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American EmpireRoosevelt's Geographer and the Prelude to Globalization$
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Neil Smith

Print publication date: 2003

Print ISBN-13: 9780520230279

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520230279.001.0001

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“Conditional Conquest”: Geography, Labor, and Exploration in South America

“Conditional Conquest”: Geography, Labor, and Exploration in South America

(p.53) 3 “Conditional Conquest”: Geography, Labor, and Exploration in South America
American Empire

Neil Smith

University of California Press

This chapter studies Bowman's primary explorations that were conducted in South America. It emphasizes that geographical knowledge is a condition of conquest, and that transforms immediate practical questions of resources and environment into manageable scientific and technical problems. It enumerates the conquests made by Bowman, namely the Davisian Andes expedition and the “Yale Expedition to Peru”, where he led a cartographic survey of the Urubamba River valley. The chapter reveals that Bowman recorded and witnessed economic and social evidence of the “shock of modernity”, and that his South American travels changed him. Bowman's construction of the vista of race and class difference and the political economy of the Ratzelian Andes are discussed.

Keywords:   primary explorations, South America, geographical knowledge, conquests, Davisian Andes, Peru, cartographic survey, shock of modernity, political economy

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