Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
California GrasslandsEcology and Management$

Mark Stromberg

Print publication date: 2007

Print ISBN-13: 9780520252202

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520252202.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2022. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use. Subscriber: null; date: 16 May 2022

(p.322) (p.323) References

(p.322) (p.323) References

Source:
California Grasslands
Publisher:
University of California Press

Bibliography references:

ABAG. 1995. Manual of standards for erosion and sediment control measures. Association of Bay Area Governments, Oakland, CA.

aber, J., R. P. Neilson, S. McNulty, J. M. Lenihan, D. Bachelet and R. J. Drapek. 2001. Forest processes and global environmental change: Predicting the effects of individual and multiple stressors. Bioscience 51:735–751.

Adam, D. P. 1988. Palynology of two upper Quaternary cores from Clear Lake, Lake County, California. USGS Professional Paper 1363. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

Adam, D. P., A. M. Sarna-Wojcicki, H. J. Rieck, J. P. Bradbury, W. E. Dean and R. M. Forester. 1989. Tulelake, California: The last 3 million years. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoe-cology 72:89–103.

Adam, D. P., J. D. Sims and C. K. Throckmorton. 1981. 130,000-yr. continuous pollen record from Clear Lake, Lake County, California. Geology 9(8):373–377.

Adam, D. P. and G. L. Vagenas. 1990. Pollen data for a 3-m.y. core record from Tulelake, Siskiyou County, California. USGS Open-File Report 90–65. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

Adams, J. S. and T. O. McShane. 1996. The myth of wild Africa. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Adams, T. E., P. B. Sands, W. H. Weitkamp, N. K. McDougald and J. Bartolome. 1987. Enemies of white oak regeneration in California. Pages 459–462 in T. R. Plumb and N. H. Pillsbury, editors. Proceedings of the symposium on multiple-use management of California’s hardwood resources, November 12–14, 1986, San Luis Obispo, California. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-100. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Adams, T. E., P. B. Sands, W. H. Weitkamp and M. E. Stanley. 1997. Oak seedling establishment by artificial regeneration on California rangelands. Pages 213–222 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban interface issues, March 19–22, 1996, San Luis Obispo, California. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Adams, T. E. and W. H. Weitkamp. 1992. Gophers love oaks—to death. California Agriculture 46:27–29.

Adams, W. T. and R. W. Allard. 1982. Mating system variation in Festuca microstachys. Evolution 36:591–595.

Adovasio, J. M. 1974. Prehistoric North American basketry. Pages 98–148 in D. R. Tuohy and D. L. Rendall, editors. Collected Papers on Aboriginal Basketry. Anthropological Papers No. 16. Nevada State Museum, Carson City.

Ahmed, E. O. 1983. Fire ecology of Stipa pulchra on California annual grassland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Aiken, S. G., M. J. Dallwitz, C. L. McJannet and L. L. Consaul. 2005. Festuca of North America: descriptions, illustrations, identification, and information retrieval. http://delta-intkey.com/festuca/www/arun.htm (accessed March 26, 2007).

Air Resources Board. 1995. Atmospheric deposition to agricultural soil. Research Note No. 95–17. Air Resources Board, Sacramento, CA.

Akersten, W., T. M. Foppe and G. T. Jefferson. 1988. New sources of dietary data for extinct herbivores. Quaternary Research 30:92–97.

Alexander, J. M. and C. M. D’Antonio. 2003a. Control methods for the removal of French and Scotch broom tested in coastal California. Ecological Restoration 21:191–198.

——. 2003b. Seed bank dynamics of French broom in coastal California grasslands: Effects of stand age and prescribed burning on control and restoration. Restoration Ecology 11:185–197.

Allan, C. J. and P. J. Holst. 1996. The ecological role of the goat in maintaining pasture and range. Pages 427–435 in Proceedings of the VI international conference on goats, May 6–11, China, Vol. 1. International Academic Publishers, Beijing.

Allard, R. W. 1996. Genetic basis of the evolution of adaptedness in plants. Euphytica 92:1–11.

Allard, R. W. and J. Adams. 1969. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinating species. XII. Intergenotypic competition and population structure in barley and wheat. American Naturalist 103:621–645.

(p.324) Allard, R. W., G. R. Babbel, M. T. Clegg and A. L. Kahler. 1972. Evidence for coadaptation in Avena barbata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 69:3043–3048.

Allard, R. W. and S. K. Jain. 1962. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. II. Analysis of quantitative genetic changes in a bulk-hybrid population of barley. Evolution 16:90–101.

Allard, R. W., S. K. Jain and P. L. Workman. 1968. The genetics of inbreeding populations. Advances in Genetics 14:55–131.

Allard, R. W. and L. W. Kannenberg. 1968. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. XI. Genetic divergence among members of the Festuca microstachys complex. Evolution 22:517–528.

Allen, A. G., S. C. Jarvis and D. M. Headon. 1996. Nitrous oxide emissions from soils due to inputs of nitrogen from excreta return by livestock on grazed grassland in the UK. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 28:597–607.

Allen, E. B. 1995. Restoration ecology: limits and possibilities in arid and semiarid lands. Pages 7–15 in B. A. Roundy, editor. Proceedings, wildland shrub and arid land restoration symposium, Las Vegas, N V, October 19–21, 1993. General Technical Report INT-GTR-315. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Allen, E. B., M. F. Allen, D. J. Helm, J. M. Trappe, R. Molina and E. Rincon. 1995. Patterns and regulation of mycorrhizal plant and fungal diversity. Pages 47–62 in H. P. Collins, G. P. Robertson, and M. J. Klug, editors. The significance and regulation of soil biodiversity. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Allen, E. B. and J. A. MacMahon. 1985. Impact of disturbance of cold desert fungi: Comparative microscale dispersion patterns. Pedobiologica 28:215–224.

Allen, E. B., P. E. Padgett, A. Bytnerowicz and R. A. Minnich. 1998. Nitrogen deposition effects on coastal sage vegetation of southern California. Pages 131–140 in Proceedings of the international symposium on air pollution and climate change effects on forest ecosytems, February 5–9, 1996, Riverside, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-166, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Allen, M. F., D. A. Jasper and J. C. Zak. 2002. Micro-organisms. Pages 257–278 in M. R. Perrow and A. J. Davy, editors. Handbook of ecological restoration. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York.

Allen-Diaz, B. and J. W. Bartolome. 1998. Sagebrush-grass vegetation dynamics: Comparing classical and state-transition models. Ecological Applications 8:795–804.

Allen-Diaz, B. H., J. W. Bartolome and M. P. McClaran. 1997. California oak savanna. Pages 322–339 in J. M. Baskin, editor. Savanna, barren and rock outcrop plant communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Allen-Diaz, B. and R. D. Jackson. 2000. Grazing effects on spring ecosystem vegetation of California’s hardwood rangelands. Journal of Range Management 53:215–220.

Allen-Diaz, B., R. D. Jackson, J. W. Bartolome, K. W. Tate, and L. G. Oates. 2004. Long-term grazing study in spring-fed wetlands reveals management tradeoffs. California Agriculture 58(3):144–148.

Allen-Diaz, B., R. D. Jackson, and J. S. Fehmi. 1998. Detecting channel morphology change in California’s hardwood range-land spring ecosystems. Journal of Range Management 51:514–518.

Alpert, P. and J. L. Maron. 2000. Carbon addition as a coun-termeasure against biological invasion by plants. Biological Invasions 2:33–40.

Alroy, J. 2001. A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction. Science 292:1893–1896.

AMEC Earth and Environmental Inc. 2005. Los Peñasquitos watershed management plan. City of San Diego, San Diego, CA.

Amme, D. 2003. The native grass Sierra seed zone program: A progress report. Grasslands 13:9–12.

Amor, R. L. 1974. Ecology and control of blackberry (Rubus fruticosus L. Agg). 2. Reproduction. Weed Research 14:231–238.

Amundson, R. 2001. The carbon budget in soils. Annual Review of Earth and Planetary Sciences 29:535–562.

Anderson, B. 1989a. Beginnings of agriculture in the Salinas Valley 1770–1849. Coastal Grower (Winter 1989):32.

——. 1989b. Salinas Valley agriculture 1850–1885. Coastal Grower (Spring 1989):38.

——. 1989c. Salinas Valley agriculture 1885–1919. Coastal Grower (Summer 1989):29.

Anderson, E. 1984. Who’s who in the Pleistocene: A mammalian bestiary. Pages 40–89 in P. S. Martin and R.G. Klein, editors. Quaternary extinctions. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Anderson, H. D. 1982. Aids to determining fuel models for estimating fire behavior. General Technical Report INT-GTR-122. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Anderson, J. H., and J. L. Anderson. 1996. Establishing permanent grassland habitat with California native perennial grasses. Valley Habitats 14. Ducks Unlimited, Western Regional Office, Rancho Cordova, CA.

Anderson, M. K. 1993a. Indian fire-based management in the sequoia–mixed conifer forests of the central and southern Sierra Nevada. Cooperative Agreement Order No. 8027–002. Yosemite Research Center, U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service. Western Region, Yosemite National Park.

——. 1993b. The experimental approach to assessment of the potential ecological effects of horticultural practices by indigenous peoples on California wildlands. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

——. 1996. The ethnobotany of deergrass, Muhlenbergia rigens (Poaceae): Its uses and fire management by California Indian tribes. Economic Botany 50:409–422.

——. 2005. Tending the wild: Native American knowledge and the management of California’s natural resources. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 2006. The use of fire by Native Americans in California. Pages 417–430 in N. G. Sugihara, J. W. van Wagtendonk, J. Fites-Kaufman, K. E. Shaffer, and A. E. Thode, editors. Fire in California’s ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Anderson, S. J., and C. P. Stone. 1993. Snaring to control feral pigs Sus scrofa in a remote Hawaii rain forest. Biological Conservation 63:195–201.

Andrews, P. L. 1986. BEHAVE: fire behavior prediction and fuel modeling system—BURN subsystem, part 1. General Technical Report INT-GTR-194. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Anger, M., C. Hoffmann, and K. Uhbauch W. 2003. Nitrous oxide emissions from artificial urine patches applied to different N-fertilized swards and estimated annual N2O emissions for differently fertilized pastures in an upland location in Germany. Soil Use & Management 19:104–111.

(p.325) Aplet, G. H., S. J. Anderson, and C. P. Stone. 1991. Association between feral pig disturbance and the composition of some alien plant assemblages in Hawaii Volcanoes National Park. Vegetatio 95:55–62.

Arguello, L. A. 1994. Effects of prescribed burning on two perennial bunchgrasses in the Bald Hill of Redwood National Park. Master’s thesis, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Arizona-Sonora Desert Museum. n.d. Onionweed (Asphodelus fistulosus).http://www.desertmuseum.org/invaders/invaders_onionweed.htm (accessed March 26, 2007).

Armstrong, J., and L. F. Huenneke. 1992. Spatial and temporal variation in species composition in California grasslands: The interaction of drought and substratum. Pages 207–212 in A. J. M. Baker, J. Proctor, and R. D. Reeves, editors. The vegetation of ultramafic (serpentine) soils. Intercept, Ltd., Andover, UK.

Arno, S. F. and G. E. Gruell. 1986. Douglas-fir encroachment into mountain grasslands in southwestern Montana. Journal of Range Management 39:272–276.

Aschmann, H. 1977. Aboriginal use of fire. Pages 132–141 in H. A. Mooney, and C. E. Conrad, editors. Symposium on environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems, August 1–5, 1977, Palo Alto, CA. General Technical Report WO-3. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Aslam, T., M. A. Choudhary, and S. Saggar. 1999. Tillage impacts on soil microbial biomass C, N, and P, earthworms and agronomy after two years of cropping following permanent pasture in New Zealand. Soil and Tillage Research 51:103–111.

Augustine, D. J., and S. J. McNaughton. 1998. Ungulate effects on the functional species composition of plant communities: Herbivore selectivity and plant tolerance. Journal of Wildlife Management 62:1165–1183.

Austin, A. T., and L. Vivanco. 2006. Plant litter decomposition in a semi-arid ecosystem controlled by photodegradation. Nature 442:555–558.

Averett, J. M., R. A. Klips, L. E. Nave, S. D. Frey, and P. S. Curtis. 2004. Effects of soil carbon amendment on nitrogen availability and plant growth in an experimental tallgrass prairie restoration. Restoration Ecology 12:568–574.

Axelrod, D. I. 1944. The Oakdale flora. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 553:147–166.

——. 1985. Rise of the grassland biome, central North America. Botanical Review 51:163–201.

Azevedo, J., and D. L. Morgan. 1974. Fog precipitation in coastal California forests. Ecology 55:1135–1141.

Bachelet, D., R. P. Neilson, J. M. Lenihan, and R. J. Drapek. 2001. Climate change effects on vegetation distribution and carbon budget in the United States. Ecosystems 4:164–185.

Bailey, R. G. 1995. Description of the ecoregions of the United States. 2nd edition. Miscellaneous Publication 1391. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Bakeman, M. E., and T. Nimlos. 1985. The genesis of Mollisols under Douglas-fir. Soil Science 140:449–452.

Baker, A. J. M., J. Proctor, and R. D. Reeves. 1992. The vegetation of ultramafic (serpentine) soils. Intercept Ltd., Andover, UK.

Baker, H. G. 1989. Sources of the naturalized grasses and herbs in California grasslands. Pages 29–38 in L. F. Huenneke, and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Baker, H. G. and G. L. Stebbins. 1965. The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press, New York.

Baker, M. A. 1981. The ethnobotany of the Yurok, Tolowa and Karok Indians of northwest California. M.A. thesis, Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Baker, W. L. 1994. Restoration of landscape structure altered by fire suppression. Conservation Biology 8:763–769.

Balciunas, J. D., and B. Villegas. 1999. Two new seed head flies attack yellow starthistle. California Agriculture 53:8–11.

Balmford, A., A. Bruner, P. Cooper, R. Costanza, S. Farber, R. E. Green, M. Jenkins, P. Jeffriss, V. Jessamy, J. Madden, K. Munro, N. Myers, S. Naeem, J. Paavola, M. Rayment, S. Rosendo, J. Roughgarden, K. Trumper, and R. K. Turner. 2002. Economic reasons for conserving wild nature. Science 297:950–953.

Balser, T. C., and M. K. Firestone. 2005. Linking microbial community composition and soil processes in a California annual grassland and mixed-conifer forest. Biogeochemistry 73:395–415.

Barbour, M., A. Solomeshch, C. Witham, R. Holland, R. Macdonald, S. Cilliers, J. A. Molina, J. Buck, and J. Hillman. 2003. Vernal pool vegetation of California: variation within pools. Madroño 50:129–146.

Barbour, M. G., J. H. Burk, W. D. Pitts, F. S. Gilliam, and M. W. Schwartz. 1999. Terrestrial plant ecology, 3rd edition. Addison Wesley Longman, New York.

Barbour, M. G., and N. L. Christensen. 1993. Vegetation. Pages 97–131 in Flora of North America north of Mexico, Vol. 1. Oxford University Press, New York.

Barbour, M. G., and J. Major, editors. 1977. Terrestrial vegetation of California. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Barkworth, M. E., K. M. Capels, S. Long, and M. B. Piep.2006. Grass manual on the Web. http://herbarium.usu.edu/webmanual/default.htm.

Barr, C. M. 2004. Hybridization and regional sex ratios in Nemophila menziesii. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 17:786–794.

Barrett, R. H. 1978. The feral hog in Dye Creek Ranch, California. Hilgardia 46:281–355.

——. 1993. Feral swine: the California experience. Pages 107–116 in C. W. Hanselka, and J. F. Cadenhead, editors. Feral swine: a compendium for resource managers. Proceedings of a conference. Texas Agricultural Extension Service, San Angelo.

Barrett, R. H., B. L. Goatcher, P. J. Gogan, and E. L. Fitzhugh. 1988. Removing feral pigs from Annadel State Park. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 24:47–52.

Barrett, S. A. 1910. The material culture of the Klamath Lake and Modoc Indians of northeastern California and southern Oregon. University of California Publications in American Archeology and Ethnology 5(4):239–292.

——. 1952. Material aspects of Pomo culture. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 20:1–260.

Barrett, S. A., and E. W. Gifford. 1933. Miwok material culture. Bulletin of the Public Museum of the City of Milwaukee 2:117–376.

Barrows, D. P. 1967. Ethnobotany of the Coahuilla Indians. Malki Museum Press, Morongo Indian Reservation, Banning, CA.

Barry, S. J. 1998. Managing the Sacramento Valley vernal pool landscape to sustain native flora. Pages 236–240 in E. T. Witham, C. W. Bauder, D. Belk, and W. R. Ferren Jr., editors. Ecology, conservation, and management of vernal pool ecosystems: Proceedings of a 1996 conference. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA.

(p.326) ——. 2005. Public agency land use in the San Francisco Bay Area. Report of Bay Area Natural Resources and Livestock Advisor, University of California Cooperative Extension, Davis, CA.

Barry, S. J., and L. Huntsinger. 2002. Will California’s landscapes keep working? Rangelands 24:6–10.

Barry, S. J., R. E. Larsen, G. A. Nader, M. Doran, K. Guenther, and G. Hayes. 2006. Understanding livestock grazing impacts: strategies for the California annual grassland and oak woodland vegetation series. Publication 21626, University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland.

Barry, W. J. 1972. The Central Valley Prairie. Vol. 1. California Prairie Ecosystem. California State Parks and Recreation Department, Sacramento.

Bartholomew, B. 1970. Bare zone between California shrub and grassland communities: Role of animals. Science 170:1210–1212.

Bartlett, E. T., R. G. Taylor, J. R. McKean, and J. G. Hof. 1989. Motivation of Colorado ranchers with federal grazing allotments. Journal of Range Management 42:454–457.

Bartolome, J. W. 1976. Early rains alter range forage. California Agriculture 30:14–15.

——. 1979. Germination and seedling establishment in California annual grassland. Journal of Ecology 67:273–281.

——. 1987. California annual grassland and oak savannah. Rangelands 9:122–125.

——. 1989. Local temporal and spatial structure. Pages 73–80 in L. F. Huenneke, and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academics, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

——. 1993. Application of herbivore optimization theory to rangelands of the western United States. Ecological Applications 3:27–29.

Bartolome, J. W., B. H. Allen-Diaz, and W. D. Tietje. 1994. The effect of Quercus douglasii removal on understory yield and composition. Journal of Range Management 47:151–154.

Bartolome, J. W., W. J. Barry, T. Griggs, and P. Hopkinson. In press. Valley grassland. In M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. 3rd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Bartolome, J. W., J. S. Fehmi, R. D. Jackson, and B. Allen-Diaz. 2004. Response of a native perennial grass stand to disturbance in California’s Coast Range grassland. Restoration Ecology 12:279–289.

Bartolome, J. W., W. E. Frost, N. K. McDougald, and J. M. Connor. 2002. California guidelines for Residual Dry Matter (RDM) management on coastal and foothill annual rangelands. Rangeland Management Series 8092. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Oakland.

Bartolome, J. W., and B. Gemmill. 1981. The ecological status of Stipa pulchra (Poaceae) in California. Madroño 28:172–184.

Bartolome, J. W., R. D. Jackson, A. D. K. Betts, J. M. Connor, G. A. Nader, and K. W. Tate. In press. Residual dry matter effects on net primary production and plant functional groups in California annual grassland. Grass and Forage Science.

Bartolome, J. W., S. E. Klukkert, and W. J. Barry. 1986. Opal phytoliths as evidence for displacement of native California grassland. Madroño 33:217–222.

Bartolome, J. W., and M. P. McClaran. 1992. Composition and production of California oak savanna seasonally grazed by sheep. Journal of Range Management 45:103–107.

Bartolome, J. W., M. C. Stroud, and H. F. Heady. 1980. Influence of natural mulch on forage production on differing California annual range sites. Journal of Range Management 33:4–8.

Baskin, C. C., and J. M. Baskin. 1998. Seeds: Ecology, biogeography, and evolution of dormancy and germination. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Bates, C. D. 1982. Coiled basketry of the Sierra Miwok: A study of regional variation. San Diego Museum Papers San Diego Museum of Man, San Diego, CA.

Batten, K. M. 2004. Plant invasion and the soil microbial community: Interactions and implications for native plant performance. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Batten, K. M., K. M. Scow, K. F. Davies, and S. P. Harrison. 2006a. Two invasive plants alter soil microbial community composition in serpentine grasslands. Biological Invasions 8:217–230.

Batten, K. M., J. Six, K. M. Scow, and M. C. Rillig. 2006b. Plant invasion of native grassland on serpentine soils has no major effects upon selected physical and biological properties. Soil Biology and Biogeochemistry 37:2277–2282.

Batzli, G. O., and F. A. Pitelka. 1970. Influence of meadow mouse populations on California grassland. Ecology 51:1027–1039.

