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At the Dawn of ModernityBiology, Culture, and Material Life in Europe after the Year 1000$
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David Levine

Print publication date: 2001

Print ISBN-13: 9780520220584

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520220584.001.0001

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Living in the Material World

Living in the Material World

(p.189) 3 Living in the Material World
At the Dawn of Modernity

David Levine

University of California Press

The feudal social revolution was the other side of the success of the Gregorian Reformation. In the period around the year 1000, the various grades of dependent cultivators found themselves being incorporated into a single class, although originally, they and their landholdings had been displayed in a range of juridical conditions, stretching from freedom to slavery. The creation of rural lordship had its origins in the transformation of freemen and slaves into serfs and villains. This was the dominant social process of the twelve generations who lived from the rise of the Carolingians through the year 1000. After the year 1000, the specialized development of these manorial units evolved in response to the positive feedback system. The dramatic increase in the role of a money economy did not transform the manor into an exchange economy, but its independent character was shattered as commercial considerations permeated every transaction.

Keywords:   Gregorian Reformation, feudal, social, revolution, lordship

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