Henry Morton Stanley, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazza, Charles Gordon, Jean-Baptiste Marchand, and Hubert Lyautey—five men who became charismatic heroes and exemplars of empire—resonated in their countries after the end of their African careers, and in some cases even, or especially, after their deaths. For most of the five, charisma gave way to celebrity and fame, as they no longer exercised authority in a Weberian sense. Although the five men played comparable roles, there were important differences among them. Marchand alone had no women prominently in his life. The memory of Brazza, a powerful, charismatic outsider implicated in none of the Congo's ethnic and ideological conflicts, could perhaps become a symbol around which the country's divided people could unite.
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