Bauer, A., and A. L. Black. 1994. Quantification of the effect of soil organic matter content on soil productivity. Soil Science Society America Journal 58:185–193.

Bazilchuk, N. 2006. Skyscraper habitats. Conservation in Practice 7:38–39.

Bazzaz, F. A. 1990. The response of natural ecosystems to the rising global CO2 levels. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:167–196.

Bean, L. J., and K. S. Saubel. 1972. Temalpakh: Cahuilla Indian knowledge and usage of plants. Malki Museum Press, Morongo Indian Reservation, Banning, CA.

Bean, M. J., J. P. Jenny, and B. van Eerden. 2001. Safe harbor agreements: Carving out a new role for NGOs. Conservation 2:8–16.

Beard, Y. S. 1979. The Wappo: A report. Malki Museum Press, Morongo Indian Reservation, Banning, CA.

Beattie, A. J. 1989. The effects of ants on grasslands. Pages 105–116 in L. F. Huenneke, and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Beetle, A. A. 1947. Distribution of the native grasses of California. Hilgardia 17:309–357.

Beever, E. A., and P. F. Brussard. 2000. Examining the ecological consequences of feral horses using exclosures. Western North American Naturalist 60:236–254.

Beever, E. A., R. J. Tausch, and P. F. Brussard. 2003. Characterizing grazing disturbance in semiarid ecosystems across broad scales, using diverse indices. Ecological Applications 13:119–136.

Begg, E. L. 1968. Soil survey of Glenn County, California. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Begon, M., J. L. Harper, and C. R. Townsend. 1996. Ecology: Individuals, populations, and communities. 3rd edition. Blackwell Science, Oxford, UK.

Belcher, J. W., P. A. Keddy, and L. Twolan-Strutt. 1995. Root and shoot competition intensity along a soil depth gradient. Journal of Ecology 83:673–682.

(p.327) Belcher, J. W., and S. D. Wilson. 1989. Leafy spurge and species composition of a mixed-grass prairie. Journal of Range Management 42:172–175.

Belkovsky, G. E., and A. Joern. 1995. The dominance of different regulating factors for rangeland grasshoppers. Pages 359–386 in N. Cappuccino, and P. W. Price, editors. Population dynamics: New approaches and synthesis. Academic Press, New York.

Belkovsky, G. E., and J. B. Slade. 1993. The role of vertebrate and invertebrate predators in a grasshopper community. Oikos 68:193–201.

——. 1995. Dynamics of two Montana grasshopper populations: Relationships among weather, food abundance and intraspecific competition. Oecologia 101:383–396.

——. 2000. Insect herbivory accelerates nutrient cycling and increases plant production. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 97:14412–14417.

Bell, S. S., E. D. McCoy, and H. R. Mushinsky. 1991. Habitat structure: The physical arrangement of objects in space. Chapman and Hall, London.

Belsky, A. J. 1986. Does herbivory benefit plants? A review of the evidence. American Naturalist 127:870–892.

Belsky, A. J., and J. L. Gelbard. 2000. Livestock grazing and weed invasions in the arid West. Oregon Natural Desert Association, Bend, OR.

Belsky, A. J., A. Matzke, and S. Uselman. 1999. Survey of livestock influences on stream and riparian ecosystems in the western United States. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 54:419–431.

Bendell, J. F. 1974. Effects of fire on birds and mammals. Pages 73–137 in T. T. Kozlowski, and C. E. Ahlgren, editors. Fire and ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Benefield, C. B., J. M. DiTomaso, G. B. Kyser, S. B. Orloff, K. R. Churches, D. B. Marcum, and G. A. Nader. 1999. Success of mowing to control yellow starthistle depends on timing and plant’s branching form. California Agriculture 53:17–21.

Benson, L. V., D. R. Currey, R. I. Dorn, K. R. Lajoie, C. G. Oviatt, S. W. Robinson, G. I. Smith, and S. Stine. 1990. Chronology of expansion and contraction of four Great Basin lake systems during the past 35,000 years. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoecology 78:241–286.

Bentham, G. 1881. Notes on Gramineae. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 19:14–134.

Bentley, J. R., and R. L. Fenner. 1958. Soil temperatures during burning related postfire seedbeds on woodland range. Journal of Forestry 56:737–740.

Bentley, J. R., and L. R. Green. 1954. Stimulation of native clovers through application of sulfur on California foothill range. Journal of Range Management 7:25–30.

Bentley, J. R., L. R. Green, et al. 1958. Herbage production and grazing capacity on annual-plant range pastures fertilized with sulfur. Journal of Range Management 11:133–140.

Bentley, J. R., and M. W. Talbot. 1948. Annual-plant vegetation of the California foothills as related to range management. Ecology 29:72–79.

Berg, A. W. 1990a. Formation of mima mounds: a seismic hypothesis. Geology 18:281–284.

——. 1990b. Reply on “Formation of mima mounds: a seismic hypothesis.” Geology 18:1260–1261.

Berg, N. 1986. Snow chemistry in the central Sierra-Nevada, California. Water, Air, & Soil Pollution 30:1015–1021.

Bernhardt, E. A., and T. J. Swiecki. 1997. Effects of cultural inputs on survival and growth of direct seeded and naturally occurring valley oak seedlings on hardwood rangeland. Pages 310–311 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban interface issues 1997. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Betancourt, J. L., T. R. Van Devender, and P. S. Martin. 1990. Fossil packrat middens: The last 40,000 years of biotic change. University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Betterini, I., F. P. Vaccari, and F. Miglietta. 1998. Elevated CO2 concentrations and stomatal density: Observations from 17 plant species growing in a CO2 spring in central Italy. Global Change Biology 4:17–22.

Betts A. D. K. 2003. Ecology and control of goatgrass (Aegilops triuncialis) and medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) in California annual grasslands. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Bicknell, S. H., A. T. Austin, D. J. Bigg, and R. P. Godar. 1992. Late prehistoric vegetation patterns at six sites in coastal California. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 73 Supplement:112 (abstract).

Biswell, H. H. 1953. The brush control problem in California. Journal of Range Management 7(2):57–62.

——. 1956. Ecology of California grasslands. Journal of Range Management 9:19–24.

——. 1967. The use of fire in wildland management in California. Pages 71–86 in S. V. Ciriacy-Wantrup, and J. J. Parsons, eds. Natural Resources, Quality and Quantity. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 1989. Prescribed burning in California wildlands vegetation management. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Biswell, H. H., and C. A. Graham. 1956. Plant counts and seed production on California annual-type ranges. Journal of Range Management 9:116–118.

Biswell, H. H., R. D. Taber, D. W. Hendrick, and A. M. Schultz. 1952. Management of chamise brushlands in the North Coast Region of California. California Fish and Game 38:453–484.

Black, T. A., and D. R. Montgomery. 1991. Sediment transport by burrowing mammals, Marin County, California. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 16:163–172.

Blackburn, T. C., and K. Anderson, editors. 1993. Before the wilderness: Environmental management by native Californians. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Blanchard, C. L., and K. A. Tonneson. 1993. Precipitation chemistry measurements from the California Acid Deposition Monitoring Program, 1985–1990. Atmospheric Environment 27A:1755–1763.

Blattner, F. R. 2006. Multiple intercontinental dispersals shaped the distribution area of Hordeum (Poaceae). New Phytologist 169:603–614.

Bliss, S. A., and P. H. Zedler. 1998. The germination process in vernal pools: Sensitivity to environmental conditions and effects on community structure. Oecologia 113:67–73.

BLM. 2005. Working together for healthy lands and thriving communities. 2004 annual report. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, DC.http://www.blm.gov/nhp/info/stratplan/BLMarFY04.pdf.

(p.328) ——. 2006. Public Lands Statistics 2005. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C. http://www.blm.gov/natacq/pls05/.

Bloom, A. J., F. S. Chapin, III, and H. A. Mooney. 1985. Resource limitation in plants: An economic analogy. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 16:363–392.

Bloom, M. G., editor. 1958. The Hazelton letters: a contribution to western Americana. California History Foundation, Stockton.

Blumenthal, D. M., N. R. Jordan, and M. P. Russelle. 2003. Soil carbon addition controls weeds and facilitates prairie restoration. Ecological Applications 13:605–615.

Blumler, M. A. 1992. Some myths about California grasslands and grazers. Fremontia 20:22–27.

——. 1995. Invasion and transformation of California’s valley grassland, a Mediterranean analogue ecosystem. Pages 308–332 in R. A. Butlin and N. Roberts, editors. Ecological relations in historical times: Human impact and adaptation. Blackwell, Cambridge, MA.

Bocek, B. R. 1984. Ethnobotany of Costanoan Indians, California, based on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 38:240–255.

Bock, C. E., and J. H. Bock. 1992. Response of birds to wildfire in native versus exotic Arizona grassland. The Southwestern Naturalist 37:73–81.

Bock, C. E., J. H. Bock, and H. M. Smith. 1993. Proposal for a system of federal livestock exclosures on public rangelands in the western United-States. Conservation Biology 7:731–733.

Bolander, H. N. 1866. The grasses of the state. Transactions California State Agricultural Society 1864–65:131–145.

Bolsinger, C. L. 1988. The hardwoods of California’s timber-lands, woodlands, and savannas. Resource Bulletin PNW-RB-148. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

Bolton, H. E. 1927. Fray Juan Crespi, missionary explorer on the Pacific coast, 1769–1774. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 1930. Anza’s California Expeditions Vol. III. The San Francisco Colony diaries of Anza, Font, and Eixarch and narratives by Palou and Moraga. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 1931. In the south San Joaquin ahead of Garces. Quarterly of the California Historical Society 10:211–219.

——. 1966. Anza’s California expeditions. Vol. IV. Font’s complete diary of the second Anza expedition. Russell and Russell, New York.

Bond, W. J. 2005. Large parts of the world are brown or black: A different view on the “green world” hypothesis. Journal of Vegetation Science 16:261–266.

Bond, W. J., F. I. Woodward, and G. F. Midgley. 2005. The global distribution of ecosystems in a world without fire. New Phytologist 165:525–537.

Bonham, C. D. 1989. Measurements for terrestrial vegetation. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Boose, D. L., B. R. Harmeling, and R. T. Turcotte. 2005. Genetic variation in eastern Washington populations of Navarretia leucocephala (Polemoniaceae), a vernal pool endemic. Madroño 52:99–106.

Borchert, M. I., F. W. Davis, J. Michaelsen, and L. D. Oyler. 1989. Interactions of factors affecting seedling recruitment of blue oak (Quercus douglasii) in California. Ecology 70:389–404.

Borchert, M. I., and S. K. Jain. 1978. The effect of rodent seed predation on four species of California annual grasses. Oecologia 33:101–113.

Borman, M. M., D. E. Johnson, and W. C. Krueger. 1992. Soil moisture extraction by vegetation in a Mediterranean/maritime climatic regime. Agronomy Journal 84:897–904.

Borman, M. M., W. C. Krueger, and D. E. Johnson. 1991. Effects of established perennial grasses on yields of associated annual weeds. Journal of Range Management 44:318–322.

Bossard, C. C., J. M. Randall, and M. C. Hoshovsky. 2000. Invasive plants of California’s wildlands. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Bossema, I. 1979. Jays and oaks: Eco-ethological study of a symbiosis. Behaviour 70:1–117.

Boulton, A. M., and K. D. Amberman. 2006. How ant nests increase soil biota richness and abundance: a field experiment. Biodiversity and Conservation 15:69–82.

Boulton, A. M., K. F. Davies, and P. S. Ward. 2005. Species richness, abundance, and composition of ground-dwelling ants in northern California grasslands: Role of plants, soil, and grazing. Environmental Entomology 34:96–104.

Boulton, A. M., B. A. Jaffee, and K. M. Scow. 2003. Effects of a common harvester ant (Messor andrei) on richness and abundance of soil biota. Applied Soil Ecology 23:257–265.

Bovey, R., D. L. Tourneau, and L. C. Erickson. 1961. The chemical composition of medusahead and downy brome. Weeds 9:307–311.

Bradley, B. A., and J. F. Mustard. 2005. Identifying land cover variability distinct from land cover change: Cheatgrass in the Great Basin. Remote Sensing of the Environment 94:204–213.

Bradshaw, A. D. 1965. Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Advances in Genetics 13:115–155.

Bradshaw, H. D., Jr. 2005. Mutations in CAX1 produce pheno-types characteristic of plants tolerant to serpentine soils. New Phytologist 167:81–88.

Brady, K. U., A. R. Kruckeberg, and H. D. Bradshaw. 2005. Evolutionary ecology of plant adaptation to serpentine soils. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics 36:243–266.

Bratton, S. P. 1975. The effect of the European wild boar, Sus scrofa, on gray beech forest in the Great Smoky Mountains. Ecology 56:1356–1366.

Brenchley, W. E., and K. Warington. 1958. The Park Grass plots at Rothamsted 1856–1949. Rothamsted Experimental Station, Harpenden.

Brenzel, K. N. 2001. Sunset western garden book. Sunset Publishing, Menlo Park, CA.

Breshears, D. D., J. W. Nyhan, C. E. Heil, and B. P. Wilcox. 1998. Effects of woody plants on microclimate in a semi-arid woodland: soil temperature and evaporation in canopy and intercanopy patches. International Journal of Plant Sciences 159:1010–1017.

Brewer, W. H. 1966. Up and down California in 1860–1864. The journal of William H. Brewer, professor of agriculture in the Sheffield Scientific School from 1864 to 1903. Edited by F. P. Farquhar. 3rd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Breysse, P. A. 1984. Health hazards of smoke. Journal of Forestry 82:89.

Briden, L. E., A. Archon, and D. L. Chesemore. 1992. Ecology of the San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica) in western Merced County, California. Pages 81–87 in D. F. Williams, S. Byrne, and T. A. Rado, editors. Endangered and sensitivespecies of the San Joaquin Valley: Their biology, management and conservation. California Energy Commission, Sacramento.

(p.329) Briske, D. D. 1991. Developmental morphology and physiology of grasses. Pages 85–108 in R. K. Heitschmidt and J. W. Stuth, editors. Grazing management: An ecological perspective. Timber Press, Portland, OR.

Brooks, C. N., and A. M. Merenlender. 2001. Determining the pattern of oak woodland regeneration for a cleared watershed in northwest California: A necessary first step for restoration. Restoration Ecology 9:1–12.

Brooks, M. L. 1999. Alien annual grasses and fire in the Mojave Desert. Madroño 46:13–19.

——. 2001. Fire and invasive plants in the wildlands of California. Noxious Times 3:4–5.

——. 2002. Peak fire temperatures and effects on annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Ecological Applications 12:1088–1102.

——. 2003. Effects of increased soil nitrogen on the dominance of alien annual plants in the Mojave Desert. Journal of Applied Ecology 40:344–353.

Brooks, M. L., C. M. D’Antonio, D. M. Richardson, J. B. Grace, J. E. Keeley, J. M. DiTomaso, R. J. Hobbs, M. Pellant, and D. Pyke. 2004. Effects of invasive alien plants on fire regimes. Bioscience 54:677–688.

Brooks, M. L., and T. Esque. 2000. Alien grasses in the Mojave and Sonoran deserts. Pages 39–44 in M. Kelly, M. Howe, and B. Neill, editors. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium, Vol. 5. California Invasive Plant Council, Berkeley.

Brooks, M. L. and J. R. Matchett. 2003. Plant community patterns in unburned and burned blackbrush shrublands in the Mojave Desert. Western North American Naturalist 63(3):283–298.

Brooks, M. L., and R. A. Minnich. 2007. Fire in the southeastern desert bioregion. chapter 16 in N. G. Sugihara, J. W. van Wagtendonk, J. Fites-Kaufman, K. Shaffer, and A. E. Thode, editors. Fire in California’s ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Brooks, M. L., and D. A. Pyke. 2001. Invasive plants and fire in the deserts of North America. Pages 1–14 in K. E. M. Galley and T. P. Wilson, editors. Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species, held at Fire Conference 2000: The first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management. Miscellaneous Publication 11. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

Brooks, R. R. 1987. Serpentine and its vegetation: a multidisciplinary approach. Dioscorides Press, Portland, OR.

Broughton, J. M. 1994. Late Holocene resource intensification in the Sacramento Valley, California: The vertebrate evidence. Journal of Archeological Science 21:501–514.

——. 2002. Pre-Columbian human impact on California vertebrates: Evidence from old bones and implications for wilderness policy. Pages 44–71 in C. E. Kay and R. T. Simmons, editors. Wilderness and political ecology: Aboriginal influences and the original state of nature. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Brown, C. S. 1998. Restoration of California central valley grasslands: Applied and theoretical approaches to understanding interactions among prairie species. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Brown, C. S., and R. L. Bugg. 2001. Effects of established perennial grasses on introduction of native forbs in California. Restoration Ecology 9:38–48.

Brown, C. S., R. L. Bugg, and J. H. Anderson. 1993. Roadside planting of perennial grasses. Grasslands 3:1–3.

Brown, C. S., and K. J. Rice. 2000. The mark of Zorro: Effects of the exotic annual grass Vulpia myuros on California native perennial grasses. Restoration Ecology 8:10–17.

Brown, C. S., K. J. Rice, and V. Claassen. 1998. Competitive growth characteristics of native and exotic grasses. New Technology and Research Program FHWA/CA/ESC-98/07. California Department of Transportation, Sacramento, CA.

——. 2000. The effects of soil amendments and mulches on establishment of California native perennial grasses: A summary of selected results. Grasslands 10:1–17.

Brown, D. E. 1982. Biotic communities of the American southwest—United States and Mexico. Desert Plants 4:1–315 + appendices (also available from the Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Superior, AZ).

Brown, M. J. F., and K. G. Human. 1997. Effects of harvester ants on plant species distribution and abundance in a serpentine grassland. Oecologia 112:237–243.

Brown, P. M., and T. W. Swetnam. 1994. A cross-dated fire history from coast redwood near Redwood National park, California. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 24:21–31.

Brown, R. 1814. Gramineae. Pp. 580–583 in Mathew Flinder. A voyage to Terra Australis. London.

Browning, P. 1991. Bright gem of the western seas: California 1846–1852. Great West Books, Lafayette, CA.

Bruckart, W. L. 1989. Host range determination of Puccinia jaceae from yellow starthistle. Plant Disease 73:155–160.

Brunner, R. D., and T. W. Clark. 1997. A practice-based approach to ecosystem management. Conservation Biology 11:48–58.

Bryant, E. 1848. What I saw in California. D. Appleton and Co. (reissued 1985 by University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NE).

Bryant, H. C. 1929. Outdoor heritage. Powell Publishing, Los Angeles.

Bugg, R. L., C. S. Brown, and J. H. Anderson. 1997. Restoring native perennial grasses to rural roadsides in the Sacramento Valley of California: Establishment and evaluation. Restoration Ecology 5:214–228.

Buol, S. W., R. J. McCracken, and R. J. Southard. 1997. Soil genesis and classification. Iowa State University Press, Ames.

Burcham, L. T. 1955. Recent trends in range improvement on California foothill ranges. Journal of Range Management 8:121–125.

——. 1956. Historical backgrounds of range land use in California. Journal of Range Management 9:19–24.

——. 1957. California range land: An historico-ecological study of the range resource of California. Division of Forestry, Department of Natural Resources, State of California, Sacramento.

——. 1961. Cattle and range forage in California 1770–1880. Agricultural History 35:140–149.

——. 1975. Climate, structure, and history of California’s annual grassland ecosystem. Pages 16–34 in R. M. Love, editor. The California annual grassland ecosystem. Institute of Ecology, University of California, Davis.

——. 1981. California range land. Center for Archaeological Research at the University of California, Davis.

Burke, I. C., C. M. Yonker, W. J. Parton, C. V. Cole, K. Flach, and D. S. Schimel. 1989. Texture, climate, and cultivation effectson soil organic matter content in USA grassland soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal 53:800–805.

(p.330) Bussan, A. J., and W. E. Dyer. 1999. Herbicides and rangeland. Pages 116–132 in R. L. Sheley and J. K. Petroff, editors. Biology and Management of Noxious Rangeland Weeds 1999. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Butler, D. R. 1995. Zoomorphology: Animals as geomorphic agents. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Bytnerowicz, A., and M. E. Fenn. 1996. Nitrogen deposition in California forests: A review. Environmental Pollution 92:127–146.

Calderón, F. J., L. E. Jackson, K. M. Scow, and D. E. Rolston. 2000. Microbial responses to simulated tillage in cultivated and uncultivated soils. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32:1547–1559.

Caldwell, R. M., J. W. Menke, and D. A. Duncan. 1985. Effects of sulfur fertilization on productivity and botanical composition of California annual grassland. Journal of Range Management 38:108–113.

Caley, P., and B. Ottley. 1995. The effectiveness of hunting dogs for removing feral pigs (Sus scrofa). Wildlife Research 22:147–154.

