In order to understand how architecture as a state institution began to construct outward from its initial center, eventually incorporating other knowledge- and object- producing sites in a kenchiku-kai (architectural world), this chapter looks at cultures of discipline, ritual, technique, and material, and cultures of nature. It examines Japan's earthquake problem, the pagodas, and Japanese skepticism. From the perspective of the architecture and engineering faculty at Kōbudaigakkō, the persistence of Japanese belief in the seismic resistance of daiku-work constituted an obstacle to the spread of European architectural and engineering knowledge.
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