“Dual” and “Incomplete” Societies
This chapter describes the social changes in Central and Eastern Europe. “Dual” and “incomplete” societies represented both the dominant traditional characteristics and the new elements of a rather sluggishly modernizing society. Coexistence of the old and new elites under the unquestioned political and social leadership of the old elite was a hallmark of the dual society. The “Jewish question” arose in Austria and to some extent in Bohemia as well. The duality of the society in its upper layers was also clearly visible in the lower strata. The separation of the traditional and the modern, and the beginning of real social change, occurred first in the newly emerging, rapidly growing cities. Central and Eastern Europe might have begun social modernization but, on the eve of World War I, they stood at the beginning of a long, rough historical road toward Western European modernity.
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