California Department of Conservation. 2006. Farmland Mapping and Monitoring Program of the California Department of Conservation.http://www.consrv.ca.gov/DLRP/fmmp/

California Land Cover Mapping and Monitoring Program. 2003. Vegetation data. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection and USDA Forest Service, Sacramento, CA.

Cal-IPC. 2006. California Invasive Plant Inventory Publ. No. 2006–02. California Invasive Plant Council. http://www.cal-ipc.org/ip/.

Callaway, R. M. 1992. Effect of shrubs on recruitment of Quercus douglasii and Quercus lobata in California. Ecology 73:2118–2128.

Callaway, R. M., and E. T. Aschehougdagger. 2000. Invasive plants versus their new and old neighbors: A mechanism for exotic invasion. Science 20:521–523.

Callaway, R. M., and C. M. D’Antonio. 1991. Shrub facilitation of coast live oak establishment in central California. Madroño 38:158–169.

Callaway, R. M., and F. W. Davis. 1993. Vegetation dynamics, fire, and the physical environment in coastal central California. Ecology 74:1567–1578.

——. 1998. Recruitment of Quercus agrifolia in central California: The importance of shrub-dominated patches. Journal of Vegetation Science 9:647–656.

Callaway, R. M., B. E. Mahall, C. Wicks, J. Pankey, and C. Zabinski. 2003. Soil fungi and the effects of an invasive forb on grasses: Neighbor identity matters. Ecology 84:129–135.

Callaway, R. M., N. M. Nadkarni, and B. E. Mahall. 1991. Facilitation and interference of Quercus douglasii on understory productivity in central California. Ecology 72:1484–1499.

Callaway, R. M., B. Newingham, C. A. Zabinski, and B. E. Mahall. 2001. Compensatory growth and competitive ability of an invasive weed are enhanced by soil fungi and native neighbors. Ecology Letters 4:429–433.

CalTrans. 2004. Effective Planting Techniques to Minimize Erosion. CTSW-RT-04-004.69.01. Department of Transportation, State of California, Sacramento.

Canals, R. M., V. T. Eviner, D. J. Herman, and F. S. Chapin III. 2005. Plant colonizers shape early N dynamics in gopher mounds. Plant and Soil 276:327–334.

Canals, R. M., D. J. Herman, and M. K. Firestone. 2003. How disturbance by fossorial mammals alters N cycling in a California annual grassland. Ecology 84:875–881.

Carcaillet, C., Y. Bergeron, P. Richard, B. Frechette, S. Gauthier, and Y. Prairie. 2001. Change of fire frequency in the eastern Canadian boreal forests during the Holocene: Does vegetation composition or climate trigger the fire regime? Journal of Ecology 89:930–946.

Carlisle, E. A., K. L. Steenwerth, and D. R. Smart. 2006. Effects of land use on soil respiration: conversion of oak woodlands to vineyards. Journal of Environmental Quality 35:1396–1404.

Carlsen, T. M., J. W. Menke, and B. M. Pavlik. 2000. Reducing competitive suppression of a rare annual forb by restoring native California perennial grasslands. Restoration Ecology 8:18–29.

Carmel, Y., and C. H. Flather. 2004. Comparing landscape scale vegetation dynamics following recent disturbance in climatically similar sites in California and the Mediterranean basin. Landscape Ecology 19:573–590.

——. 2006. Constrained range expansion and climate change assessments. Frontiers in Ecology 4:178–179.

Carmen, W. J. 1988. Behavioral ecology of the California scrub jay (Aphelocoma coerulescens Californica): a non-cooperative breeder with close cooperative relatives. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Carney, K. M., P. A. Matson, and B. J. M. Bohannan. 2004. Diversity and composition of tropical soil nitrifiers across a plant diversity gradient and among land-use types. Ecology Letters 7:684–694.

Carpenter, C. C. 1982. The bullsnake as an excavator. Journal of Herpetology 16:394–401.

Carpenter, E. J., and S. W. Cosby. 1925. Soil survey of the Salinas area, California. Bureau of Chemistry and Soils, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Carr, J. C. 1892. Among the basket makers. The Californian 2:597–610.

Carran, R. A., and P. W. Theobald. 2000. Effects of excreta return on properties of a grazed pasture soil. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 56:79–85.

Castelli, J. P., and B. B. Casper. 2003. Intraspecific AM fungal variation contributes to plant-fungal feedback in a serpentine grassland. Ecology 84:323–336.

Caswell, H. 1989. Matrix population models. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Cayan, D., A. L. Luers, M. Hanemann, G. Franco, and B. Croes. 2006. Scenarios of climate change in California: An overview. CEC-500-2005-186-SF. California Climate Change Center, Sacramento.

CCWD. 2005. Using livestock grazing as a resource management tool in California. Contra Costa Water District, Oakland, CA. http://www.ccwater.com/files/LivestockGrazingFinal72005.pdf (accessed July 2, 2007).

CDF-FRAP. 2002. California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection. Multi-source landcover data v. 02_2. http://frap.cdf.ca.gov/data/frapgisdata/select.asp.

——. 2003. Changing California: Forest and range 2003 assessment. State of California Resources Agency, California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection—Fire and Resource Assessment Program, Sacramento.

CDFA. 2007. Encycloweedia. Notes on identification, biology, and management of plants defined as noxious weeds byCalifornia law. http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/encycloweedia/encycloweedia_hp.htm (accessed March 26, 2007).

(p.331) CDFG. 2005. The status of rare, threatened and endangered plants and animals in California, 2000–2004. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

Center, D. M., and M. B. Jones. 1983. Economics of gypsum and elemental sulfur as fertilizers on subclover-grass pastures in northern California Trifolium subterraneum. Journal of Range Management 36:378–381.

Center, D. M., C. E. Vaughn, and M. B. Jones. 1989. Effects of management on plant production and nutrient cycling on two annual grassland sites. Hilgardia 57:1–40.

Chadden, A., E. Dowksza, and L. Turner. 2004. Adaptive management for southern California rangelands. University of California, Santa Barbara.

Challies, C. N. 1975. Feral pigs (Sus scrofa) on Auckland Island: status, and effects on vegetation and nesting sea birds. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 2:479–490.

Chapin, F. S., A. J. Bloom, C. B. Field, and R. H. Waring. 1987. Plant response to multiple environmental factors. BioScience 37:49–57.

Chapin, F. S., P. A. Matson, and H. A. Mooney. 2002. Principles of terrestrial ecosystem ecology. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Chase, J. M., and M. A. Leibold. 2003. Ecological niches: Linking classical and contemporary approaches. University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Chaves, M., and J. Pereira. 1992. Water-stress, CO2 and climate change. Journal of Experimental Botany 43:1131–1139.

Cheng, S. 2004. Forest Service research natural areas in California. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-188, USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, nAlbany, CA.

Cheng, X., and C. S. Bledsoe. 2002. Contrasting seasonal patterns of fine root production for blue oaks (Quercus douglasii) and annual grasses in California oak woodland. Plant and Soil 240:263–274.

Chiariello, N. R. 1989. Phenology of California grasslands. Pages 47–58 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Chiariello, N. R. and C. B. Field. 1996. Annual grassland responses to elevated CO2 in long-term community microcosms. Pages 139–175 in C. Körner and F. A. Bazzaz, editors. Community, population and evolutionary responses to elevated carbon dioxide concentration. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Chocquenot, D., J. Hone, and G. Saunders. 1999. Using aspects of predator-prey theory to evaluate helicopter shooting for feral pig control. Wildlife Research 26:251–261.

Chocquenot, D., and W. A. Ruscoe. 2003. Landscape complementation and food limitation of large herbivores: Habitat-related constraints on the foraging efficiency of wild pigs. Journal of Animal Ecology 72:14–26.

Christensen, N. L., and C. H. Muller. 1975. Effects of fire on factors controlling plant growth in Adenostoma chaparral. Ecological Monographs 45:29–55.

Christenson, L. N. 2004. An overview of the history of Los Peñasquitos Canyon. History Archives of San Diego County 8.

Christian, C. E. 2003. A plan for monitoring and evaluating the effects of fire on plant communities at the Lassen Foothills project. The Nature Conservancy, Chico, CA.

Cione, N. K., P. E. Padgett, and E. B. Allen. 2002. Restoration of a native shrubland impacted by exotic grasses, frequent fire, and nitrogen deposition in southern California. Restoration Ecology 10:376–384.

City of San Diego. 2003. Vernal pool inventory, 2002–2003. http://www.sandiego.gov/planning/mscp/vpi/index.shtml (accessed March 27, 2007).

Clark, T. W., and J. R. Cragun. 1994. Organizational and managerial guidelines for endangered species restoration programs and recovery teams. Pages 9–33 in M. L. Bowles and C. J. Whelan, editors. Restoration of endangered species: Conceptual issues, planning, and implementation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Clary, W. P. 1995. Vegetation and soil responses to grazing simulation on riparian meadows. Journal of Range Management 48:18–25.

——. 1999. Stream channel and vegetation responses to late spring cattle grazing. Journal of Range Management 52:218–227.

Clausen, J., D. D. Keck, and W. M. Hiesey. 1940. Experimental studies on the nature of species. I. Effects of varied environments on western North America plants. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 520:1–452.

Clausnitzer, D., and J. H. Huddleston. 2002. Wetland determination of a southeast Oregon vernal pool and management implications. Wetlands 22:677–685.

Clegg, M. T., and R. W. Allard. 1972. Patterns of genetic differentiation in the slender wild oat species Avena barbata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 69:1820–1824.

Clegg, M. T., R. W. Allard, and A. L. Kahler. 1972. Is the gene the unit of selection? Evidence from two experimental plant populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 69:2474–2478.

Cleland, E. E. 2005. The influence of multiple interacting global changes on the structure and function of a California annual grassland ecosystem. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Cleland, E. E., N. R. Chiariello, S. R. Loarie, H. A. Mooney, and C. B. Field. 2006. Diverse responses of phenology to global changes in a grassland ecosystem. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:13740–13744.

Clements, F. E. 1916. Plant succession: analysis of the development of vegetation. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 242.

——. 1934. The relict method in dynamic ecology. Journal of Ecology 22:39–68.

——. 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24:252–284.

Clements, F. E., and V. E. Shelford. 1939. Bio-Ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

CNGA. 2003. California Native Grasslands Association: Products and Services Directory. Davis, CA. http://www.cnga.org/psd.php.

CNPS. 2001. Plot data from the central and northern Sierra Nevada foothills. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento, CA. Unpublished file.

Coblentz, B. E. 1978. The effects of feral goats (Capra hircus) on island ecosystems. Biological Conservation 13:297–286.

Cockburn, A., and W. Z. Lidicker. 1983. Microhabitat heterogeneity and population ecology of an herbivorous rodent, Microtus californicus. Oecologia 59:167–177.

Colautti, R. I., A. Ricciardi, I. A. Grigorovich, and H. J. MacIsaac. 2004. Is invasion success explained by the enemy release hypothesis? Ecology Letters 7:721–733.

(p.332) Collier, E. T., and S. B. Thalman, editors. 1991. Interviews with Tom Smith and Maria Copa: Isabel Kelly’s ethnographic notes on the Coast Miwok Indians of Marin and Southern Sonoma Counties, California. Miwok Archeological Preserve of Marin, Marin, CA.

Collinge, S. K., C. A. Wise, and B. Weaver. 2003. Germination, early growth, and flowering of a vernal pool annual in response to soil moisture and salinity. Madroño 50:83–93.

Collins, S. L. 1987. Interactions of disturbances in tallgrass prairie: a field experiment. Ecology 68:1243–1250.

Collins, S. L., A. K. Knapp, J. M. Briggs, J. M. Blair, and E. M. Steinauer. 1998. Modulation of diversity by grazing and mowing in native tallgrass prairie. Science 280:745–747.

Conant, R. T., and K. Paustian. 2002. Potential soil carbon sequestration in overgrazed grassland ecosystems. Global Biogeo-chemical Cycles 16(4), 1143, doi:10.1029/2001GB001661.

Conant, R. T., K. Paustian, and E. T. Elliott. 2001. Grassland management and conversion into grassland: effects on soil carbon. Ecological Applications 11:343–355.

Connell, J. H. 1954. Home range and mobility of brush rabbits in California chaparral. Journal of Mammalogy 35:392–405.

——. 1978. Diversity in tropical rainforests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302–1310.

Conner, J. K., and D. L. Hartl. 2004. A primer of ecological genetics. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Conner, J. M., and B. L. Willoughby. 1997. Effects of blue oak canopy on annual forage production. Pages 321–326 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban interface issues 1997. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Connor, R., A. Seidl, L. VanTassell, and N. Wilkins. 2001. United States grasslands and related resources: An economic and biological trends assessment. Texas A&M University, College Station.http://landinfo.tamu.edu/presentations/grasslands.cfm.

Conrad, C. E., E. J. Woolfolk, et al. 1966. Fertilization and mangement implications on California annual-plant range. Journal of Range Management 19:20–26.

Conrad, J. P., H. L. Hall, and B. A. Chaugule. 1948. Sulfur fertilization of legumes in the upper Ojai Valley, California, and the resulting effects on the following nonlegumes. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 12:275–277.

Conroy, R. M., and D. L. Chesemore. 1992. Food habits of burrowing owl (Athene cunicularia) in Fresno County, California. Pages 105–110 in D. F. Williams, S. Byrne, and T. A. Rado, editor. Endangered and sensitive species of the San Joaquin Valley: Their biology, management and conservation. California Energy Commission, Sacramento.

Cook, S. A. 1965. Population regulation of Eschscholzia californica by competition and edaphic conditions. Journal of Ecology 53:759–769.

Coombs, E. M., J. K. Clark, G. L. Piper, and A. F. Cofrancesco, editors. 2004. Biological control of invasive plants in the United States. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Cooper, D. W. 1960. Fort Baker ranges return to champagne grasses. Journal of Range Management 13:203–205.

Cooper, W. S. 1922. The broad-sclerophyll vegetation of California: an ecological study of the chaparral and its related communities. Carnegie Institution of Washington Publication 319.

Corbin, J. D., and C. M. D’Antonio. 2004a. Can carbon addition increase competitiveness of native grasses? A case study from California. Restoration Ecology 12:36–43.

——. 2004b. Competition between native perennial and exotic annual grasses: Implications for an historical invasion. Ecology 85:1273–1283.

Corbin, J. D., C. M. D’Antonio, and S. Bainbridge. 2004. Tipping the balance in the restoration of native plants: Experimental approaches to changing the exotic:native ratio in California grassland. Pages 154–179 in M. S. Gordon and S. M. Bartol, editors. Experimental approaches to conservation biology. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Corbin, J. D., M. A. Thomsen, T. E. Dawson, and C. M. D’Antonio. 2005. Summer water use by California coastal prairie grasses: fog, drought, and community composition. Oecologia 145:511–521.

Cordy, D. R. 1954. Nigropallidal encephalomalacia in horses associated with ingestion of yellow star thistle. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 13:330–342.

Cook, S. A. 1961. Genetic system, variation, and adaptation in Eschscholzia californica. Evolution 16:278–299.

Coues, E., editor. 1900. On the trail of a Spanish pioneer: The diary and itinerary of Francisco Garcés in his travels through Sonora, Arizona, and California 1775–1776. Francis P. Harper, New York.

Cox, G. W. 1984. The distribution and origin of mima mound grassland in San Diego County, California. Ecology 65(5):1397–1405.

——. 1990. Comment on “Formation of mima mounds: a seismic hypothesis.” Geology 18:1259–1260.

——. 1999. Alien species in North America and Hawaii: impacts on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington, DC.

——. 2004. Alien Species and Evolution. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Cox, G. W., and D. W. Allen. 1987. Soil translocation of pocket gophers in a mima moundfield. Oecologia 72:207–210.

Cox, G. W., L. C. Contreras, and A. V. Milewski. 1995. Role of fossorial animals in community structure and energetics of Pacific Mediterranean ecosystems. Pages 383–398 in M. T. Arroyo, P. H. Zedler, and M. D. Fox, editors. Ecology and biogeography of Mediterranean ecosystems in Chile, California, and Australia. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Cox, G. W., and V. B. Sheffer. 1991. Pocket gophers and mima terrain in North America. Natural Areas Journal 11:193–198.

CPIF. 2000. The grassland bird conservation plan: A strategy for protecting and managing grassland habitats and associated birds in California. California Partners in Flight and Point Reyes Bird Observatory, Stinson Beach, CA.

Cramer, W., A. Bondeau, F. I. Woodward, I. C. Prentice, R. A. Betts, V. Brovkin, P. M. Cox, V. Fisher, J. A. Foley, A. D. Friend, C. Kucharik, M. R. Lomas, N. Ramankutty, S. Sitch, B. Smith, A. White, and C. Young-Molling. 2001. Global response of terrestrial ecosystem structure and function to CO2 and climate change: Results from six dynamic global vegetation models. Global Change Biology 7:357–373.

Crampton, B. 1974. Grasses in California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Crawley, M. J. 1989. The relative importance of vertebrate and invertebrate herbivores in plant population dynamics. Pages 45–71 in E. A. Bernays, editor. Insect-Plant Interactions. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL.

(p.333) Crespí, J. 2001. A description of distant roads: Original journals of the first expedition into california, 1769–1770. Edited and translated by A. K. Brown. San Diego State University Press, San Diego, CA.

Cronin, T. M. 1999. Principles of paleoclimatology. Perspectives in paleobiology and earth history. Columbia University Press, New York.

Cronise, T. F. 1868. The natural wealth of California. H. H. Bancroft and Co., San Francisco, CA.

Cronquist, A., A. H. Holmgren, J. H. Holmgren, J. L. Reveal and P. K. Holmgren. 1977. Intermountain flora. Vascular plants of the intermountain West, USA. Columbia University Press, New York.

Cross, A. F. and W. H. Schlesinger. 1999. Plant regulation of soil nutrient distribution in the northern Chihuahuan Desert. Plant Ecology 145:11–25.

Crouchley, G. 1980. Regrowth control by goats—plus useful meat returns. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture (1980, December):9–14.

CRT. 2005. California Rangeland Trust, Home Page California Rangeland Trust http://www.rangelandtrust.org/crt/.

Cruden, R. W. 1974. The adaptive nature of seed germination in Nemophila menziesii Aggr. Ecology 55:1295–1305.

——. 1977. Pollen-ovule ratios: a conservative indicator of breeding systems in flowering plants. Evolution 31:32–46.

Cruz, F., C. J. Donlan, K. Campbell and V. Carrion. 2005. Conservation action in the Galapagos: feral pig (Sus scrofa) eradication from Santiago Island. Biological Conservation 121:473–478.

Cui, M. and M. M. Caldwell. 1997. A large ephemeral release of nitrogen upon wetting of dry soil and corresponding root responses in the field. Plant and Soil 191:291–299.

Culin, S. 1975. Games of the North American Indians. Dover Publications, Inc., New York.

Cunliffe, B. A. and M. H. Meyer. 2002. Propagation time affects winter survival and finishing date for ornamental grasses. Journal of Environmental Horticulture 20:201–203.

Curtis, M. J. and V. P. Claassen. 2005. Compost incorporation increases plant available water in a drastically disturbed serpentine soil. Soil Science 170:939–953.

Cushman, J. H., T. A. Tierney and J. M. Hinds. 2004. Variable effects of feral pig disturbances on native and exotic plants in a California grassland. Ecological Applications 14:1746–1756.

CVIS. 2006. California vegetation information system, database query. Vegetation Classification and Mapping Program, Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento, CA.

Cypher, B. L., K. A. Spencer and J. H. Scrivner. 1996. Use of food items by sex and age classes of coyotes. California Fish and Game 82:42–47.

D’Antonio, C. M. 1990. Invasion and dominance of coastal plant communities by the introduced succulent, Carpobrotus edulis. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara.

——. 1993. Mechanisms controlling invasion of coastal plant communities by the alien succulent Carpobrodus edulis. Ecology 74:83–95.

D’Antonio, C. M., S. J. Bainbridge, C. Kennedy, J. W. Bartolome and S. Reynolds. 2006. Ecology and restoration of California grasslands with special emphasis on the influence of fire and grazing on native grassland species. A report to the David and Lucille Packard Foundation. University of California, Santa Barbara.

D’Antonio, C. M. and J. D. Corbin. 2003. Effects of plant invaders on nutrient cycling: using models to explore the link between invasion and development of species effects. Pages 363–384 in C. D. Canham, J. J. Cole, and W. K. Lauenrothy, editors. Models in ecosystem science. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

D’Antonio, C. M., T. L. Dudley and M. Mack. 1999. Disturbance and biological invasions: Direct effects and feedbacks. In L. R. Walker, editor. Ecosystems of disturbed ground. Elsevier, New York.

