This chapter focuses on the reproductive adaptations of cacti to arid environments to explain the evolution of reproductive mechanisms that allow cacti to endure harsh conditions. It describes the available information on reproductive biology, relating various aspects to the adaptations of cacti to aridity and to the origin and causes of biological variation. Among the Cactaceae, Opuntia spp. are the best examples of reproductive versatility using a wide array of sexual and asexual methods. This reproductive versatility plays an important role in the ecological strategy of adaptation to aridity.
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