2016, www.walmartclass.com/public_home.html.

(63.) Jamie Peck, “Global Policy Models, Globalizing Poverty Management: International Convergence or Fast-Policy Integration?,” Geography Compass 5, no. 4 (April 3, 2011): 165–81, doi:10.1111/j.1749-8198.2011.00417.x.

(64.) Stephen J. Ball, Global Education Inc.: New Policy Networks and the Neoliberal Imaginary (New York: Routledge, 2012), preface.

(66.) Stuart Hall, ed., Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices (London: Sage Publications, 1997).

(67.) For a more complete articulation of poverty as spectacle, see: Kathryn Moeller, “Poverty as Spectacle,” (forthcoming manuscript), consulted October 25, 2017.

(p.248) (68.) Guy Debord, Society of the Spectacle, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (St. Petersburg, Fla.: Red & Black, 1970), 4.

(70.) Ibid.; Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices; Edward W. Said, Orientalism (New York: Pantheon Books, 1978).

(72.) Tiffany Willoughby-Herard, Waste of a White Skin: The Carnegie Corporation and the Racial Logic of White Vulnerability (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015) 3.

(76.) Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying PracticesAnne McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest (New York: Routledge, 1995)Mohanty, “Under Western Eyes: Feminist Scholarship and Colonial Discourses.”

Chapter 4

(1.) “The Girl Effect Media Kit,” Nike Foundation, 2008, accessed November 2, 2009, www.nikefoundation.com/files/[C05.97]The_Girl_Effect_Media_Kit.pdf.

(2.) All translations are my own.

(3.) The funding by the Inter-American Development Bank did not continue through the duration of the NGO program in Rio de Janeiro.

(7.) Girleffect.org, “The Girl Effect: Your Move,” NoVo Foundation, 2012, http://novofoundation.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/07/Girl_Effect_Your_Move.pdf.

(10.) In accordance with the protection of human subjects, all individuals in my study are given pseudonyms.

(11.) Carnaval is an annual holiday in Brazil that occurs before the beginning of the Christian liturgical season of Lent.

(12.) Rani of Sirmur was a widow of the Raja, the prince of the region of Sirmur, who was deposed and banished by the British in the nineteenth century.

(14.) David Valentine, Imagining Transgender: An Ethnography of a Category (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2007).

(15.) Personal e-mail communication with the Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(16.) Michael Omi and Howard Winant, Racial Formation in the United States: From the 1960s to the 1990s, 2nd ed. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

(17.) In Brazil, there are the official racial categories for the census created by the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, including branco (white), pardo (Brown), preto (Black), amarelo (yellow), and indígena (indigenous). Then there are the racial categories through which people identify themselves and their communities, particularly politically and/or based on ancestry, or are identified by others, including Negro (Black), Afro-Brasileiro (Afro-Brazilian), and Moreno (Brown or mixed).

(18.) Francine Twine Winddance, Racism in a Racial Democracy: The Maintenance of White Supremacy in Brazil (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1998).

(19.) Ruth Levine et al., “Girls Count: A Global Investment & Action Agenda,” Center for Global Development, January 14, 2008, http://www.cgdev.org/publication/girls-count-global-investment-action-agenda.

(20.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(21.) The Girl Effect, an exhibit of photos and videos, Mercy Corps Action Center Gallery, Portland, Oregon, November 2010–January 2011.

(22.) Michael Wyness, Childhood and Society: An Introduction to the Sociology of Childhood (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), 117.

(23.) Ibid., 118.

(24.) Alan Prout, The Future of Childhood: Towards the Interdisciplinary Study of Children (London: RoutledgeFalmer, 2005); Philippe Ariès, Centuries of Childhood: A Social History of Family Life (New York: Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 1960).

(25.) Barrie Thorne, Gender Play: Girls and Boys in School (New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 2004).

(p.250) (27.) Leigh Gilmore and Elizabeth Marshall, “Girls in Crisis: Rescue and Transnational Feminist Autobiographical Resistance,” Feminist Studies 36, no. 3 (October 1, 2010): 667–90.

(28.) Catherine Driscoll, Girls: Feminine Adolescence in Popular Culture and Cultural Theory (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002), 6.