D’Antonio, C. M. and S. E. Hobbie. 2005. Plant system effects on ecosystem processes: Insights from invasive species. Pages 65–84 in D.F. Sax, J. J. Stachowitz, and S.D. Gaines, editors. Species invasions, insights into ecology, evolution and biogeography. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

D’Antonio, C. M. and P. M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:63–87.

D’Arcy, C. J. 1995. Symptomology and host range of barley yellow dwarf. Pages 9–28 in C. J. D’Arcy and P. A. Burnett, editors. Barley yellow dwarf: 40 years of progress. The American Phy-topathological Society, St. Paul, MN.

Da Silva, P. G. and J. W. Bartolome. 1984. Interaction between a shrub, Baccharis pilularis subsp. consanguinea (Asteraceae), and an annual grass, Bromus mollis (Poaceae) in coastal California. Madroño 31:93–101.

Daar, S. 1983. Using goats for brush control. The IPM Practitioner 5:4–6.

Daehler, C. C. 1998. The taxonomic distribution of invasive angiosperm plants: ecological insights and comparison to agricultural weeds. Biological Conservation 84:167–180.

Dahl, B. E. and E. W. Tisdale. 1975. Environmental factors related to medusahead distribution. Journal of Range Management 28:463–478.

Dahlgren, R. A., W. R. Horwath, K. W. Tate and T. J. Camping. 2003. Blue oak enhance soil quality in California oak woodlands. California Agriculture 57:2:42–47.

Dahlgren, R. A., M. J. Singer and X. Huang. 1997. Oak tree and grazing impacts on soil properties and nutrients in a California oak woodland. Biogeochemistry 39:45–64.

Dahlgren, R. A., K. W. Tate, D. Lewis, E. R. Atwill, J. M. Harper and B. Allen-Diaz. 2001. Watershed research examines rangeland management effects on water quality. California Agriculture 55:64–71.

Daily, G. C., editor. 1997. Nature’s services: societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

Daily, G. C., S. Alexander, P. R. Ehrlich, L. Goulder, J. Lubchenko, P. A. Matson, H. A. Mooney, S. Postel, S. H. Schneider, D. Tilman and G. M. Woodwell. 1997. Ecosystem services: Benefits supplied to human societies by natural ecosystems. Issues in Ecology 2:1–18.

Dakin, S. B., editor. 1939. A Scotch paisano: Hugo Reid’s life in California 1832–1852 derived from his correspondence. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Dale, V. H., S. Brown, R. A. Haeuber, N. T. Hobbs, N. Huntly, R. J. Naiman, W. E. Riebsame, M. G. Turner and T. J. Valone. 2000. Ecological principles and guidelines for managing the use of land. Ecological Applications 10:639–670.

Dalrymple, L. 2000. Indian basket makers of California and the Great Basin. Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe.

Damhoureyeh, S. A. and D. C. Hartnett. 2002. Variation in grazing tolerance among three tallgrass prairie plant species. American Journal of Botany 89:1634–1643.

(p.334) Daniel, J. A., K. Potter, W. Altom, H. Aljoe and R. Stevens. 2002. Long-term grazing density impacts on soil compaction. Transactions of the ASAE 45:1911–1915.

Danielsen, K. C. 1990. Seedling growth rates of Quercus lobata Nee. (Valley oak) and the competitive effects of selected grass species. M.A. thesis, California State University, Los Angeles.

Dao, T. H. 1998. Tillage and crop residue effects on carbon dioxide evolution and carbon storage in a Paleustoll. Soil Science Society of America Journal 62:250–256.

Dasmann, R. 1973. The destruction of California. The Macmillan Company, New York.

Daubenmire, R. F. 1970. Steppe vegetation of Washington. Agricultural Experiment Station Technical Bulletin 62, Washington State University, Pullman.

Daubenmire, R. F. 1975. An analysis of structural and functional characters along a steppe-forest catena. Northwest Science 49:120–140.

Davidson, E. A., S. C. Hart, C. A. Shanks and M. K. Firestone. 1991. Measuring gross nitrogen mineralization, immobilization, and nitrification by N-15 isotopic pool dilution in intact soil cores. Journal of Soil Science 42:335–349.

Davidson, E. A., D. J. Herman, A. Schuster and M. K. Firestone. 1993. Cattle grazing and oak trees as factors affecting soil emissions of nitric oxide from an annual grassland. Pages 100–119 in R. J. Luxmoore, editor. Agricultural ecosystem effects on trace gases and global climate change: Proceedings of a symposium. ASA Special Publication No. 55. American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Davidson, E. A., J. M. Stark and M. K. Firestone. 1990. Microbial production and consumption of nitrate in an annual grassland. Ecology 71:1968–1975.

Davis, F. W., M. I. Borchert, L. E. Harvey and J. Michaelsen. 1991. Factors affecting seedling survivorship of blue oak (Quercus douglasii H.&A.]) in central California. Pages 81–86 in R. B. Standiford, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on oak woodlands and hardwood rangeland management 1991. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-126. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Davis, F. W., J. M. Scott and D. D. Goble. 2005. Renewing the conservation commitment. Pages 299–306 in D. D. Goble, J. M. Scott, and F. W. Davis, editors. The Endangered Species Act at thirty. Vol. 1: Renewing the conservation promise. Island Press, Washington DC.

Davis, F. W., D. M. Stoms, A. D. Hollander, K. A. Thomas, P. A. Stine, D. Odion, M. I. Borchert, J. H. Thorne, M. V. Gray, R. E. Walker, K. Warner and J. Graae. 1998. The California Gap Analysis Project: Final Report, June 30, 1998. University of California, Santa Barbara. http://www.biogeog.ucsb.edu/projects/gap/gap_rep.html.

Davis, M. A. and K. Thompson. 2001. Invasion terminology: Should ecologists define their terms differently than others? No, not if we want to be of any help! Ecological Society of America Bulletin 82:206.

Davis, M. A., J. P. Grime and K. Thompson. 2000. Fluctuating resources in plant communities: A general theory of invasibility. Journal of Ecology 88:528–534.

Davis, O. K. 1999. Pollen analysis of Tulare Lake, California: Great Basin-like vegetation in central California. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 107:249–257.

——. 2002. Southern California pollen diagrams. http://www.geo.arizona.edu/palynology/socalif/map_soca.html (accessed March 20, 2007).

Davis, O. K. and M. J. Moratto. 1988. Evidence for a warm dry early Holocene in the western Sierra Nevada of California: Pollen and plant macrofossil analysis of Dinkey and Exchequer meadows. Madroño 35:132–149.

Dawson, T. E. 1998. Fog in the California redwood forest: Ecosystem inputs and use by plants. Oecologia 117:476–485.

Dawson, T. E., S. Mambelli, A. H. Plamboeck, P. H. Templer and K. P. Tu 2002. Stable isotopes in plant ecology. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33:507–559.

De Bach, P. and D. Rosen. 1991. Biological control by natural enemies. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

de la Vega, M. P. 1996. Plant genetic adaptedness to climatic and edaphic environment. Euphytica 92:27–38.

de la Vega M.P., P. Garcia and R. W. Allard. 1991. Multilocus genetic structure of ancestral Spanish and colonial Californian populations of Avena barbata. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 88:1202–1206.

Deering, R. H. and T. P. Young. 2006. Germination speeds of exotic annual and native perennial grasses in California and the potential benefits of seed priming for grassland restoration. Grasslands 16:1,14–17.

Del-Val, E. K. and M. J. Crawley. 2005. Are grazing increaser species better tolerators than decreasers? An experimental assessment of defoliation tolerance in eight British grassland species. Journal of Ecology 93:1005–1016.

Delmas, A. 1999. The effect of fire on California’s native grassland in the absence of grazing at the Nature Conservancy’s Vina Plains Preserve, in southern Tehama County. Master’s thesis, California State University, Chico.

DeLoach, C. J. 1991. Past successes and current prospects in biological control of weeds in the United States and Canada. Natural Areas Journal 11:129–142.

Denef, K., J. Six, H. Bossuyt, S. D. Frey, E. T. Elliott, R. Merckx and K. Paustian. 2001. Influence of dry-wet cycles on the interrelationship between aggregate, particulate organic matter, and microbial community dynamics. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 33:1599–1611.

Dennis, A. 1989. Effects of defoliation on three native perennial grasses in the California annual grassland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Derlet, R. W. and J. R. Carlson. 2006. Coliform bacteria in Sierra Nevada wilderness lakes and streams: What is the impact of backpackers, pack animals, and cattle? Wilderness & Environmental Medicine 17:15–20.

DeSimone, S. A. and P. H. Zedler. 1999. Shrub seedling recruitment in unburned Californian coastal sage scrub and adjacent grassland. Ecology 80:2018–2032.

——. 2001. Do shrub colonizers of southern Californian grassland fit generalities for other woody colonizers? Ecological Applications 11:1101–1111.

Devlin, B. and N. C. Ellstrand. 1990. The development and application of a refined method for estimating gene flow from angiosperm paternity analysis. Evolution 44:248–259.

DeWitt, T. J., A. Sih and D. S. Wilson. 1998. Costs and limits of phenotypic plasticity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:77–81.

Di, H. J. and K. C. Cameron. 2002. Nitrate leaching in temperate agroecosystems: sources, factors and mitigating strategies. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 64:237–256.

(p.335) Dickey, P. B., O. K. Hoglund and B. A. Madson. 1948. Effect of fertilizers on the production and season of use of annual grass range in California. Agronomy Journal 40:186–188.

Dickinson, W., J. Ferreyra, K. L. Imbesi, S. Joshi, C. Kingsolver, E. Klein, N. Lessios, A. Ng, T. Stamp, K. White, D. Xu and R. L. Vidra. 2006. The ethical challenges faced by ecological restorationists. Ecological Restoration 24:102–104.

Diffenbaugh, N. S. and L. C. Sloan. 2004. Mid-Holocene orbital forcing of regional-scale climate: A case study of western North America using a high-resolution RCM. Journal of Climate 17:2927–2937.

DiTomaso, J. M. 1997. Risk analysis of various weed control methods. Pages 34–39 in M. Kelly, E. Wagner, and P. Warner, editors. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. Vol. 3. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, Trabuco Canyon, CA.

——. 2000. Invasive weeds in rangelands: Species, impacts, and management. Weed Science 48:255–265.

——. 2002. Irrigated pastures. Pages 329–336 in Principles of Weed Control. California Weed Science Society, Thomson Publications, Fresno, CA.

——. 2006. Yellow starthistle information. Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, Davis. http://wric.ucdavis.edu/yst/

DiTomaso, J. M., K. L. Heise, G. B. Kyser, A. M. Merenlender and R. J. Keiffer. 2001. Carefully timed burning can control barb goatgrass. California Agriculture 55:47–53.

DiTomaso, J. M., and D. W. Johnson, editors. 2006. The use of fire as a tool for controlling invasive plants. Cal-IPC Publication 2006–01. California Invasive Plant Council, Berkeley, CA.

DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser and M. S. Hastings. 1999a. Prescribed burning for control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and enhanced native plant diversity. Weed Science 47:233–242.

DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, J. R. Miller, S. Garcia, R. F. Smith, G. A. Nader, J. M. Connor and S. B. Orloff. 2006. Integrating prescribed burning and clopyralid for the management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis). Weed Science 54:757–767.

DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser and S. B. Orloff. 1999b. New growth regulator herbicide provides excellent control of yellow starthistle. California Agriculture 53:12–16.

DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, S. B. Orloff and S. F. Enloe. 2000. Integrated strategies offer site-specific control of yellow starthistle. California Agriculture 54:30–36.

DiTomaso, J. M., G. B. Kyser, S. Orloff, S. Garcia, G. Nader and R. Smith. 2003. Integrated management of yellow starthistle and medusahead using prescribed burning and clopyralid. Pages 62–63 in M. Kelly, editor. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. Vol. 6. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, Berkeley.

DiTomaso, J. M. and W.T. Lanini. 2001a. UC IPM online statewide integrated pest management program: yellow starthistle. University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Davis. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7402.html.

——. 2001b. UC IPM online statewide integrated pest management program: poison oak. http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PMG/PESTNOTES/pn7431.html.

DiVittorio, C., J. D. Corbin and C. M. D’Antonio. 2007. Spatial and temporal patterns of seed dispersal: An important determinant of grassland invasion and restoration potential. Ecological Applications 17:311–316.

Dobzhanksy, T. 1970. Genetics of evolutionary process. Columbia University Press, New York.

Dompierre, H. and C. S. Churcher. 1996. Premaxillary shape as an indicator of the diet of seven extinct late Cenozoic New World camels. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:141–148.

Donovan, L. A. and J. R. Ehleringer. 1992. Contrasting water-use patterns among size and lilfe-history classes of a semi-arid shrub. Functional Ecology 6:482–488.

Doran, J. W. 1980. Soil microbial and biochemical changes associated with reduced tillage. Soil Science Society of America Journal 5:765–771.

Downing, J. A., C. W. Osenberg and O. Sarnelle. 1999. Meta-analysis of marine nutrient-enrichment experiments: Variation in the magnitude of nutrient limitation. Ecology 80:1157–1167.

Drake, J. A., Mooney, H. A., R. H. Groves,, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson, editors. 1989. Biological invasions: A global perspective. John Wiley and Sons, Chichester, UK.

Drake, K. R. and T. D. Whitson. 1989. Control of hoary cress (Cardaria draba [L.] Desv.) on pastures. Proceedings of Western Society of Weed Science 42:40.

Driver, H. E. 1939. Culture element distributions X: Northwest California. University of California Anthropological Records 1:297–433.

Drucker, P. 1937. The Tolowa and their southwest Oregon kin. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 36:221–300.

Du Bois, C. A. 1935. Wintu ethnography. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 36:1–148.

Dukes, J. S. 2000. Will the increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration affect the success of invasive species? Pages 95–113 in H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, editors. Invasive Species in a Changing World. Island Press, Washington.

——. 2001a. Biodiversity and invasibility in grassland microcosms. Oecologia 126:563–568.

——. 2001b. Productivity and complementarity in grassland microcosms of varying diversity. Oikos 94:468–480.

——. 2002a Comparison of the effect of elevated CO2 on an invasive species (Centaurea solstitialis) in monoculture and community settings. Plant Ecology 160:225–234.

——. 2002b. Species composition and diversity affect grassland susceptibility and response to invasion. Ecological Applications 12:602–617.

Dukes, J. S., N. R. Chiariello, E. E. Cleland, L. A. Moore, M. R. Shaw, S. Thayer, T. Tobeck, H. A. Mooney and C. B. Field. 2005. Responses of grassland production to single and multiple global environmental changes. Public Library of Science Biology 3:1829–1837.

Dukes, J. S. and C. B. Field. 2000. Diverse mechanisms for CO2effects on grassland litter decomposition. Global Change Biology 6:145–154.

Dukes, J. S. and B. A. Hungate. 2002. Elevated carbon dioxide and litter decomposition in California annual grasslands: which mechanisms matter? Ecosystems 5:171–183.

Dukes, J. S. and H. A. Mooney. 1999. Does global change increase the success of biological invaders? Trends in Ecology & Evolution 14:135–139.

Duncan, C. L., and J. K. Clark, editors. 2005. Invasive plants of range and wildlands and their environmental, economic and societal impacts. Weed Science Society of America, Lawrence, KS.

(p.336) Duncan, D. A. and R. G. Woodmansee. 1975. Forecasting forage yield from precipitation in California’s annual rangeland. Journal of Range Management 28:327–329.

Dwire, K. A. 1984. What happens to native grasses when grazing stops? Fremontia 12:23–25.

Dyer, A. R. 1993. Response of native bunchgrass to burning and grazing. Restoration and Management Notes 11:150–151.

——. 2002. Burning and grazing management in a California grassland: Effect on bunchgrass seed viability. Restoration Ecology 10:107–111.

——. 2003. Burning and grazing management in a California grassland: Growth, mortality, and recruitment of Nassella pulchra. Restoration Ecology 11:291–296.

Dyer, A. R., A. Fenech and K. J. Rice. 2000. Accelerated seedling emergence in interspecific competitive neighborhoods. Ecology Letters 3:523–529.

Dyer, A. R., H. C. Fossum and J. W. Menke. 1996. Emergence and survival of Nassella pulchra in a California grassland. Madrono 43:316–333.

Dyer, A. R. and K. J. Rice. 1997a. Evidence of spatial genetic structure in a California bunchgrass population. Oecologia 112:333–339.

——. 1997b. Intraspecific and diffuse competition: the response of Nassella pulchra in a California grassland. Ecological Applications 7:484–492.

——. 1999. Effects of competition on resource availability and growth of a California bunchgrass. Ecology 80:2697–2710.

Dyer, D. 2003. A technical summary of plant materials studies at the Lockeford Plant Materials Center, Lockeford, California. USDA NRCS Lockeford Plant Materials Center Annual Technical Report, Lockeford, CA.

Dyer, M. I., C. L. Turner and T. R. Seastedt. 1993. Herbivory and its consequences. Ecological Applications 3:10–16.

Dyksterhuis, E. J. 1949. Condition and management of rangeland based quantitative ecology. Journal of Range Management 2:104–115.

Eastman, Q. 2005. Cattle, birds, endangered species coexist in Ramona grasslands. San Diego North County Times, San Diego, CA, December 24, 2005.

EBRPD. 2005. Grazing animals in the East Bay Regional Park District. East Bay Regional Parks District. http://www.ebparks.org/resources/stewards/grazing.htm.

EDF. 2007. Alameda County’s rancher and wildlife-friendly program restores ponds and helps rare animals. Environmental Defense Fund, Center for Conservation Incentives. http://www.environmentaldefense.org/article.cfm?contentID=6295.

Edwards, S. W. 1992. Observations on the prehistory and ecology of grazing in California. Fremontia 20:3–11.

——. 1995. Notes on grazing and native plants in central California. Four Seasons 10:61–65.

——. 1996. A Rancholabrean-age, latest Pleistocene bestiary for California botanists. The Four Seasons 10:5–34.

——. Further notes on Rancholabrean ecology. The Four Seasons 10:25–28.

——. A botanical exploration of the Tilden Park areas of San Pablo Ridge, Contra Costa County, CA. The Four Seasons 11:3–52.

——. 2004. Paleobotany of California. The Four Seasons 12(2):3–75.

Egan, D., and E. Howell, editors. 2001. The historical ecology handbook: A restorationist’s guide to reference ecosystems. Society for Ecological Restoration, Washington, D.C.

Ehleringer, J. R. and R. K. Monson. 1993. Evolutionary and ecological aspects of photosynthetic pathway variation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 24:411–439.

Ehrenfeld, J. G. 2003. Effects of exotic plant invasions on soil nutrient cycling processes. Ecosystems 6:503–523.

Ehrenfeld, J. G. and N. Scott. 2001. Invasive species and the soil: effects on organisms and ecosystem processes. Ecological Applications 11:1259–1260.

Ehrlich, P. R., D. S. Dobkin and D. Wheye. 1988. The birder’s handbook: A field guide to the natural history of North American birds. Simon and Schuster, Inc., New York.

Ehrlich, P. R. and I. Hanski. 2004. On the wings of the checkerspots: A model system for population biology. Oxford University Press, New York.

Eigenheer, R. A. 1976. Early perceptions of agricultural resources in the Central Valley of California. Ph.D. dissertation, Univeristy of California, Davis.

Eliason, S. A. and E. B. Allen. 1997. Exotic grass competition in suppressing native shrubland re-establishment. Restoration Ecology 5:245–255.

Eller, K. G. 1994. The potential value of fire for managing Stephen’s kangaroo rat habitat at Lake Perris. University of California, Riverside.

Elliott, H. W. and R. H. Barrett. 1985. Dietary overlap among axis, fallow, and blacktailed deer and cattle. Journal of Range Management 38:546–550.

Elliott, H. W. and J. D. Wehausen. 1974. Vegetational succession on coastal rangeland of Point Reyes Peninsula. Madroño 22:231–238.

Ellstrand, N. C. 2006. When crop transgenes wander in California, why should we worry? California Agriculture 60:116–125.

Elmore, W. 1992. Riparian responses to grazing practices. Pages 442–457 in R. J. Naiman, editor. Watershed management: Balancing sustainability and environmental change. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Elton, C. S. 1958. The ecology of invasions. Methuen, London, UK.

Ely, L. L., Y. Enzel, V. R. Baker and D. R. Cayan. 1993. A 5000-year record of extreme floods and climate change in the southwestern United States. Science 262:410–412.

Elzinga, C. D., D. Salzer, J. W. Willoughby and J. Gibbs. 2001. Monitoring plant and animal populations: A handbook for field biologists. Blackwell Publishing.

Elzinga, C. L., D. W. Salzer and J. W. Wiloughby. 1998. Measuring and monitoring plant populations. BLM/RS/ST-98/005 + 1730. USDI Bureau of Land Management and The Nature Conservancy, Denver, CO.

