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No There ThereRace, Class, and Political Community in Oakland$
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Chris Rhomberg

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780520236189

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520236189.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 29 June 2022

The Making of a White Middle Class: The Ku Klux Klan and Urban Reform

The Making of a White Middle Class: The Ku Klux Klan and Urban Reform

(p.50) 3 The Making of a White Middle Class: The Ku Klux Klan and Urban Reform
No There There

Chris Rhomberg

University of California Press

This chapter explores the rise of the white Protestant middle-class population and its formation as a group. It argues that the Oakland Klan movement had its greatest impact on the city's majority white population. The rise and fall of the Oakland Klan did not simply occur as an outcome of the interactions between movement and regime, but involved a conjunctural conflict among at least three actors: machine, Klan, and “downtown.” The political mobilization of group identity took shape in an urban social movement led by the Ku Klux Klan. The downtown reformers altered the institutional terrain of Oakland politics. Michael Kelly joined forces with the Klan in a populist electoral alliance against the rising power of the downtown elites. The rise and fall of the Klan movement brought with them the end of popular machine politics and a decline in the salience of ethnicity as a political identity in Oakland.

Keywords:   white Protestant middle-class, Oakland Klan movement, Ku Klux Klan, urban reform, machine politics, downtown, ethnicity

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