Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
The Dark TreeJazz and the Community Arts in Los Angeles$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Steve Isoardi

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780520245914

Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520245914.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 29 May 2022

At the Crossroads

At the Crossroads

The Ark and UGMAA in the 1980s

(p.201) 9 At the Crossroads
The Dark Tree

Steven L. Isoardi

University of California Press

This chapter describes the status of the Underground Musicians and Artists Association (UGMAA) and Pan Afrikan Peoples Arkestra (PAPA) during the 1980s. It explains that the 1980s were an especially difficult time for many residents of South Central Los Angeles and African Americans were three times more likely than whites to fall below the poverty line. The effect of the UGMAA and the Arkestra were the loss of Construction Education and Training Authority (CETA) funding, the Shop, nonprofit status, and the Immanuel United Church of Christ (IUCC). The economic devastation and elimination of arts and music programs within the schools and throughout the city also curtailed the Arkestra's audience and potential recruits.

Keywords:   African Americans, poverty, funding, nonprofit status, schools, arts program, music program

California Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs, and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us.