(32.) Ibid., 7.

(33.) Stan Emert, “Maria Eitel, Nike Foundation (CGI 2010),” Rainmakers.TV, October 1, 2010, http://rainmakers.tv/maria-eitel-nike-foundation-cgi-2010/.

(34.) “Nike Foundation,” Nike Foundation, n.d., accessed October 15, 2006, www.nikefoundation.com.

(35.) “Adolescent Girls: The Most Powerful Force of Change on the Planet” (internal document, Nike Foundation, Beaverton, Oregon, September 2009).

(39.) Eduardo Bonilla-Silva, Racism without Racists: Color-Blind Racism and the Persistence of Racial Inequality in the United States (Lanham, Md.: Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), 275.

(40.) The End of PovertyJeffrey Sachs, The End of Poverty: Economic Possibilities for Our Time (New York: Penguin Books, 2006).

(42.) “Adolescent Girls in Focus at the World Economic Forum,” World Bank: Gender and Development, February 26, 2009, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTGENDER/0,,contentMDK:22059153~menuPK:336906~pagePK:64020865~piPK:149114~theSitePK:336868,00.html.

(43.) “Gender Action Plan: Gender Equality as Smart Economics,” World Bank, n.d., accessed August 22, 2017, http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/TOPICS/EXTGENDER/0,,contentMDK:21983335~pagePK:210058~piPK:210062~theSitePK:336868,00.html.

(45.) “World Bank Development Report 2012: Gender Equality and Development,” World Bank, 2011, (p.251) https://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWDR2012/Resources/7778105-1299699968583/7786210-1315936222006/Complete-Report.pdf.

(48.) Martin Carnoy et al., “How Schools and Students Respond to School Improvement Programs: The Case of Brazil’s PDE,” Economics of Education Review 27, no. 1 (2008): 22–38; David Plank, The Means of Our Salvation: Public Education in Brazil, 1930–1995 (Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1996); David N. Plank, “The Politics of Basic Education in Brazil,” Comparative Education Review 34, no. 4 (1990): 538–59.

(49.) “Brazilian Universities Take Affirmative Action,” BBC News, accessed March 5, 2016, www.bbc.com/news/business-23862676.

(50.) Lisa Delpit, Other People’s Children: Cultural Conflict in the Classroom, 1st ed. (New York: New Press, 2006).

Chapter 5

(1.) “The Revolution,” Nike Foundation, accessed March 11, 2012, www.girleffect.org/learn/the-revolution.

(2.) Anna Lowenhaupt Tsing, Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2005).

(3.) Ibid., 7.

(4.) “Request for Proposals. She’s an Economic Powerhouse: Economic Empowerment Models for Girls,” Nike Foundation, October 2007, 2.

(5.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017, and September 7, 2017.

(6.) NGO questionnaire documents received in 2009 and 2010.

(7.) Based on personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(8.) Paul Rabinow, French Modern: Norms and Forms of the Social Environment (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1989).

(9.) Thomas S. Popkewitz, ed., Educational Knowledge: Changing Relationships between the State, Civil Society, and the Educational Community (Albany: State University of New York Press, 2000).

(11.) Graham Burchell, Colin Gordon, and Peter Miller, eds., The Foucault Effect: Studies in Governmentality (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991).

(12.) Ibid., 100.

(13.) Michel Foucault, The History of Sexuality, Vol. 1: An Introduction, trans. Robert Hurley (New York: Vintage Books, 1978).

(p.252) (15.) Ibid.

(17.) Susan Brin Hyatt, “From Citizen to Volunteer: Neoliberal Governance and the Erasure of Poverty,” in The New Poverty Studies: The Ethnography of Power, Politics, and Impoverished People in the United States, ed. Judith G. Goode and Jeff Maskovsky (New York: New York University Press, 2001), 205.

(18.) Barbara Cruikshank, The Will to Empower: Democratic Citizens and Other Subjects (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1999).

(20.) Ibid., 4.

(23.) Vavrus, Desire and Decline: Schooling amid Crisis in TanzaniaJohn Knodel and Gavin W. Jones, “Post-Cairo Population Policy: Does Promoting Girls’ Schooling Miss the Mark?,” Population and Development Review 22, no. 4 (1996): 683–702.