Endler, J. A. 1977. Geographic variation, speciation, and clines. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Enloe, S. F. 2002. The ecology and management of yellow starthistle in annual and perennial grassland communities. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Enloe, S. F., J. M. DiTomaso, S. B. Orloff and D. J. Drake. 2004. Soil water dynamics differ among rangeland plant communities dominated by yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) annual grasses, or perennial grasses. Weed Science 52:929–935.

——. 2005. Perennial grass establishment integrated with clopyralid treatment for yellow starthistle management on annual range. Weed Technology 19:94–101.

EPA. 2001. Heat island reduction initiative: Inside the green house. EPA-430-N-01-002, Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

(p.337) ——. 2003. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; listing of the Central California distinct population segment of the California tiger salamander; reclassification of the Sonoma County and Santa Barbara County distinct populations from endangered to threatened; special rule. Federal Register 68(100):28647–28670.

——. 2005. Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; designation of critical habitat for the California tiger salamander in Sonoma County. Federal Register 70(147): 44301–44322.

Epstein, H. E., W. K. Lauenroth and I. C. Burke. 1997. Effects of temperature and soil texture on ANPP in the U.S. Great Plains. Ecology 78:2628–2631.

Erlandson, J. M. 1984. A case study in faunal turbation: Delineating the effects of the burrowing pocket gopher on the distribution of archeological materials. American Antiquity 49:785–790.

——. 1994. Early hunter-gatherers of the California coast. Plenum Press, New York.

Erwin, W. J. and R. H. Stasiak. 1979. Vertebrate mortality during the burning of a reestablished prairie in Nebraska. The American Midland Naturalist 101:247–249.

Espeland, E. K., T. M. Carlsen and D. MacQueen. 2005. Fire dynamics of granivory on a California grassland forb. Biodiversity and Conservation 14:267–280.

Espeland, E. K. and R. G. Myatt. 2001. Evidence for a sand hills ecotype of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae). Madroño 48:25–32.

Esseks, J. D. and D. J. Drozd. 2002. Policy insights from two sets of surveys: A public opinion poll about agricultural stewardship issues conducted nation-wide and in seven regions June and July 2001 and surveys of owners of urban-edge agricultural land in five important farm states in July 2001 to February 2002. American Farmland Trust, Washington, DC.

Evans, R. A., B. L. Kay and J. A. Young. 1975. Microenvironment of a dynamic annual community in relation to range improvement. Hilgardia 43:78–102.

Evans, R. A. and J. A. Young. 1972. Germination and establishment of Salsola in relation to seedbed environment. II. Seed distribution, germination, and seedling growth of Salsola microenvironmental monitoring of seedbed. Agronomy Journal 64:219–224.

——. 1989. Characterization and analysis of abiotic factors and their influence on vegetation. Pages 13–28 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Evens, J. M., E. Kentner and J. Klein. 2006. Classification of vegetation associations from the Mount Tamalpais Watershed, Nicasio Reservoir, and Soulajule Reservoir in Marin County, California. Report to Marin Municipal Water District. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Evens, J. M. and S. San. 2004. Vegetation associations of a serpentine area: Coyote Ridge, Santa Clara County, California. Report to the Marin Municipal Water District. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

——. 2005. Vegetation alliances of the San Dieguito River Park region, San Diego County, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Eviner, V. T. 2001. Linking plant community composition and ecosystem dynamics: Interactions of plant traits determine the ecosystem effects of plant species and plant species mixtures. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

——. 2004. Plant traits that influence ecosystem processes vary independently among species. Ecology 85:2215–2229.

Eviner, V. T. and F. S. Chapin. 2003a Biogeochemical interactions and biodiversity. Pages 151–173 in J. Melillo, C. B. Field, and B. Moldan, editors. Interactions of the major biogeochemical cycles: Global change and human impacts. Island Press.

——. 2003b. Functional matrix: A conceptual framework for predicting multiple plant effects on ecosystem processes. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 34:455–485.

——. 2003c. Gopher-plant-fungal interactions affect establishment of an invasive grass. Ecology 84:120–128.

——. 2005. Selective gopher disturbance influences plant species effects on nitrogen cycling. Oikos 109:154–166.

Eviner, V. T., F. S. Chapin and C. E. Vaughn. 2000. Nutrient manipulations in terrestrial ecosystems. Pages 289–307 in O. E. Sala, R. B. Jackson, H. A. Mooney, and R. W. Howarth, editors. Methods in ecosystem science. Springer, New York.

——. 2006. Seasonal variations in species effects on N and P cycling. Ecology 87:974–986.

Ewing, A. L. and J. W. Menke. 1983. Reproductive potential of Bromus mollis and Avena barbata under drought conditions. Madroño 30:159–167.

Ewing, R. A., N. Tosta, R. Tuazon, L. Huntsinger, R. Morose, K. Nielson, R. Motroni and S. Turan. 1988. California’s forests and rangelands: Growing conflict over changing uses. California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Forest and Rangeland Resources Assessment Program, Sacramento, CA.

Facelli, J. M. and T. A. Pickett. 1991a. Plant litter: Its dynamics and effects of plant community and structure. Botanical Review 57:1–32.

——. 1991b. Plant litter: Light interception and effects on an old-field plant community. Ecology 71:1024–1031.

Fan, A. M., C. C. Willhite and S. A. Book. 1987. Evaluation of the nitrate drinking water standard with reference to infant methemoglobinemia and potential reproductive toxicity. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 7:135–148.

Farrior, M. 2005. Breakthrough strategies for engaging the public: Emerging trends in communications and social science. Biodiversity Project. http://www.biodiversityproject.org/bpemergingtrendspaper.doc (accessed June 8, 2007).

Fehmi, J. S. and J. W. Bartolome. 2002. Species richness and California voles in an annual and a perennial grassland. Western North American Naturalist 62:73–81.

——. 2003. Impact of livestock grazing and burning on the spatial patterns of the grass Nassella pulchra (Poaceae). Madroño 50:8–14.

Fehmi, J. S., K. J. Rice and E. A. Laca. 2004. Radial dispersion of neighbors and the small-scale competitive impact of two annual grasses on a native perennial grass. Restoration Ecology 12:63–69.

Felson, A. J. and S. T. A. Pickett. 2005. Designed experiments: New approaches to studying urban ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 3:549–556.

Fenn, M. E., J. S. Baron, E. B. Allen, H. M. Rueth, K. R. Nydick, L. Geiser, W. D. Bowman, J. O. Sickman, T. Meixner, D. W. Johnson and P. Neitlich. 2003a. Ecological effects of nitrogen deposition in the western United States. Bioscience 53:404–420.

(p.338) Fenn, M. E., R. Haeuber, G. S. Tonnesen, J. S. Baron, S. Grossman-Clarke, D. Hope, D. A. Jaffe, S. Copeland, L. Geiser, H. M. Rueth and J. O. Sickman. 2003b. Nitrogen emissions, deposition, and monitoring in the western United States. Bioscience 53:391–403.

Feranec, R. S. 2003. Stable isotopes, hypsodonty, and the paleodiet of Hemiauchenia (Mammalia: Camelidae): A morphological specialization creating ecological generalization. Paleobiology 29:230–242.

——. 2004. Geographic variation in the diet of hypsodont herbivores from the Rancholabrean of Florida. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoecology 207:359–369.

Feranec, R. S., and B. J. MacFadden. 2000. Evolution of the grazing niche in Pleistocene mammals from Florida: evidence from stable isotopes. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoecology 162:155–169.

Ferraro, D. O., and M. Oesterheld. 2002. Effect of defoliation on grass growth. A quantitative review. Oikos 98:125–133.

Fiedler, P. L., and R. A. Leidy. 1987. Plant communities of Ring Mountain Preserve, Marin County, California. Madroño 34:173–192.

Field, C. B., F. S. Chapin, N. R. Chiariello, E. A. Holland and H. A. Mooney. 1996. The Jasper Ridge CO2 experiment: Design and motivation. Pages 121–145 in G. W. Koch and H. A. Mooney, editors. Carbon dioxide and terrestrial ecosystems. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Field, C. B., G. C. Daily, F. B. Davis, S. Gaines, P. A. Matson, J. Melack and N. L. Miller. 1999. Confronting climate change in California: Ecological impacts on the Golden State. The Union of Concerned Scientists and The Ecological Society of America, Cambridge, MA.

Field, C. B., C. P. Lund, N. R. Chiariello and B. E. Mortimer. 1997. CO2 effects on the water budget of grassland microcosm communities. Global Change Biology 3:197–206.

Field, C. B., and M. R. Raupach, editors. 2004. The global carbon cycle: Integrating humans, climate, and the natural world. Island Press, Washington.

Fierer, N., A. S. Allen, J. P. Schimel and P. A. Holden. 2003a. Controls on microbial CO2 production: A comparison of surface and subsurface soil horizons. Global Change Biology 9:1322–1332.

Fierer, N. and J. P. Schimel. 2002. Effects of drying-rewetting frequency on soil carbon and nitrogen transformations. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34:777–787.

Fierer, N., J. P. Schimel and P. A. Holden. 2003b. Influence of drying-rewetting frequency on soil bacterial community structure. Microbial Ecology 45:63–71.

Firestone, M. K., L. J. Halverson and D. J. Herman. 1995. Nutrient cycling in managed and non-managed oak woodland-grass ecosystems: Final report. Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program. University of California, Berkeley.

Fitch, H. S. and J. R. Bentley. 1949. Use of California annual-plant forage by range rodents. Ecology 30:306–321.

Flahault, C. and C. Schroeter. 1910. Nomenclature phytogéo-graphique. Rapports et propositions. IIIe. Congrés International de Botanique, Brussels.

Fleischner, T. L. 1994. Ecological costs of livestock grazing in western North America. Conservation Biology 8:629–644.

Fleshman, E. 2000. Monitoring the response of butterfly communities to prescribed fire. Environmental Management 26:685–695.

Flessa, H., M. Potthoff and N. Loftfield. 2002. Laboratory estimates of CO2 and N2O emissions following surface application of grass mulch: Importance of indigenous microflora of mulch. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 34:875–879.

FNA. 2007. Flora of North America. Flora of North America Association.http://www.fna.org/FNA.

Foin, T. C. and M. M. Hektner. 1986. Secondary succession and the fate of native species in a California coastal prairie community. Madroño 33:189–206.

Follett, R. F., J. M. Kimble and R. Lal. 2001. The potential of U.S. grazing lands to sequester carbon and mitigate the greenhouse effect. Lewis Publishers, New York.

Ford, L. D. and G. Hayes. In press. Northern coastal scrub and coastal prairie. In M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. 3rd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Ford, L. D. and L. Huntsinger. 2006. Interview notes. Central Coast Rangeland Coalition Sustainability Indicators Project.

Ford, R. I. 1985. Patterns of food production in North America. Pages 341–364 in R. I. Ford, editor. Prehistoric food production in North America. Anthropological Papers No. 74. Museum of Anthropology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Forman R. T. T., D. Sperling, J. A. Bissonette, A. A. Clevenger, C. D. Cutshall, V. H. Dale, L. Fahrig, R. France, C. R. Goldman, K. Heaune, J. A. Jones, F. J. Swanson, T. Turrentine and T. C. Winter. 2003. Road ecology: Science and solutions. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Fossum, H. C. 1990. Effects of prescribed burning and grazing on Stipa pulchra (Hitch.) seeding emergence and survival. Master’s thesis, University of California, Davis.

Foster, B. L. 1999. Establishment, competition, and the distibution of native grasses among Michigan old-fields. Journal of Ecology 87:476–489.

Foster, B. L. and K. L. Gross. 1998. Species richness in a successional grassland: effects of nitrogen enrichment and plant litter. Ecology 79:2593–2603.

Foster, G. M. 1944. A summary of Yuki culture. Anthropological Records 5(3):155–244.

Franck, V. M., B. A. Hungate, F. S. Chapin and C. B. Field. 1997. Decomposition of litter produced under elevated CO2: Dependence on plant species and nutrient supply. Biogeochemistry 36:223–237.

Frank, D. A., R. S. Inouye, N. Huntly, G. W. Minshall and J. E. Anderson. 1994. The biogeochemistry of a north-temperate grassland with native ungulates: Nitrogen dynamics in Yellowstone National Park. Biogeochemistry 26:163–188.

Frank, D. A. and S. J. McNaughton. 1993. Evidence for the promotion of aboveground grassland production by native large herbivores in Yellowstone National Park. Oecologia 96:157–161.

Franklin, I. and R. C. Lewontin. 1970. Is the gene the unit of selection? Genetics 65:707–734.

Franklin, J., A. D. Syphard, D. J. Mladenoff, H. S. He, D. K. Simons, R. P. Martin, D. Deutschman and J. F. O’Leary. 2001. Simulating the effects of different fire regimes on plant functional groups in Southern California. Ecological Modelling 142:261–283.

FRCC. 2005. Fire Regime Condition Class. http://www.frcc.gov.

Fredeen, A. L., J. T. Randerson, N. M. Holbrook and C. B. Field. 1997. Elevated atmospheric CO2 increases water availability in a water-limited grassland ecosystem. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 33:1033–1039.

(p.339) Freitas, H. and H. A. Mooney. 1996. Effects of water stress and soil texture on the performance of two Bromus hordeaceus ecotypes from sandstone and serpentine soils. Acta Oecologia 17:307–317.

Freilich, J. E., J. M. Emlen, J. J. Duda, D. C. Freeman and P. J. Cafaro. 2003. Ecological effects of ranching: a six-point critique. BioScience 53:759–765.

Fried, J. and L. Huntsinger. 1998. Managing for naturalness at Mt. Diablo State Park. Society and Natural Resources 11:505–516.

Fried, J. S., M. S. Torn and E. Mills. 2004. The impact of climate change on wildfire severity: A regional forecast for northern California. Climatic Change 64:169–191.

Friends of Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve. 1997. Grasses of Los Peñasquitos Canyon. San Diego: Friends of Los Peñasquitos Canyon Preserve.

Frost, W. E. and N. K. McDougald. 1989. Tree canopy effects on herbaceous production of annual rangeland during drought. Journal of Range Management 42:281–283.

Frost, W. E., N. K. McDougald and M. W. Demment. 1991. Blue oak canopy effect on seasonal forage production and quality. Pages 307–311 in R. Standiford, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on oak woodlands and hardwood rangeland management 1991. PSW-GTR-126. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Fuhlendorf, S. D. and D. M. Engle. 2001. Restoring heterogeneity on rangelands: Ecosystem management based on evolutionary grazing patterns. Bioscience 51:625–632.

Furbush, P. 1953. Control of medusahead on California ranges. Journal of Forestry 51:118–121.

Gabel, J. R. 1972. Further observations of theraphosid tarantula burrows. Pan-Pacific Entomologist 48:72–73.

Gabet, E. J. 2000. Gopher bioturbation: Field evidence for nonlinear hillslope diffusion. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms 25:1419–1428.

GAO. 2005. Livestock grazing: Federal expenditures and receipts vary, depending on the agency and the purpose of the fee charged. GAO-05-869. U.S. General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

Garcelon, D. K., S. J. Escover and S. F. Timm. 1993. Feral pig control methods on Santa Catalina Island. Pages 44–45 in W. Tietje and R. H. Barrett, editors. The wild pig in California oak woodland: Ecology and economics, Workshop Proceedings, May 25 and 26, 1993. Integrated Hardwood and Range Management Program, University of California, Berkeley.

Garcia, P., F. J. Vences, M. P. de la Vega and R. W. Allard. 1989. Allelic and genotypic composition of ancestral Spanish and colonial Californian gene pools of Avena barbata: Evolutionary implications. Genetics 122:687–694.

Garcia-Crespo, D. 1983. Multiple treatments to renovate depleted bunchgrass (Muhlenbergia rigens and Stipa pulchra) range sites in southern California. Ph.D. dissertation, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA.

Gardner, K. M. and R. G. Latta. 2006. Identifying loci under selection across contrasting environments in Avena barbata using quantitative trait locus mapping. Molecular Ecology 15:1321–1333.

Gasith, A. and V. H. Resh. 1999. Streams in Mediterranean climate regions: Abiotic influences and biotic responses to predictable seasonal events. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 30:51–81.

Gayton, A. H. 1936. Estudillo among the Yokuts: 1819. Pages 67–85 in R. H. Lowie, editor. Essays in anthropology presented to A. L. Kroeber in celebration of his sixtieth birthday. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 1948. Yokuts and Western Mono ethnography I: Tulare Lake, Southern Valley, and Central Foothill Yokuts. University of Califorina Press, Berkeley.

——. 1976. Culture-environment integration: External references in Yokuts life. Pages 790–798 in L. J. Bean and T. C. Blackburn, editors. Native Californians: A theoretical retrospective. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, California.

Gelbard, J. L. 2003. Grasslands at a crossroads: Protecting and enhancing resilience to climate change. Pages 13–40 in L. J. Hanson, J. L. Biringer, and J. R. Hoffman, editors. Buying time: A user’s manual for building resistance and resilience to climate change in natural systems. World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC.

Gelbard, J. L. and J. Belnap. 2003. Roads as conduits for exotic plant invasions in a semiarid landscape. Conservation Biology 17:420–432.

Gelbard, J. L. and S. Harrison. 2003. Roadless habitats as refuges for native grasslands: interactions with soil, aspect, and grazing. Ecological Applications 13:404–415.

——. 2005. Invasibility of roadless grasslands: An experimental study of yellow starthistle. Ecological Applications 15:1570–1580.

Gentner, B. J. and J. A. Tanaka. 2002. Classifying federal public land grazing permittees. Journal of Range Management 55:2–11.

George, M. R. 1992. Ecology and management of medusahead. Agricultural Experiment Station Series 32. Department of Agronomy and Range Science, University of California, Davis, CA.

George, M. R., J. R. Brown and W. J. Clawson. 1992. Application of non-equilibrium ecology to management of Mediterranean grasslands. Journal of Range Management 45:436–440.

George, M. R., R. S. Knight, P. B. Sands and M. W. Demment. 1989a. Intensive grazing increases beef production. California Agriculture 43:16–19.

George, M. R., R. E. Larsen, N. K. McDougald, K. W. Tate, J. D. Gerlach and K. O. Fulgham. 2002. Influence of grazing on channel morphology of intermittent streams. Journal of Range Management 55:551–557.

George, M. R., C. A. Raguse, W. J. Clawson, C. B. Wilson, R. T. Willoughby, N. K. McDougald, D. A. Duncan and A. H. Murphy. 1988. Correlation of degree-days with annual herbage yields and livestock gains. Journal of Range Management 41:193–196.

George, M. R., W. A. Williams, N. K. McDougald, W. J. Clawson and A. H. Murphy. 1989b. Predicting peak standing crop on annual range using weather variables. Journal of Range Management 42:508–513.

Gerlach, J. D. 2004. The impacts of serial land-use changes and biological invasions on soil water resources in California, USA. Journal of Arid Enviroments 57:365–379.

Gerlach, J. D., A. Dyer and K. J. Rice. 1998. Grassland and foothill woodland ecosystems of the Central Valley. Fremontia 26:39–43.

Gerlach, J. D. and K. J. Rice. 2003. Testing life history correlates of invasiveness using congeneric plant species. Ecological Applications 13:167–179.

(p.340) Gifford, E. W. 1939. Karok field notes. Ethnological Document No. 174 in Bancroft Library, Department and Museum of Anthropology, University of California, Berkeley.

Gill, A. M. 1977. Plant traits adaptive to fires in Mediterranean land ecosystems. Pages 17–36 in H. A. Mooney and C. E. Conrad, editors. Proceedings of the symposium on environmental consequences of fire and fuel management in Mediterranean ecosystems, August 1–5, 1977, Palo Alto, CA. General Technical Report WO-3. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC.

Gillespie, I. G. and E. B. Allen. 2004. Fire and competition in a southern California grassland:impacts on the rare forb Erodium macrophyllum. Journal of Applied Ecology 41:643–652.

Gillespie, L. J. and R. J. Soreng. 2005. A phylogenetic analysis of the bluegrass genus Poa based on cpDNA restriction site data. Systematic Botany 30:84–105.

GISI. 2005. Global Invasive Species Initiative. Invasive plant documents & photographs. http://tncweeds.ucdavis.edu/esadocs.html (accessed March 26, 2007).

Giusti, G. A., R. B. Standiford, D. D. McCreary, A. Merenlender and T. Scott. 2004. Oak woodland conservation in California’s changing landscape. University of California Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, Berkeley.

Gleeson, S. K. and R. E. Good. 2003. Root allocation and multiple nutrient limitation in the New Jersey Pinelands. Ecology Letters 6:220–227.

Gleeson, S. and D. Tilman. 1992. Plant allocation and the multiple limitation hypothesis. American Naturalist 139:1322–1343.

