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Goddesses and the Divine FeminineA Western Religious History$
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Rosemary Ruether

Print publication date: 2005

Print ISBN-13: 9780520231467

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520231467.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2019. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 17 October 2019



The Meeting of Aztec and Christian Female Symbols in Mexico

(p.190) Seven Tonantzin-Guadalupe
Goddesses and the Divine Feminine

Rosemary Radford Ruether

University of California Press

This chapter examines how female symbols of the divine played out in the violent encounter between the Aztecs and their Spanish conquerors in Mexico in the sixteenth century. Spain sought to repress all the Aztec gods and goddesses in favor of a devotion to the Christian God the Father and his crucified son. Yet the very shock of this meeting and the mixture of the two peoples produced many apparitions of the central female symbol of Spanish Christianity, Mary, most notably in the apparition of Mary as Virgin of Guadalupe. This chapter also explores the extent to which this veneration of Guadalupe represents a syncretism of the Catholic Mary and a pre-Columbian veneration of a Mother Goddess, Tonantzin. It provides a case study of how the Catholic veneration of Mary, with its own roots in ancient Near Eastern goddess worship, was and continues to be a vehicle for the assimilation of goddess worship into Christianity from the conquest period to today.

Keywords:   Mexico, Aztecs, female symbols, female divinity, Christianity, Mary, Virgin of Guadalupe, goddesses, Tonantzin, goddess worship

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