Building on the case of the Hazaras, this afterword addresses some transversal themes to the whole edited volume. Articulated around the evocation of past injustices and protests against exploitation, Shiism has been the main language of political mobilization among the Hazaras in the last decades. It has been both a tool of resistance against central power in Kabul and of domination within Hazarajat. This process is only one example showing how multiple has been Islam across time and space. Sufism, state-sponsored Shari‘a courts, transnational circulation of knowledge and networks of activists, women’s religiosity are all facets of how Islam has been experienced in Afghanistan. Islam has been a mean to legitimize central power but also a vector of rebellion; it may have been a unifying factor but has also been used to create boundaries between groups.
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