Goble, D. D., M. Scott and F. W. Davis. 2005. The Endangered Species Act at thirty: Vol. 1. Renewing the conservation promise. Island Press, Washington, D.C.

Gobster, P. H., and R. B. Hull, editors. 2000. Restoring nature: Perspectives from the social sciences and humanities. Island Press, Washington DC.

Goerrissen, J. H. 2005. Grassland birds in California : An investigation into the influence of season, floristic composition, and artificial structures on avian community structure. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

GoganP.J.P., and R. H. Barrett. 1995. Elk and deer diets in a coastal prairie-scrub mosaic, California. Journal of Range Management 48:327–335.

Goldberg, D. and A. Novoplansky. 1997. On the relative importance of competition in unproductive environments. Journal of Ecology 85:409–418.

Goldman, S., K. Jackson and T. A. Bursztynsky. 1986. Erosion and sediment control handbook. McGraw Hill, New York.

Golet, H. G., M. D. Robert, R. A. Luster, G. Werner, E. W. Larsen, R. Unger and G. G. White. 2006. Assessing societal impacts when planning restoration of large alluvial rivers: A case study of the Sacramento River Project, California. Environmental Management 37(6):862–879.

Golubiewski, N. E. 2006. Urbanization increases grassland carbon pools: Effects of landscaping in Colorado’s front range. Ecological Applications 16:555–571.

Gong, P. 2004. Hardwood rangeland monitoring with aerial photography. Oaks’n’ Folks 20.

Goodell, K., D. R. Elam, J. D. Nason and N. C. Ellstrand. 1997. Gene flow among small populations of a self-incompatible plant: An interaction between demography and genetics. American Journal of Botany 84:1362–1371.

Goodrich, J., C. Lawson and V. P. Lawson. 1980. Kashaya Pomo plants. Page 171 in American Indian Monograph Series, No. 2. American Indian Studies Center, Los Angeles.

Gordon, A. and A. W. Sampson. 1939. Composition of common California foothill plants as a factor in range management. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 627. University of California, Berkeley.

Gordon, B. L. 1974. Monterey Bay area: Natural history and cultural imprints. Boxwood Press, Pacific Grove, California.

Gordon, D. R. and K. J. Rice. 1992. Partitioning of space and water between two California annual grassland species. American Journal of Botany 79:967–976.

Gordon, D. R. and K. J. Rice. 1993. Competitive effects of grassland annuals on soil water and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings. Ecology 74:68–82.

——. 2000. Competitive suppression of Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) seedling emergence and growth. American Journal of Botany 87:986–994.

Gordon, D. R., J. M. Welker, J. W. Menke and K. J. Rice. 1989. Competition for soil water between annual plants and blue oak (Quercus douglasii) seedlings. Oecologia 79:533–541.

Gordon, W. S. and R. B. Jackson. 2000. Nutrient concentrations in fine roots. Ecology 81:275–280.

Gotelli, N. J. and R. K. Colwell. 2001. Quantifying biodiversity: Procedures and pitfalls in the measurement and comparison of species richness. Ecology Letters 4:379–391.

Gould, F. W. and R. Moran. 1981. The grasses of Baja California, Mexico. Memoirs San Diego Society of Natural History 12:1–140.

Gowans, K. D. 1967. Soil survey of Tehama County, California. USDA Soil Conservation Service and Forest Service and University of California Experiment Station, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

GPWG. 2001. (Grass Phylogeny Working Group) Phylogeny and subfamilial classification of the grasses (Poaceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanic Garden 88:373–457.

Graham, C. A. 1956. Some reactions of annual vegetation to fire on Sierra Nevada foothill rangeland. M. S.thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Graham, R. W. 2003. Pleistocene tapir from Hill Top Cave, Trigg County, Kentucky, and a review of Plio-Pleistocene tapirs of North America and their paleoecology. Pages 87–118 in B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, and R. W. Graham, editors. The ice cave faunas of North America. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Gram, W. K., E. T. Borer, K. L. Cottingham, E. W. Seabloom, V. L. Boucher, L. Goldwasser, F. Micheli, B. E. Kendall and R. S. Burton. 2004. Distribution of plants in a California serpentine grassland: Are rocky hummocks spatial refuges for native species? Plant Ecology 172:159–171.

Grant, G., L. Engleback and B. Nicholson. 2003. Green roofs: Their existing status and potential for conserving biodiversity in urban areas. English Nature Research Report 498. http://nat-uralengland.twoten.com/naturalenglandshop/docs/R498.pdf.

Grayson, A. J. 1920. Game in the San Joaquin Valley in 1853. California Fish and Game 6:104–107.

Grayson, D. 1991. Late Pleistocene mammalian extinctions in North America: Taxonomy, chronology, and explanations. Journal of World Prehistory 5:193–231.

Green, J. L., J. Harte and A. Ostling. 2003. Species richness, endemism and abundance patterns: Tests of two fractal models in a serpentine grassland. Ecology Letters 6:919–928.

(p.341) Green, L. R. and C. A. Graham. 1957. Observations on growth and control of tarweed. Forest Research Notes 130. California Forest and Range Experiment Station, University of California, Berkeley.

Green, L. R., K. A. Wagnon, et al. 1958. Diet and grazing habits of steers on foothill range fertilized with sulfur. Journal of Range Management 11:221–227.

Greenlee, J. M. and J. H. Langenheim. 1980. The history of wildfires in the region of Monterey Bay. California State Department of Parks and Recreation, Sacramento.

——. 1990. Historic fire regimes and their relation to vegetation patterns in the Monterey Bay area of California. American Midland Naturalist 124:239–253.

Gregory, S. D., E. K. Espeland, T. M. Carlsen and E. K. Bissell. 2001. Demography and population biology of a rare tarplant, Blepharizonia plumosa (Asteraceae), a California summer annual forb. Madroño 48:272–285.

Griesbach, J. A., R. Creamer, G. Lorens, B. W. Falk, C. O. Qualset and L. E. Jackson. 1989. Barley yellow dwarf of California cereals. California Agriculture 43:23–24.

Griesbach, J. A., B. W. Falk and R. A. Valverde. 1990a. Incidence of barley yellow dwarf viruses in California cereals. Plant Disease 74:111–114.

Griesbach, J. A., B. J. Steffenson, M. P. Brown, B. W. Falk and R. K. Webster. 1990b. Infection of grasses by barley yellow dwarf viruses in California. Crop Science 30:1173–1177.

Griffin, J. R. 1971. Oak regeneration in the upper Carmel Valley, California. Ecology 52:862–868.

——. 1976. Regeneration in Quercus lobata savannas, Santa Lucia Mountains, California. American Midland Naturalist 95:422–435.

——. 1977. Oak woodland. Pages 383–415 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Griffin, J. R. 1980. Sprouting in fire-damaged valley oaks, Chews Ridge, California. Pages 216–219 in T. R. Plumb, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks 1980. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-44. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albany, CA.

Griggs, F. T. 2000. Vina Plains Preserve: Eighteen years of adaptive management. Fremontia 27:48–51.

Grime, J. P. 1973. Competitive exclusion in herbaceous vegetation. Nature 242:213–225.

——. 1979a. Evidence of the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. American Naturalist 111:1169–1194.

——. 1979b. Plant strategies and vegetation processes. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Grinnell, J. 1923. The burrowing rodents of California as agents of soil formation. Journal of Mammalogy 4(3):137–149.

——. 1932. Habitat relations of the giant kangaroo rat. Journal of Mammalogy 13:305–320.

——. 1933. Review of the recent mammal fauna of California. University of California Press Publications in Zoology 40:71–234.

——. Up-hill planters. Condor 38:80–82.

——. 1938. California’s grizzly bears. Sierra Club Bulletin 23:70–81.

Grissino-Mayer, H. and T. Swetnam. 2000. Century-scale climate forcing of fire regimes in the American Southwest. Holocene 10:213–220.

Grogan, P. and F. S. Chapin. 2000. Nitrogen limitation of production in a Californian annual grassland: The contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizae. Biogeochemistry 49:37–51.

Grossman, D. H., D. Faber-Langendoen, A. S. Weakley, M. Anderson, P. Bourgeron, R. Crawford, K. Gooding, S. Landaal, K. Metzler, K. D. Patterson, M. Pyne, M. Reid and L. Sneddon. 1988. International classification of ecological communities: Terrestrial vegetation of the United States. The Nature Conservancy, lArlington, VA.

Grover, J. P. 1997. Resource competition. Chapman & Hall, London.

Grubb, P. J. 1977. The maintenence of species-richness in plant communities: the importance of the regeneration niche. Biological Reviews 52:107–145.

Grundy, A. C. and W. Bond. 1998. Managing the weed seedbank. Nutrition and Food Science 98:80–83.

Guggenberger, G., E. T. Elliott, S. D. Frey, J. Six and K. Paustian. 1999. Microbial contributions to the aggregation of a cultivated grassland soil amended with starch. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 31:407–419.

Gulmon, S. L. 1979. Competition and coexistence: Three annual grass species. American Midland Naturalist 101:403–416.

——. 1992. Patterns of seed germination in Californian serpentine grassland species. Oecologia 89:27–31.

Gulmon, S. L., N. R. Chiariello, H. A. Mooney and C. C. Chu. 1983. Phenology and resource use in three co-occurring grassland annuals. Oecologia 58:33–42.

Gurevitch, J., P. S. Curtis and M. H. Jones. 2001. Meta-analysis in ecology. Advances in Ecological Research 32:199–247.

Gurevitch, J. and L. V. Hedges. 1999. Statistical issues in ecological meta-analysis. Ecology 80:1142–1149.

Gusewell, S., W. Koerselman and J. T. A. Verhoeven. 2003. Bio-mass N:P ratios as indicators of nutrient limitation for plant populations in wetlands. Ecological Applications 13:372–384.

Guthrie, R. D. 1990. Frozen fauna of the mammoth steppe. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IL.

Gutowski, W. J., Z. Pan, C. J. Anderson, R. W. Arritt, F. Otieno, E. S. Takle, J. H. Christensen and O. B. Christensen. 2000. What RCM data area available for California impacts modeling? (How good is it?) Presented at California Energy Commission Workshop on Climate Change Scenarios for California. California Energy Commission, Sacramento, California. http://www.pircs.iastate.edu/people/Gutowski/Presentations/CalEnergy/.

Hack-Ten-Broeke, M. J. D. and A. H. J. Van Der Putten. 1997. Nitrate leaching affected by management options with respect to urine-affected areas and groundwater levels for grazed grassland. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 66:197–210.

Haidinger, T. L. and J. E. Keeley. 1993. Role of high fire frequency in destruction of mixed chaparral. Madrono 40:141–147.

Hall, E. R. 1927. An outbreak of house mice in Kern County, California. University of California Press Publications in Zoology 30:189–203.

Hall, F. C. 2002. Photo point monitoring handbook: Part B—concepts and analysis. General Technical Report PNW-GTR-526. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Northwest Research Station, Portland, OR.

Hall, L. M., M.R. George, D.D. McCreary and T.E. Adams. 1992. Effects of cattle grazing on blue oak seedling damage and survival. Journal of Range Management 45:503–506.

(p.342) Halligan, J. P. 1973. Bare areas associated with shrub stands in grassland—case of Artemisia californica. Bioscience 23:429–432.

——. 1976. Toxicity of Artemisia californica to 4 associated herb species. American Midland Naturalist 95:406–421.

Halsey, R. W. 2004. In search of allelopathy: An eco-historical view of the investigation of chemical inhibition in California coastal sage scrub and chamise chaparral. Journal of the Torrey Botanical Society 131:343–367.

Hamilton, J. G. 1997a. Changing perceptions of pre-European grasslands in California. Madroño 44:311–333.

——. 1997b. Environmental and biotic factors affecting the occurrence of the native bunchgrass Nassella pulchra in California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Hamilton, J. G., J. R. Griffin and M. R. Stromberg. 2002. Long-term population dynamics of native Nassella (Poaceae) bunch-grasses in unmanaged stands in central California. Madroño 49:274–284.

Hamilton, J. G., C. Holzapfel and B. E. Mahall. 1999. Coexistence and interference between a native perennial grass and non-native annual grasses in California. Oecologia 121:518–526.

Hamrick, J. L. and R. W. Allard. 1972. Microgeographical variation in allozyme frequencies in Avena barbata. Evolution 29:438–442.

Hamrick, J. L. and M. J. W. Godt. 1989. Allozyme diversity in plant species. Pages 43–63 in A. H. D. Brown, M. T. Clegg, A. L. Kahler, and B. S. Weir, editors. Plant population genetics, breeding, and genetic resources. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Hamrick, J. L. and L. R. Holden. 1979. Influence of microhabitat heterogeneity on gene frequency distribution and gametic phase disequilibrium in Avena barbata. Evolution 33:521–533.

Hamrick, J. L. and J. M. Lee. 1987. Effect of soil surface topography and litter cover on the germination, survival, and growth of musk thistle (Carduus nutans). American Journal of Botany 74:451–457.

Hansell, M. H. 1993. The ecological impact of animal nests and burrows. Functional Ecology 7:5–12.

Hansen, R. 1978. Shasta ground sloth food habits, Rampart Cave, Arizona. Paleobiology 4:302–319.

——. 1980. Late Pleistocene plant fragments in the dung of herbivores at Cowboy Cave. Pages 179–189 in J. Jennings, editor. Cowboy Cave. University of Utah Anthropological Papers No.104. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Hansen, R. B. 1986. The effect of fire and fire frequency on grassland species composition in California’s Tulare Basin. Master’s thesis, California State University, Fresno.

Harding, J., C. B. Mankinen and M. H. Elliott. 1974. Genetics of Lupinus VII. Outcrossing, autofertility, and variability in natural populations of the group. Taxon 23:729–738.

Harding, J. and K. Barnes. 1977. Genetics of Lupinus. X. Genetic variability, heterozygosity and outcrossing in colonial populations of Lupinus succulentus. Evolution 31:247–255.

Harper, J., K. Tate and M. George. 1998. Grazing effects on riparian areas. Rangeland Watershed Program Fact Sheet 14. University of California, Davis. http://danr.ucop.edu/uccelr/h14.htm (accessed June 8, 2007).

Harpole, W. S. 2005. Limiting resources and patterns of species abundance and diversity. Ph.D. dissertation, University of Minnesota, St. Paul.

——. 2006. Resource-ratio theory and the control of invasive plants. Plant and Soil 280:23–27.

Harpole, W. S. and D. Tilman. 2007. Grassland species loss due to reduced niche dimension. Nature 446:791–793.

Harrington, J. P. 1942. Culture element distributions: XIX. Central California coast. Anthropological Records 7(1):1–46.

Harris, J. and G. T. Jefferson. 1985. Rancho La Brea: treasures of the tarpits. Los Angeles County Museum, Los Angeles.

Harris, N. R., W. E. Frost, N. K. McDougald, M. R. George and D. L. Nielsen. 2002. Long-term residual dry matter mapping for monitoring California hardwood rangelands. Pages 87–96 in R. B. Standiford, D. McCreary, and K. L. Purcell, editors. Proceedings of the fifth symposium on oak woodlands: Oaks in California’s changing landscape. October 22–25, San Diego, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-184. USDA Forest Service, Albany, CA.

Harrison, D. 1982. The visual quality of the natural prairie environment in prairie fiction. Pages 143–157 in B. Sadler and A. Carlson, editor. Environmental aesthetics: Essays in interpretation. Western Geographical Series 20. University of Victoria, Victoria, British Columbia.

Harrison, S. 1999a. Local and regional diversity in a patchy landscape: Native, alien, and endemic herbs on serpentine. Ecology 80:70–80.

——. 1999b. Native and alien species diversity at the local and regional scales in a grazed California grassland. Oecologia 121:99–106.

Harrison, S., K. F. Davies, H. D. Safford and J. H. Viers. 2006a. Beta diversity and the scale-dependence of the productivity-diversity relationship: A test in the Californian serpentine flora. Journal of Ecology 94:110–117.

Harrison, S., J. B. Grace, K. F. Davies, H. D. Safford and J. H. Viers. 2006b. Invasion in a diversity hotspot: Exotic cover and native richness in the Californian serpentine flora. Ecology 87:695–703.

Harrison, S., C. Hohn and S. Ratay. 2002. Distribution of exotic plants along roads in a peninsular nature reserve. Biological Invasions 4:425–430.

Harrison, S. and B. D. Inouye. 2002. High beta diversity in the flora of Californian serpentine “islands.” Biodiversity and Conservation 11:1869–1876.

Harrison, S., B. D. Inouye and H. D. Safford. 2003. Ecological heterogeneity in the effects of grazing and fire on grassland diversity. Conservation Biology 17:837–845.

Harrison, S., K. Rice and J. Maron. 2001. Habitat patchiness promotes invasion by alien grasses on serpentine soil. Biological Conservation 100:45–53.

Harrison, S., H. D. Safford, J. B. Grace, J. H. Viers and K. F. Davies. 2006c. Regional and local species richness in an insular environment: Serpentine plants in California. Ecological Monographs 76:41–56.

Harrison, S., J. H. Viers and J. F. Quinn. 2000. Climatic and spatial patterns of diversity in the serpentine plants of California. Diversity and Distributions 6:153–161.

Hart, J. 1991. Farming on the edge: saving family farms in Marin County, California. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Hart, S. C., M. K. Firestone, E. A. Paul and J. L. Smith. 1993. Flow and fate of soil nitrogen in an annual grassland and young mixed-conifer forest. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 25:431–442.

Harte, J., A. Kinzig and J. L. Green. 1999. Self-similarity in the distribution and abundance of species. Science 284:334–336.

(p.343) Hartley, W. and C. Slater. 1960. Studies on the origin, evolution, and distribution of the Gramineae. III. The tribes of the subfamily Eragrostideae. Australian Journal of Botany 8:256–276.

Hartmans, M. A., H. Zhang and E. L. Michalson. 1997. Costs of yellow starthistle management in Idaho. Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 793. University of Idaho, Moscow.

Harvey, L. E. 1989. Spatial and temporal dynamics of a blue oak woodland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Santa Barbara.

Hastings, M. S. and J. M. DiTomaso. 1996. Fire controls yellow star thistle in California grasslands. Restoration and Management Notes 14:124–128.

Hatch, D. A., J. W. Bartolome, J. S. Fehmi and D. S. Hillyard. 1999. Effects of burning and grazing on a coastal California grassland. Restoration Ecology 7:376–381.

Hatch, D. A., J. W. Bartolome and D. S. Hillyard. 1991. Testing a management strategy for restoration of California’s native grasslands. Pages 343–349 in J. Edelbrock and S. Carpenter, editors. Yosemite Centennial Symposium proceedings: Natural areas and Yosemite, prospects for the future, a global issues symposium joining the 17th Annual Natural Areas Conference with the Yosemite Centennial Celebration, October 13–20, 1990. National Park Service, Davis, CA.

Haubensak, K. A. 2001. Invasion and impacts of nitrogen-fixing shrubs Genista monspessulana and Cytisus scoparius in grasslands of Washington and coastal California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Haubensak, K. A. and C. M. D’Antonio. 2006. Restoration of a coastal California grassland after Invasion by nitrogen-fixing shrubs, french broom and scotch broom. Ecological Restoration 24:93–99.

Haubensak, K. A., C. M. D’Antonio and J. Alexander. 2004. Effects of nitrogen-fixing shrubs in Washington and coastal California. Weed Technology 18:1475–1479.

Haubensak, K. A. and I. M. Parker. 2004. Soil changes accompanying invasion of the exotic shrub Cytisus scoparius in glacial outwash prairies of western Washington. Plant Ecology 175:71–79.

Havlin, J. L., J. D. Beaton, S. L. Tisdale and W. L. Nelson. 1999. Soil fertility and fertilizers. Pearson Education, Singapore.

Hawbecker, A. C. 1951. Small mammal relationships in an Ephedra community. Journal of Mammalogy 32:50–60.

Hawkes, C. V., J. Belnap, C. M. D’Antonio and M. K. Firestone. 2006. Arbuscular mycorrhizal assemblages in native plant roots change in the presence of exotic grasses. Plant and Soil 281:369–380.

Hawkes, C. V., I. F. Wren, D. J. Herman and M. K. Firestone. 2005. Plant invasion alters nitrogen cycling by modifying the soil nitrifying community. Ecology Letters 8:976–985.

Hayes, G. F. and K. D. Holl. 2003a. Cattle grazing impacts on annual forbs and vegetation composition of mesic grasslands in California. Conservation Biology 17:1694–1702.

Hayes, G. F. and K. D. Holl. 2003b. Site-specific responses of native and exotic species to disturbances in a mesic grassland community. Applied Vegetation Science 6:235–244.

