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The Culture of SectarianismCommunity, History, and Violence in Nineteenth-Century Ottoman Lebanon$
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Ussama Makdisi

Print publication date: 2000

Print ISBN-13: 9780520218451

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520218451.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 29 July 2021

The Faces of Reform

The Faces of Reform

(p.51) 4 The Faces of Reform
The Culture of Sectarianism
University of California Press

This chapter illustrates how conflicting notions of reform, in an era of Eastern Question politics, undermined the traditional order. It explores the erosion of prereform, nonsectarian politics of notability, and the development of restoration politics, in which rival local elites deployed the language of legitimacy and tradition in an effort to outmaneuver one another following the fall of Bashir Shihab and the reimposition of Ottoman rule in 1840. The chapter notes that in the process and in the context of competing interpretations of the Tanzimat, the presence of European agents, and the political involvement of the Maronite Church, the open-ended struggle unleashed over the relationship between religion and politics inadvertently opened the domain of politics to nonelites.

Keywords:   reform, Eastern Question politics, notability, restoration politics, Bashir Shihab, Ottoman rule, Tanzimat, Maronite Church

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