This chapter examines the mostly unarmed struggle waged in Cotabato from 1980 until 1986 between the political alliances expressed spatially by the polar positions in Campo Muslim. It discusses the emergence of a new group of well-educated and politically active Islamic clerics called ulama, and evaluates the reactions of urban Muslims to their teachings. The chapter also highlights the emergence of a consolidated Muslim counterelite who publicly challenged the political legitimacy of the datu establishment.
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