(24.) Jennifer Johnson-Hanks, Uncertain Honor: Modern Motherhood in an African Crisis (Chicago: University Of Chicago Press, 2005)Davis, Women, Race, & Class

(25.) Davos Annual Meeting 2009—The Girl Effect on Development, World Economic Forum, 2009, www.youtube.com/watch?v=CQc7NZPjqBA.

(26.) Larry Elliot, “Girls’ Education Goes Prada Courtesy of Anne Hathaway and Christy Turlington,” Guardian, October 7, 2010, www.theguardian.com/global-development/poverty-matters/2010/oct/07/girls-education-hathaway-turlington-agi.

(27.) When I left Brazil in August 2010, the program managers or other Nike Foundation employees had not visited the NGO. The exception was a prior visit by an individual contracted by the Nike Foundation. In October 2010, foundation staffvisited Brazil to meet with the grantees in its portfolio.

(28.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, 2013.

(29.) An example of this is Saartjie Baartman, a Black, Khoekhoe young woman from southern Africa, referred to as “The Hottentot Venus,” who was placed on live exhibition in London and Paris for a period of nine years beginning in 1810. Ellen Samuels, “Examining Millie and Christine McKoy: Where Enslavement and Enfreakment Meet,” Signs 37, no. 1 (2011): 53–81; John Willinsky, Learning (p.253) to Divide the World: Education at Empire’s End (Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998); Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and Signifying Practices; McClintock, Imperial Leather: Race, Gender, and Sexuality in the Colonial Contest.

(30.) Donna M. Goldstein, Laughter Out of Place: Race, Class, Violence, and Sexuality in a Rio Shantytown (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2013).

(31.) I am grateful to Roshank Kheshti for this idea.

(34.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 15, 2013.

Chapter 6

(1.) For further reading look at: Rachel R. Chapman, Family Secrets: Risking Reproduction in Central Mozambique (Nashville: Vanderbilt University Press, 2011); Wanda S. Pillow, Unfit Subjects: Educational Policy and the Teen Mother (New York: RoutledgeFalmer, 2004).

(2.) Victoria Bernal and Inderpal Grewal, “The NGO Form: Feminist Struggles, States, and Neoliberalism,” in Theorizing NGOs: States, Feminisms, and Neoliberalism (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014), 1–18; Tiffany King Lethabo and Ewuare Osayande, “The Filth on Philanthropy: Progressive Philanthropy’s Agenda to Misdirect Social Justice Movements,” in The Revolution Will Not Be Funded: Beyond the Non-Profit Industrial Complex, ed. INCITE! Women of Color against Violence (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2007).

(3.) Lauren Leve, “Failed Development and Rural Revolution in Nepal: Rethinking Subaltern Consciousness and Women’s Empowerment,” in Theorising NGOs: States, Feminisms, and Neoliberalism, ed. Victoria Bernal and Inderpal Grewal (Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 2014), 50–92.

(5.) Timoth Mitchell, “Society, Economy, and the State Effect,” in State/Culture: State-Formation after the Cultural Turn., ed. George Steinmetz (Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press, 1999), 76–97.

(7.) David Adams, Urban Planning and the Development Process (London: Routledge, 1994), 142.

(p.254) (9.) Luzia Maria Heilborn et al., eds., O aprendizado da sexualidade: Reproducao e trajectorias sociais de jovens Brasileiros (Rio de Janeiro: Fiocruz Garamond, 2006).

(10.) Edna Roland, “Direitos reprodutivos e racismo no Brasil,” Estudos Feministas 3, no. 2 (1995): 506–14.

(12.) Nigel Brooke and Mary Witoshynsky, eds., Os 40 anos da Fundação Ford no Brasil. The Ford Foundation’s 40 Years in Brazil (São Paulo: Ford Foundation, 2002), 353, http://docplayer.com.br/32508-Os-40-anos-da-fundacao-ford-no-brasil-the-ford-foundation-s-40-years-in-brazil.html.

(14.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017 and August 31, 2017.

