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Specialization, Speciation, and RadiationThe Evolutionary Biology of Herbivorous Insects$
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Kelley Tilmon

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780520251328

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520251328.001.0001

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Cophylogeny of Figs, Pollinators, Gallers, and Parasitoids

Cophylogeny of Figs, Pollinators, Gallers, and Parasitoids

(p.225) Seventeen Cophylogeny of Figs, Pollinators, Gallers, and Parasitoids
Specialization, Speciation, and Radiation

Summer I. Silvieus

Wendy L. Clement

George D. Weiblen

University of California Press

Plant–insect cophylogeny has been investigated across a range of ecological conditions including herbivory, mutualism, and seed parasitism. It has been argued from phylogeny that non-pollinating seed gallers are less closely cospeciated with figs than pollinators sharing the same hosts. It is not known if the same is true for fig wasp parasitoids. This chapter compares patterns of diversification in figs (Ficus subgenus Sycomorus) and three fig-associated insect lineages: pollinating fig wasps, non-pollinating seed gallers, and their parasitoids. Molecular phylogenies of each participant in this tritrophic interaction can illuminate histories of ancient association ranging from codivergence to host switching. This chapter distinguishes cospeciation from coevolution and discusses sampling and DNA sequencing, phylogenetic analysis, reconciliation analysis, phylogenies of figs and wasps, host specificity of non-pollinating fig wasps, and double dating of figs and fig wasps.

Keywords:   cophylogeny, figs, pollinators, parasitoids, fig wasps, cospeciation, coevolution, host specificity, phylogeny, diversification

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