Hayhoe, K., D. Cayan, C. B. Field, P. C. Frumhoff, E. P. Maurer, N. L. Miller, S. C. Moser, S. H. Schneider, K. N. Cahill, E. E. Cleland, L. Dale, R. Drapek, R. M. Hanemann, L. S. Kalkstein, J. Lenihan, C. K. Lunch, R. P. Neilson, S. C. Sheridan and J. H. Verville. 2004. Emissions pathways, climate change, and impacts on California. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:12422–12427.

Haynes, G. 1991. Mammoths, mastodonts, and elephants: Biology, behavior, and the fossil record. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

HCPB. 2006. The status of rare, threatened, and endangered plants and animals of California, 2000–2004. Habitat Conservation Planning Branch, California Department of Fish and Game, State of California, Resources Agency, Sacramento.

Heady, H. F. 1956. Changes in a California annual plant community induced by manipulation of natural mulch. Ecology 37:798–812.

———. 1958. Vegetational changes in the California annual type. Ecology 39:402–416.

——. 1965. The influence of mulch on herbage production in an annual grassland. Proceedings of the 9th International Grassland Congress 1:391–394.

——. 1972. Burning and the grasslands in California. Pages 97–107 in E. V. Komarek, editor. 12th annual Tall Timbers fire ecology conference 1972. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

——. 1977. Valley grassland. Pages 491–514 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Special Publication Number 9. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

——. 1984. Concepts and principles underlying grazing systems. Developing strategies for rangeland management: A report of the Committee on developing strategies for range-land management of the National Research Council National Academy of Sciences, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

——. 1988. Valley grassland. Pages 491–514 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial Vegetation of California, 2nd ed. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Heady, H. F., J. W. Bartolome, M. D. Pitt, G. D. Savelle and M. C. Stroud. 1992. California prairie. Pages 313–335 in R. T. Coupland, editor. Natural grasslands. Ecosystems of the World 8A. Elsevier, New York.

Heady, H. F. and R. D. Child. 1994. Rangeland ecology and management. Westview Press, Boulder, CO.

Heady, H. F., T. C. Foin, M. M. Hektner, D. W. Taylor, M. G. Barbour and W. J. Barry. 1988. Coastal prairie and northern coastal scrub. Pages 733–762 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California, 2nd ed. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Heaton, E. and A. M. Merenlander. 2000. Modeling vineyard expansion, potential habitat fragmentation. California Agriculture 54:12–20.

Hedges, L. V., J. Gurevitch and P. S. Curtis. 1999. The metaanalysis of response ratios in experimental ecology. Ecology 80:1150–1156.

Hedrick, D. W. 1948. The mulch layer of California annual ranges. Journal of Range Management 1:22–25.

——. 1951. Studies on the succession and manipulation of chamise brushlands in California. Ph.D. dissertation, Texas A&M College, College Station.

Heffner, K. 1984. Following the smoke: Contemporary plant procurement by the Indians of northwest California. Unpublished document. Six Rivers National Forest, Eureka, CA.

Heise, K. L. and A. M. Merenlender. 2002. Monitoring a half-century of change in a hardwood rangeland. Journal of Range Management 55:412–419.

(p.344) Heitschmidt, R. K. and J. W. Stuth. 1991. Grazing management: An ecological perspective. Timber Press, Portland, OR http//cnrit.tamu.edu/rlem/textbook/textbook-fr.html (accessed July 7, 2007).

Heizer, C. B. 1990. Seed to civilization: The story of food. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Heizer, R. F. 1959. The California Indians. California Monthly 69(7):19–31.

Hektner, M. M. and T. C. Foin. 1977. Vegetation analysis of a northern California coastal prairie: Sea Ranch, Sonoma County, California. Madroño 24:83–103.

Hektner, M. M., R. W. Martin and D. R. Davenport. 1983. The bald hills prairies of Redwood National Park. Pages 70–78 in C. Van Riper, L. D. Whittig, and M. L. Murphy, editors. Proceedings of the first biennial conference of research in California’s National Parks, 1983. Cooperative Parks Studies Unit, University of California.

Hellmann, J. J. 2002. The effect of an environmental change on mobile butterfly larvae and the nutritional quality of their hosts. Journal of Animal Ecology 71:925–936.

Hendry, G. W. 1931. The adobe brick as a historical source. Agricultural History 5:110–127.

Henry, H. A. L., N. R. Chiariello, P. M. Vitousek, H. A. Mooney and C. Field. 2006. Interactive effects of fire, elevated CO2, and N deposition on a California annual grassland. Ecosystems 9:1066–1075.

Henry, H. A. L., E. E. Cleland, C. B. Field and P. M. Vitousek. 2005. Interactive effects of elevated CO2, N deposition, and climate change on plant litter quality in a California annual grassland. Oecologia 142:465–473.

Herman, D. H., K. K. Johnson, D. H. Jaeger III, E. Schwartz and M. K. Firestone. 2006. Root influence on nitrogen mineralization and nitrification in Avena barbata rhizosphere soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:1504–1511.

Herman, D. J., L. J. Halverson and M. K. Firestone. 2003. Nitrogen dynamics in an annual grassland: Oak canopy, climate, and microbial population effects. Ecological Applications 13:593–604.

Hervey, D. F. 1949. Reaction of a California annual-plant community to fire. Journal of Range Management 2:116–121.

Hessl, A. and S. Spackman. 1995. Effects of fire on threatened and endangered plants: an annotated bibliography. Information and Technology Report 2. U.S. Dept. of the Interior, National Biological Service, Washington, DC.

Hester, T. R. 1978. Salinan. Pages 500–504 in R. F. Heizer, editor. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 8:California. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Hibbard, K. A., D. S. Schimel, S. Archer, D. S. Ojima and W. Parton. 2003. Grassland to woodland transitions: Integrating changes in landscape structure and biogeochemistry. Ecological Applications 13:911–926.

Hibberd, M. 1985. A comparison of water stress and site conditions for Quercus agrifolia in relation to controls on distribution. Master’s thesis, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA.

Hickman, J. C., editor. 1993. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Higgins, P. A. T., R. B. Jackson, J. M. Des Rosiers and C. B. Field. 2002. Root production and demography in a California annual grassland under elevated carbon dioxide. Global Change Biology 8:841–850.

Hik, D. S. and R. L. Jefferies. 1990. Increases in the net above-ground primary production of a salt-marsh forage grass: A test of the predictions of the herbivore-optimization model. Journal of Ecology 78:180–195.

Hilgard, E. W. 1895. Origin, value, and reclamation of alkali lands. In Yearbook of the U. S. Department of Agriculture. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Hill, L. W. and R. M. Rice. 1963. Converting from brush to grass increases water yield in southern California. Journal of Range Management 16:300–305.

Hill, M. A. 1979. TWINSPAN: A FORTRAN program for arranging multivariate data in an ordered two-way table by classification of the individuals and attributes. Section of Ecology and Systematics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY.

Hironaka, M. 1961. The relative rate of root development of cheatgrass and medusahead. Journal of Range Management 14:463–467.

Hitchcock, A. S. 1935. Manual of grasses of the United States. Miscellaneous Publication 200. U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Hitchcock, A. S. and A. Chase. 1951. Manual of grasses of the United States. Miscellaneous Publication 200 (revised). U. S. Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC.

Hobbs, N. T. 1996. Modification of ecosystems by ungulates. Journal of Wildlife Management 60:695–713.

Hobbs, R. J. 1985. Harvester ant foraging and plant species distribution in annual grassland. Oecologia 67:519–523.

Hobbs, R. J., S. L. Gulmon, V. J. Hobbs and H. A. Mooney. 1988. Effects of fertilizer addition and subsequent gopher disturbance on a serpentine annual grassland community. Oecologia 75:291–295.

Hobbs, R. J. and V. J. Hobbs. 1987. Gophers and grassland: A model of vegetation response to patchy soil disturbance. Vegetatio 69:141–146.

Hobbs, R. J. and L. F. Huenneke. 1992. Disturbance, diversity, and invasion: Implications for conservation. Conservation Biology 6:324–337.

Hobbs, R. J. and H. E. Humphries. 1995. An integrated approach to the ecology and management of plant invasions. Conservation Biology 9:761–770.

Hobbs, R. J. and H. A. Mooney. 1985. Community and population dynamics of serpentine grassland annuals in relation to gopher disturbance. Oecologia 67:342–351.

——. 1986. Community changes following shrub invasion of grassland. Oecologia 70:508–513.

——. 1991. Effects of rainfall variability and gopher disturbance on serpentine annual grassland dynamics. Ecology 72:59–68.

——. 1995. Spatial and temporal variability in California annual grassland: Results from a long-term study. Journal of Vegetation Science 6:43–56.

Hoglund, O. K., H. W. Miller and A. L. Hafenrichter. 1952. Application of fertilizers to aid conservation on annual forage range. Journal of Range Management 5:55–61.

Hole, F. D. 1981. Effects of animals on soil. Geoderma 25:75–112.

Holland, E. A., W. J. Parton, J. K. Detling and D. L. Coppock. 1992. Physiological responses of plant populations to her-bivory and their consequences for ecosystem nutrient flow. The American Naturalist 140:685–706.

Holland, R. F. 1986. Preliminary description of the terrestrial natural communities of California. California Department of Fish and Game, Natural Heritage Division, Sacramento.

(p.345) ——. 2000. The Flying M Ranch: Soils, plants, and vernal pools in eastern Merced County. Fremontia 27/28:28–32.

Holland, R. F. and S. K. Jain. 1988. Vernal pools. Pages 515–533 in M. G. Barbour, and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Wiley Interscience, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Holland, V. L. 1973. A study of soil and vegetation under Quercus douglasii compared to open grassland. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

——. 1980. Effect of blue oak on rangeland forage production in central California. Pages 314–318 in T. R. Plumb, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks 1980. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-44. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albany, CA.

Holland, V. L. and D. J. Keil. 1995. California vegetation. Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Dubuque, IA.

Holland, V. L. and J. Morton. 1980. Effect of blue oak on nutritional quality of rangeland forage in central California. Pages 319–322 in T. R. Plumb, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on the ecology, management, and utilization of California oaks 1980. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-44. USDA Forest Service Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albany, CA.

Holloway, J. M., R. A. Dahlgren, B. Hansen and W. H. Casey. 1998. Contribution of bedrock nitrogen to high nitrate concentrations in stream water. Nature 395:785–788.

Holmes, T. H. and K. J. Rice. 1996. Patterns of growth and soil-water utilization in some exotic annuals and native perennial bunchgrasses of California. Annals of Botany 78:233–243.

Holmgren, M., M. Scheffer and M. A. Huston. 1997. The interplay of facilitation and competition in plant communities. Ecology 78:1966–1975.

Holst, P. J., C. J. Allan, M. H. Campbell and A. R. Gilmour. 2004. Grazing of pasture weeds by goats and sheep. 2. Scotch broom (Cytisus scoparius). Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 44:553–557.

Holstein, G. 2000. Plant communities ecotonal to the baylands. Pages 49–67 in P. Olofson, editor. Bayland ecosystem, species and community profiles. San Francisco Bay Area Wetlands Ecosystem Goals Project, San Francisco, CA.

——. 2001. Pre-agricultural grassland in Central California. Madroño 48:253–264.

Hone, J. 2002. Feral pigs in Namadgi Natioanal Park, Australia: Dynamics, impacts and management. Biological Conservation 105:231–242.

Hook, P. B., I. C. Burke and W. K. Lauenroth. 1991. Heterogeneity of soil and plant nitrogen and carbon associated with individual plants and openings in North American shortgrass steppe. Plant & Soil 138:247–256.

Hooper, D. U., D. E. Bignell, V. K. Brown, L. Brussaard, J. M. Dangerfield, D. H. Wall, D. A. Wardle, D. C. Coleman, K. E. Giller, P. Lavelle, W. H. Van der Putten, P. C. De Ruiter, J. Rusek, W. L. Silver, J. M. Tiedje and V. Wolters. 2000. Interactions between aboveground and belowground biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems: Patterns, mechanisms, and feedbacks. Bioscience 50:1049–1061.

Hooper, D. U. and J. S. Dukes. 2004. Overyielding among plant functional groups in a long-term experiment. Ecology Letters 7:95–105.

Hooper, D. U. and L. Johnson. 1999. Nitrogen limitation in dryland ecosystems: Responses to geographical and temporal variation in precipitation. Biogeochemistry 46:247–293.

Hooper, D. U. and P. M. Vitousek. 1998. Effects of plant competition and diversity on nutrient cycling. Ecological Monographs 68:121–148.

Hoopes, M. F. and L. M. Hall. 2002. Edaphic factors and competition affect pattern and formation and invasion in a California grassland. Ecological Applications 12:24–39.

Hopkins, N. A. 1987. Mycorrhizae in a California serpentine grassland community. Canadian Journal of Botany/Revue canadienne de botanique 65:484–487.

Hopkinson, P., J. S. Fehmi and J. W. Bartolome. 1999. Summer burns reduce cover, but not spread, of barbed goatgrass in California grassland. Ecological Restoration 17:168–169.

Horovitz, A. and J. Harding. 1972. Genetics of Lupinus. V. Intraspecific variability for reproductive traits in Lupinus nanus. Botanical Gazette 133:155–165.

Horz, H. P., A. Barbrook, C. B. Field and B. J. M. Bohannan. 2004. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria respond to multifactorial global change. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 101:15136–15141.

Houghton, J. T., Y. Ding, D. J. Griggs, M. Noguer, P. J. van der Linden and D. Xiaosu, editors. 2001. IPCC 2001: The scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the third assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

House, P. K., A. R. Ramelli and C. T. Wrucke. 2001. Geologic map of Battle Mountain Quadrangle, Lander County, Nevada. Map 130. 1:24,000 scale. Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology, Carson City.

Howe, H. F. and J. S. Brown. 2000. Early effects of rodent granivory on experimental forb communities. Ecological Applications 10:917–924.

——. 2001. The ghost of granivory past. Ecology Letters 4:371–378.

Howe, H. F., J. S. Brown and B. Zorn-Arnold. 2002. A rodent plague on prairie diversity. Ecology Letters 5:30–36.

Howell, E. and F. Stearns. 1993. The preservation, management and restoration of Wisconsin plant communities: The influence of John Curtis and his students. chapter 4 in J. S. Fralish, R. P. McIntosh, and O. L. Loucks, editors. John T. Curtis: Fifty years of Wisconsin plant ecology. Wisconsin Academy of Sciences, Arts and Letters, Madison.

Huang, X. 1997. Watershed hydrology, soil, and biogeochemistry in an oak woodland annual grassland ecosystem in the Sierra Foothills, California. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Davis.

Huddleston, R. T. and T. P. Young. 2004. Spacing and competition between planted grass plugs and preexisting perennial grasses in a restoration site in Oregon. Restoration Ecology 12:546–551.

——. 2005. Weed control and soil amendment effects on restoration plantings in an Oregon grassland. Western North American Naturalist 65:507–515.

Hudson, J. W. n. d. 20.012. Field notes Yosemite/Central Miwok. Grace Hudson Museum Archive Collection, Ukiah, California.

——. n.d. Field notes 20.017. Grace Hudson Museum Archive Collection, Ukiah, Unpublished.

——. n.d. Field notes 20.021. Grace Hudson Museum Archive Collection, Ukiah, Unpublished.

(p.346) ——. n. d. 20.202. Field notes Yosemite/ Central Miwok. Grace Hudson Museum Archive Collection, Ukiah, California.

Huenneke, L. F. 1989. Distribution and regional patterns of California grasslands. Pages 1–12 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Huenneke, L. F., J. P. Anderson, M. Remmenga and W. H. Schlesinger. 2002. Desertification alters patterns of aboveground net primary production in Chihuahuan ecosystems. Global Change Biology 8:247–264.

Huenneke, L. F., S. P. Hamburg, R. Koide, H. A. Mooney and P. M. Vitousek. 1990. Effects of soil resources on plant invasion and community structure in Californian serpentine grassland. Ecology 71:478–491.

Huenneke, L. F. and H. A. Mooney. 1989a. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Tasks for Vegetation Science 20. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

——. 1989b. The California annual grassland: An overview. Pages 213–218 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Huffaker, C. B. and C. E. Kennett. 1959. A ten-year study of vegetation change associated with biological control of Klamath weed. Journal of Range Management 12:69–82.

Hufford, K. M. and S. J. Mazer. 2003. Plant ecotypes: Genetic differentiation in the age of ecological restoration. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 18:147–155.

Hujik, P. M. 1999. Low-tech seeding technique for perennial bunchgrasses yields promising results in the Lassen foothills (California). Ecological Restoration 17:75–76.

Hull, J. C. and H. A. Mooney. 1990. Effects of nitrogen on photosynthesis and growth rates of four California grasses. Acta Oecologica 11:453–468.

Hull, J. C. and C. H. Muller. 1977. The potential for dominance by Stipa pulchra in a California grassland. American Midland Naturalist 97:147–175.

Humboldt County Community Development Services Department Planning Division. 1984. Humboldt County General Plan. Humboldt County Community Development Services Department. Eureka, CA.

Hungate, B. A., J. Canadell and F. S. Chapin. 1996. Plant species mediate changes in soil microbial N in response to elevated CO2. Ecology 77:2505–2515.

Hungate, B. A., F. S. Chapin, H. Zhong, E. A. Holland and C. B. Field. 1997a. Stimulation of grassland nitrogen cycling under carbon-dioxide enrichment. Oecologia 109:149–153.

Hungate, B. A., E. A. Holland, R. B. Jackson, F. S. Chapin, H. A. Mooney and C. B. Field. 1997b. The fate of carbon in grasslands under carbon dioxide enrichment. Nature 388:576–579.

Hungate, B. A., C. H. Jaeger, G. Gamara, F. S. Chapin and C. B. Field. 2000. Soil microbiota in two annual grasslands: Responses to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia 124:589–598.

Hungate, B. A., C. P. Lund, H. L. Pearson and F. S. Chapin. 1997c. Elevated CO2 and nutrient addition alter soil N cycling and N trace gas fluxes with early season wet-up in a California annual grassland. Biogeochemistry 37:89–109.

Hunt, J. 1992. Feeding ecology of valley pocket gophers (Thomomys bottae sanctidiegi) on a California coastal grassland. American Midland Naturalist 127:41–51.

Hunter, J. E. 1986. Some responses of Sidalcea calycosa (Malvaceae) to fire. Madroño 33:305–307.

Huntly, N. and R. Inouye. 1988. Pocket gophers in ecosystems: Patterns and mechanisms. Bioscience 38:786–793.

Huntly, N. and O. J. Reichman. 1994. Effects of subterranean mammalian herbivores on vegetation. Journal of Mammalogy 75:852–859.

Huntsinger, L. 1996. Grazing in a California silvopastoral system: Effects of defoliation season, intensity, and frequency on deer-brush, Ceanothus integerrimus Hook & Arn. Agroforestry Systems 34:67–82.

Huntsinger, L., L. Buttolph and P. Hopkinson. 1997. Ownership and management changes on California hardwood rangelands: 1985 to 1992. Journal of Range Management 50:423–430.

Huntsinger, L., J. S. Fried and L. Buttolph. 1995. The elk, the cow, the ranger and the Rolex: Urban/wildland resource management conflict at Mt. Diablo State Park, California. Pages 67–74 in J. Endter-Wada and R. J. Lilieholm, editors. Conflicts in natural resource management: Integrating social and ecological concerns. Natural Resources and Environmental Issues 3. Utah State University, Logan.

Huntsinger, L. and P. Hopkinson. 1996. Viewpoint: Sustaining rangeland landscapes: A social and ecological process. Journal of Range Management 49:167–173.

Huntsinger, L., M. Johnson, M. Stafford and J. Fried. 2007. A resurvey of oak woodland landowners: 1985, 1992, and 2004. Proceedings of the sixth symposium on oak woodlands: today’s challenges, tomorrow’s opportunities. 2006 October 9 –12:Rohnert Park, CA. General Technical Report PSW-GTR. Pacific Southwest Research Station, Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA.

Huntsinger, L., M. P. McClaran, A. Dennis and J. W. Bartolome. 1996. Defoliation response and growth of Nassella pulchra (A. Hitchc.) Barkworth from serpentine and non-serpentine populations. Madroño 43:46–57.

Huston, M. 1979. A general hypothesis of species diversity. American Naturalist 113:81–101.

Huston, M. A. 1994. Biological diversity: The coexistence of species on changing landscapes. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Huxman, T. E. and S. D. Smith. 2001. Photosynthesis in an invasive grass and native forb at elevated CO2 during an El Niño year in the Mojave Desert. Oecologia 128:193–201.

IHRMP. 1998. 7th Annual Progress Report. Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Berkeley, CA.

Imam, A. G. and R. W. Allard. 1965. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. VI. Genetic variability between and within natural populations of wild oats from differing habitats in California. Genetics 51:49–62.

Ingraham, N. L. and R. A. Matthews. 1995. The importance of fogdrip water to vegetation: Point Reyes Peninsula, California. Journal of Hydrology 164:269–285.

