This chapter concludes the book, engages in conversation some of the recurrent ideas, suggests a few practical applications of this study, and sounds some unresolved themes. One of the main criticisms leveled at big bands has been that they betray ideals of individualism in jazz and in African American culture. Meanwhile, much of the evidence gathered in this book suggests that jazz musicians are more open to exploration of gender and sexual identity than is commonly believed. The chapter notes that the 1990s may prove to be watershed years in jazz for the groundswell of interest in composition and big bands. The involvement of so many musicians—more than eighty-five big bands in New York alone, most playing original music—suggests that a foundation for the creation of substantial new orchestral jazz repertoire already exists.
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