(15.) Aluizio Freire, “Cabral defende aborto contra violência no Rio de Janeiro,” G1, October 24, 2007, http://g1.globo.com/Noticias/Politica/0,,MUL155710-5601,00-CABRAL+DEFENDE+ABORTO+CONTRA+VIOLENCIA+NO+RIO+DE+JANEIRO.html.

(16.) Solução simplista,” Centro Latino-Americano em Sexualidade e Direitos Humanos, October 30, 2007, www.clam.org.br/publique/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?infoid=3395&sid=7.

(21.) When I use the term “developmental death” I am thinking about development through an international development lens.

(22.) Thomas Princen and Matthias Finger, Environmental NGOs in World Politics: Linking the Local and the Global (London: Routledge, 1994).

(23.) Interview with GJO staffmember.

(24.) This information was based on a conversation I had with GJO staffmembers, April 2010.

(p.255) Conclusion

(1.) With a few exceptions, the Nike Foundation phased out NGO partnerships as their grant agreements ended, often after three years, and they did not issue additional rounds of RFPs. The Grassroots Girls Initiative, comprised of a group of organizations committed to working with girls on the ground, including Global Fund for Children, Global Fund for Women, Mama Cash, American Jewish World Service, Firelight Foundation, and EMpower, is a notable exception that has received funding during the duration of the Nike Foundation’s portfolio on adolescent girls.

(2.) The Girl Effect, “The Girl Effect Accelerator,” accessed September 15, 2017, http://girleffectaccelerator.com/.

(3.) Nike Foundation, “Girl Effect Accelerator Culminating Event,” Eventbrite, November 11, 2014, www.eventbrite.com/e/girl-effect-culminating-event-tickets-13367128441?aff=efbneb.

(4.) “The Girl Effect Accelerator provided information on what investment meant in this context: The term patient capital has become synonymous with investing across early stage ventures in emerging markets. Although important, we also believe it is critical to make ‘impatient capital’ available to these same companies. To this end we have launched a 500k working capital fund designed to provide capital in the form of a short-term debt to the ten ventures who participate in the Girl Effect Accelerator. It will play a crucial role in providing the participating ventures with fast acting, low-interest rate, non-collateral tied, and immediately available debt financing. Unreasonable Capital will also be committing to invest into each venture and we are hosting a private investor gathering designed to align our select companies with some of the world’s top performing investment funds and foundations,” Girl Effect Accelerator, accessed September 15, 2017, http://girleffectaccelerator.com/.

(5.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(6.) “Girl Effect,” Girl Effect, accessed August 30, 2017, www.girleffect.org/.

(7.) I received this e-mail from a grantee of the Nike Foundation on January 29, 2016.

(8.) Personal communication with Nike Foundation, August 11, 2017.

(9.) “IRS Form 990PF for Nike Foundation,” Citizenaudit.org, accessed August 30, 2017, http://pdfs.citizenaudit.org/2017_03_PF/93-1159948_990PF_201605.pdf.

(11.) Nike, Inc., “Nike Publishes List of Global Contract Factories in Push for Greater Transparency and Collaboration to Improve Footwear and Apparel Industry Labor Conditions – Press Releases,” CSR Newswire, April 13, 2005, www.csrwire.com/press_releases/24956-Nike-Publishes-List-of-Global-Contract-Factories-in-Push-for-Greater-Transparency-and-Collaboration-to-Improve-Footwear-and-Apparel-Industry-Labor-Conditions.

(p.256) (12.) For example, see the following articles for issues regarding controversies with Nike, Inc.’s labor monitoring practices and accusations of labor abuses in contract factories: “What Did Nike Just Do?,” USAS: Organizing for Student and Worker Power, November 19, 2015, http://usas.org/2015/11/19/what-did-nike-just-do/; Dave Jamieson, “Watchdog Group Kept Out of Nike Supplier’s Factory after Worker Strike, Huffington Post, March 3, 2016, www.huffingtonpost.com/entry/nike-labor-rights-vietnam_us_56d893f2e4b0000de403b7d0.

(13.) Suzanne Bergeron and Stephen Healy, “Beyond the Business Case: A Community Economics Approach to Gender, Development and Social Economy” (draft paper prepared for the UNRISD Conference on Potential and Limits of Social and Solidarity Economy, Geneva, 2013, 6–80.