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Phylogenetic Relationships within Heliodinidae and Systematics of Moths Formerly Assigned to Heliodines Stainton (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea)$
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Yu-Feng Hsu, Ronald Carter, and William Hayes

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780520098473

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520098473.001.0001

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Phylogenetic Relationships within Heliodinidae and Systematics of Moths Formerly Assigned to Heliodines Stainton (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutoidea)

Yu-Feng Hsu

Jerry A. Powell

University of California Press

Heliodinidae are a group of lower ditrysian moths defined by five synapomorphies: smooth head scaling; forewing M veins two-branched; ventral branches of apophyses posteriores fused into a medial band; tegumen enormously expanded posteriorly; and pupa with dorsal and lateral bristles. Heliodinids are found on all major continents, inhabiting a wide variety of environments. All heliodinids having primarily orange or red forewings previously were grouped in the genus Heliodines. A cladistic analysis using representatives of six families in Yponomeutoidea as the outgroups and parsimony and character compatibility as the optimality criteria indicates that the moths formerly assigned to Heliodines form a polyphyletic assemblage. Two old generic names are resurrected from synonymy, and three new genera are proposed to ensure monophyly of taxa. The genus Aetole is the best-supported clade, recognized by at least four synapomorphies. Forty-five North and Central American species that were formerly assigned to Heliodines or Embola or are congeneric and described were considered new.

Keywords:   Heliodinidae, ditrysian moths, synapomorphies, heliodinids, Heliodines, Yponomeutoidea, monophyly, Embola

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