Ingram, K. and J. Lewandrowski. 1999. Wildlife conservation and economic development in the west. Rural Development Perspectives 14(2):44–51.

Irwin, M. E. and J. M. Thresh. 1990. Epidemiology of barley yellow dwarf: A study in ecological complexity. Annual Review of Phytopathology 28:393–424.

(p.347) Ishikawa, C. M. and C. S. Bledsoe. 2000. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of soil water potential in the rhizosphere of blue oaks: Evidence for hydraulic lift. Oecologia 125:459–465.

Ivans, C. Y., A. J. Leffler, U. Spaulding, J. M. Stark, R. M. Ryel and M. M. Caldwell. 2003. Root responses and nitrogen acquisition by Artemisia tridentata and Agropyron desertorum following small summer rainfall events. Oecologia 134:317–324.

Jackson, L. E. 1985. Ecological origins of California’s Mediterranean grasses. Journal of Biogeography 12:349–361.

Jackson, L. E., F. J. Calderon, K. L. Steenwerth, K. M. Scow and D. E. Rolston. 2003. Responses of soil microbial processes and community structure to tillage events and implications for soil quality. Geoderma 114:305–317.

Jackson, L. E. and J. Roy. 1986. Growth patterns of mediterranean annual and perennial grasses under simulated rainfall regimes of southern France and California. Acta Oecologia/Oecologia Plantarum 7:191–212.

Jackson, L. E., J. P. Schimel and M. K. Firestone. 1989. Short-term partitioning of ammonium and nitrate between plants and microbes in an annual grassland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 21:409–415.

Jackson, L. E., R. B. Strauss, M. K. Firestone and J. W. Bartolome. 1988. Plant and soil nitrogen dynamics in California annual grassland. Plant and Soil 110:9–18.

Jackson, L. E., R. B. Strauss, M. K. Firestone and J. W. Bartolome. 1990. Influence of tree canopies on grassland productivity and nitrogen dynamics in deciduous oak savanna. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 32:89–105.

Jackson, R. B., J. L. Banner, E. G. Jobbagy, W. T. Pockman and D. H. Wall. 2002. Ecosystem carbon loss with woody plant invasion of grasslands. Nature (London) 418:623–626.

Jackson, R. B., Y. Luo, Z. G. Cardon, O. E. Sala, C. B. Field and H. A. Mooney. 1995. Photosynthesis, growth, and density for the dominant species in a CO2-enriched grassland. Journal of Biogeography 22:1225–1229.

Jackson, R. B., O. E. Sala, C. B. Field and H. A. Mooney. 1994. CO2alters water use, carbon gain, and yield in a natural grassland. Oecologia 98:257–262.

Jackson, R. D. and B. Allen-Diaz. 2006. Spring-fed wetland and riparian plant communities respond differently to altered grazing intensity. Journal of Applied Ecology 43:485–498.

Jackson, R. D., B. Allen-Diaz, L. G. Oates and K. W. Tate. 2006a. Grazing removal increases spring-fed wetland nitrate concentrations in a Californian oak savanna. Ecosystems 9:1–15.

——. 2006b. Spring-water nitrate increased with removal of livestock grazing in a california oak savanna. Ecosystems 9:254–267.

Jackson, R. D. and J. W. Bartolome. 2002. A state-transition approach to understanding nonequilibrium plant community dynamics in Californian grasslands. Plant Ecology 162:49–65.

Jacobs, B. F., J. D. Kingston and L. L. Jacobs. 1999. The origin of grass-dominated ecosystems. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 86:590–643.

Jacobs, J. S., M. F. Carpinelli and R. L. Sheley. 1999. Revegetating noxious weed-infested rangeland. Pages 133–141 in R. L. Sheley and J. K. Petroff, editors. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Jacobsen, W. C. 1918. A history of ground squirrel control in California. Monthly Bulletin of the California State Commission of Horticulture 7:129–169.

Jacobson, S. K. 2003. Communication skills for conservation professionals. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Jain, S. K. 1975. Genetic reserves. Pages 15–36 in O. H. Frankel and J. G. Hawkes, editors. Crop genetic resources for today and tomorrow. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

——. 1978. Inheritance of phenotypic plasticity in soft chess, Bromus mollis L. (Gramineae). Experientia 34:835–836.

——. 1979. Adaptive strategies: polymorphism, plasticity, and homeostasis. Pages 160–187 in O.T. Solbrig, S. K. Jain, G. B. Johnson, and P. H. Raven, editors. Topics in plant population biology. Columbia University Press, New York.

——. 1981. Biosystmatic and evolutionary studies in genus Limnanthes. Pages 232–242 in S. K. Jain and P. B. Moyle, editors. Vernal pools and intermittent streams. 28. Institute of Ecology, University of California, Davis.

——. 1982. Variation and adaptive role of seed dormancy in some annual grassland species. Botanical Gazette 143:101–106.

Jain, S. K. and R. W. Allard. 1960. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. I. Evidence for heterozygote advantage in a closed population of barley. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 46:1373–1377.

——. 1966. The effects of linkage, epistasis and inbreeding on population changes under selection. Genetics 53:633–659.

Jain, S. K., D. R. Marshall and K. Wu. 1970. Genetic variability in natural populations of softchess (Bromus mollis L.). Oecologia 130:555–562.

Jain, S. K. and K. N. Rai. 1974. Population biology of Avena. IV. Polymorphism in small populations of Avena fatua. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 44:7–11.

——. 1980. Population biology of Avena. VIII. Colonization experiment as a test of the role of natural selection in population divergence. American Journal of Botany 67:1342–1346.

Jameson, P. and H. J. Peeters. 1988. California mammals. University of California Press, Berkeley and Los Angeles.

Janis, C. M., J. Damuth and J. M. Theodora. 2002. The origins and evolution of the North American grassland biome: The story from the hoofed mammals. Paleoclimatology, Palaeo-geography, Palaeoecology 177:183–198.

Jasper, D. A., L. K. Abbott and A. D. Robson. 1989. Soil disturbance reduces the infectivity of external hyphae of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. New Phytologist 112:93–99.

Jefferies, R. L. and J. L. Maron. 1997. The embarrassment of riches: atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and community and ecosystem processes. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 12:74–78.

Jefferson, G. T. 1987. The Camp Cady local fauna: Paleoenvironment of the Lake Manix basin. Pages 3–35 in J. Reynolds, editor. Abstracts and proceedings of the 1987 Mojave Desert Quaternary research symposium. San Bernardino County Museum.

——. 1989. Late Cenozoic tapirs (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) of western North America. Contributions in Science406. Los Angeles County Museum.

Jefferson, G. T. and J. L. Goldin. 1989. Seasonal migration of Bison antiquus from Rancho La Brea, California. Quaternary Research 31:107–112.

Jennings, C. W. 1977. Geologic map of California. U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA.

Jennings, M., O. Loucks, D. Glenn-Lewin, R. Peet, D. Faber-Langendoen, D. Grossman, A. Damman, M. Barbour, R. Pfister, M. Walker, S. Talbot, J. Walker, G. Hartshorn, G. Waggoner, M. Abrams, D. Brown, A. Hill, D. Roberts, D. Tart and M. Rej-manek. In press. Description, documentation, and evaluation of associations and alliances within the U.S. National Vegetation Classification. Ecological Monographs.

(p.348) Jepson, W. L. 1910. The Silva of California. University of California Memoirs Vol. 2. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Jetter, K. M. 2005. Economic framework for decision making in biological control. Biological Control 35:348–357.

Jetter, K. M., J. M. DiTomaso, D. J. Drake, K. M. Klonsky, M. Pitcairn and D. A. Sumner. 2003. Biological control of yellow starthistle: A cost-benefit analysis. Pages 225–241 in D.A. Sumner (ed). Exotic Pests and Diseases: Biology, Economics and Public Policy for Biosecurity. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA.

Jimerson, T. M., J. W. Menke, S. K. Carothers, M. P. Murray, V. VanSickle and K. H. McClellan. 2000. Field guide to the rangeland vegetation types of the northern province, Klamath, Mendocino, Shasta-Trinity and Six Rivers National Forests. General Technical Report R5-ECOL-TP-014. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Region, Albany, CA.

Joel, G., F. S. Chapin, N. R. Chiariello, S. S. Thayer and C. B. Field. 2001. Species-specific responses of plant communities to altered carbon and nutrient availability. Global Change Biology 7:435–450.

Joern, A. 1989. Insect herbivory in the transition to California annual grasslands: Did grasshoppers deliver the coup de grass? Pages 117–134 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Joffre, R. 1990. Plant and soil nitrogen dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands: A comparison of annual and perennial grasses. Oecologia 85:142–149.

Johnson, B. E. and J. H. Cushman. 2007. Influence of a large herbivore reintroduction on plant invasions and community composition in a California grassland. Conservation Biology 21:515–526.

Johnson, D. E. 1977. The late Quaternary climate of coastal California: Evidence of an ice-age refugium. Quaternary Research 8:154–179.

Johnson, D. H. 1997. Effects of fire on bird populations in mixedgrass prairie. Pages 181–206 in F. L. Knoff and F. B. Samson, editors. Ecology and conservation of Great Plains vertebrates. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Johnson, L. C. and J. R. Matchett. 2001. Fire and grazing regulate belowground processes in tallgrass prairie. Ecology 82:3377–3389.

Johnson, P. S., S. R. Shifley and R. Rogers. 2002. The ecology and silviculture of oaks. CABI Publishing, New York.

Johnson, W., C. M. McKell, R. A. Evans and L. J. Burgy. 1959. Yield and quality of annual range forage following 2, 4-D application on blue oak trees. Journal of Range Management 12:18–20.

Johnson, W. R. and J. Proctor. 1981. Growth of serpentine and non-serpentine races of Festuca rubra in solutions simulating the chemical conditions in a toxic serpentine soil. Journal of Ecology 69:855–869.

——. 1984. The effects of magnesium, nickel, calcium, and micronutrients on the root surface phosphatase activity of a serpentine and non-serpentine clone of Festuca rubra L. New Phytologist 96:95–101.

JOI. 2006. Jepson online interchange for California floristics. http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/interchange.html.

Jones, A. 2000. Effects of cattle grazing on North American arid ecosystems: A quantitative review. Western North American Naturalist 60:155–164.

Jones, M. B. 1963. Yield, percent nitrogen, and total nitrogen uptake of various California annual grassland species fertilized with increasing rates of nitrogen. Agronomy Journal: 254–257.

——. 1964. Effect of applied sulfur on yield and sulfure uptake of various California dryland pasture species. Agronomy Journal 56:235–237.

——. 1974. Fertilisation of annual grasslands of California and Oregon. Pages 255–275 in D. A. Mays, editor. Forage Fertilization. American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, Madison, WI.

Jones, M. B., C. C. Delwiche and W. A. Williams. 1977. Uptake and losses of 15N applied to annual grass and clover in lysimeters. Agronomy Journal 69:1019–1023.

Jones, M. B., M. W. Demment, C. E. Vaughn, G. P. Deo, M. R. Dally and D. M. Center. 1990. Effects of phosphorus and sulfur fertilization on subclover-grass pasture production as measured by lamb gain. Journal of Production Agriculture 3:534–539.

Jones, M. B., P. W. Lawler and J. E. Ruckman. 1970. Differences in annual clover response to phosphorus and sulfur. Agronomy Journal 62:439–442.

Jones, M. B. and W. E. Martin. 1964. Sulfate-sulfur concentration as an indicator of sulfur status in various California dryland pasture species. Soil Science Society of America Proceedings 28:539–541.

Jones, M. B., C. E. Vaughn and W. A. Williams. 1995. Soilphosphorus requirements for maximum growth of Northern California subclover-annual grass pastures. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 26:197–207.

Jones, M. B. and R. G. Woodmansee. 1979. Biogeochemical cycling in annual grassland ecosystems. Botanical Review 45:111–144.

Jurjavcic, N. L., S. Harrison and A. T. Wolf. 2002. Abiotic stress, competition, and the distribution of the native annual grass Vulpia microstachys in a mosaic environment. Oecologia 130:555–562.

Kannenberg, L. W. and R. W. Allard. 1967. Population studies in predominantly self-pollinated species. VIII. Genetic variability in the Festuca microstachys complex. Evolution 21:227–240.

Kartesz, J. T. and C. A. Meacham. 2006. Synthesis of the North American flora. Biota of North America Program (BONAP), North Carolina Botanic Garden, Chapel Hill.

Kauffman, J. B. and W. C. Krueger. 1984. Livestock impacts on riparian ecosystems and streamside management implications: a review. Journal of Range Management 37:430–438.

Kauffman, J. B., W. C. Krueger and M. Vavra. 1983a. Impacts of cattle on streambanks in northeastern Oregon. Journal of Range Management 36:683–685.

——. 1983b. Effects of late season cattle grazing on riparian plant communities. Journal of Range Management 36:685–691.

Kay, B. L. 1987. Long-term effects of blue oak removal on forage production, forage quality, soil and oak regeneration. Pages 351–357 in T. R. Plumb and N. H. Pillsbury, editors. Proceedings of the symposium on multiple-use management of California’s hardwood resources, 1987. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-100. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Forest and Range Experiment Station, Albany, CA.

Kay, B. L. and J. E. Street. 1961. Drilling wheatgrass into sprayed sagebrush in Northeastern California. Journal of Range Management 14:271–273.

(p.349) Keane, R. M. and M. J. Crawley. 2002. Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:164–170.

Keator, G. 1998. The life of an oak. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA.

Keeler, K. H. 1978. Intra-population differentiation in annual plants. II. Electrophoretic variation in Veronica peregrina. Evolution 32:638–645.

Keeler-Wolf, T. 1987. An ecological survey of the proposed Crater Creek Research Natural Area, Klamath National Forest, Siskiyou County, California. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

——. In press. History of vegetation classification and mapping in California. in M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Keeler-Wolf, T. and D. Hickson. 2006. Vegetation classification of the Sacramento-San Joaquin River Delta. California Department of Fish and Game, Bay Delta Division, Sacramento.

Keeley, J. E. 1977. Seed production, seed populations in soil, and seedling production after fire for two congeneric pairs of sprouting and non-sprouting chaparral shrubs. Ecology 58:820–829.

——. 1990. The California valley grassland. Pages 2–23 in A. A. Schoenherr, editor. Endangered plant communities of southern California. Special Publication No. 3. Southern California Botanists, Fullerton, CA.

——. 1991. Seed germination and life history syndromes in the California chaparral. Botanical Review 57:81–116.

——. 1999. Chaparral. Pages 201–251 in M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, editors. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

——. 2001. Fire and invasive species in Mediterranean-climate ecosystems of California. Pages 81–94 in K. E. M. Galley and T. P. Wilson, editors. Proceedings of the Invasive Plant Workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species 2001. Miscellaneous Publication No. 11. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

——. 2002. Native American impacts on fire regimes of the California coastal range. Journal of Biogeography 29:303–320.

——. 2005. Fire history of the San Francisco East Bay region and implications for landscape patterns. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14:285–296.

——. 2006. Fire management impacts on invasive plants in the western United States. Conservation Biology 20:375–384.

Keeley, J. E., C. J. Fotheringham and M. Morais. 1999. Reexamining fire suppression impacts on brushland fire regimes. Science 284:1829–1832.

Keeley, J. E., D. Lubin and C. J. Fotheringham. 2003. Fire and grazing impacts on plant diversity and alien plant invasions in the southern Sierra Nevada. Ecological Applications 13:1355–1374.

Keeley, J. E. and P. W. Rundel. 2005. Fire and the Miocene expansion of C4 grasslands. Ecology Letters 8:683–690.

Keeley, J. E. and P. H. Zedler. 1998. Characterization and global distribution of vernal pools. Pages 1–14 in C. W. Witham, editor. Vernal pool ecosystems. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Kellogg, E. A. 2001. Evolutionary history of the grasses. Plant Physiology 125:1198–1205.

Kelt, D. A., E. S. Konno and J. A. Wilson. 2005. Habitat management for the endangered Stephens kangaroo rat: The effect of mowing and grazing. Journal of Wildlife Management 69:424–429.

Kennard, B. 2005. Trend watching: Reframing the environment vs. economics debate. Greenbiz.com. April 2005.

Kennedy, P. B. 1928. Goat grass or wild wheat (Aegilops triuncialis). Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 20:1292–1296.

Kennedy, P. G. and J. Diaz. 2005. The role of seed dispersal and predation in forest encroachment into a coastal California grassland. Madroño 52:24–31.

Kennedy, P. G. and W. P. Sousa. 2006. Forest encroachment into a Californian grassland: Examining the simultaneous effects of facilitation and competition on tree seedling recruitment. Oecologia 148:464–474.

Kennett, G. A., J. R. Lacey, C. A. Butt, K. M. Olson-Rutz and M. R. Haferkamp. 1992. Effects of defoliation, shading and competition on spotted knapweed and bluebunch wheatgrass. Journal of Range Management 45:363–369.

Kephart, P. 2001. Resource management demonstration at Russian Ridge Preserve. Grasslands 9:1–8.

Kerr, R. A. 2004. Climate change: Three degrees of consensus. Science 305:932–934.

——. 2005. How hot will the greenhouse world be? Science 309:100.

Kerstyn, A. and P. Stiling. 1999. The effect of burn frequency on the density of some grasshoppers and leaf miners in a Florida Sandhill community. Florida Entomologist 82:499–505.

Ketellapper, H. 1963. Stomatal physiology. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 14:249–270.

Kie, J. G. and B. B. Boroski. 1996. Cattle distribution, habitats, and diets in the Sierra Nevada of California. Journal of Range Management 49:482–488.

Kieft, T. L., E. Soroker and M. K. Firestone. 1987. Microbial biomass response to a rapid increase in water potential when dry soil is wetted. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 19:119–126.

Kijkstra, F. A., S. E. Hobbie and P. B. Reich. 2006. Soil processes affected by sixteen grassland species grown under different environmental conditions. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:770–777.

Kimball, S. and P. M. Schiffman. 2003. Differing effects of cattle grazing on native and alien plants. Conservation Biology 17:1681–1693.

King, J. L., M. A. Simovich and R. C. Brusca. 1996. Species richness, endemism and ecology of crustacean assemblages in northern California vernal pools. Hydrobiologia 328:85–116.

Kinney, W. C. 1996. Conditions of rangelands before 1905. chapter 3, pages 1–31 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final report to Congress, Vol. II. 2. Centers for Water and Wildland Resources, University of California, Davis.

Kirkpatrick, M. and N. H. Barton. 1997. Evolution of a species’ range. American Naturalist 150:1–23.

Kittelson, P. M. and J. L. Maron. 2001. Fine-scale geneticallybased differentiation of life-history traits in the perennial shrub Lupinus arboreus. Evolution 55:2429–2438.

Kitzmiller, J. H. 1990. Managing genetic diversity in a tree improvement program. Forest Ecology and Management 35:131–149.

Klein, A. and J. M. Evens. 2005. Vegetation alliances of western Riverside County, California. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Klinger, R. and I. Messer. 2001. The interaction of prescribed burning and site characteristics on the diversity and composition of a grassland community on Santa Cruz Island, California. Pages 66–80 in K. E. M. Galley and T. P. Wilson, editors. Proceedings of the Invasive Species Workshop: The role of fire in the control and spread of invasive species, held at Fire Conference 2000: The first national congress on fire ecology, prevention, and management. Miscellaneous Publication 11. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

(p.350) Klinger, R. and J. Randall. 1997. The design and implementation of a non-native species control program on Santa Cruz Island. Proceedings, California Wood Science Society 49:29–37.

Knapp, A. K., J. M. Blair, J. M. Briggs, S. L. Collins, D. C. Hartnett, L. C. Johnson and E. G. Towne. 1999. The keystone role of bison in north American tallgrass prairie: Bison increase habitat heterogeneity and alter a broad array of plant, community, and ecosystem processes. Bioscience 49:39–50.

Knapp, A. K., J. M. Briggs D. C. Hartnett, and S. L. Collins, editors. 1998. Grassland dynamics. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.

Knapp, A. K., P. A. Fay, J. M. Blair, S. L. Collins, M. D. Smith, J. D. Carlisle, C. W. Harper, B. T. Danner, M. S. Lett and J. K. McCarron. 2002. Rainfall variability, carbon cycling, and plant species diversity in a mesic grassland. Science 298:2202–2205.

Knapp, E. E. and P. G. Connors. 1999. Genetic consequences of a single-founder population bottleneck in Trifolium amoenum. American Journal of Botany 86:124–130.

Knapp, E. E. and K. J. Rice. 1996. Genetic structure and gene flow in Elymus glaucus (blue wildrye): Implications for native grassland restoration. Restoration Ecology 4:1–10.

——. 1997. Ecotypes of native species: How local is local in restoration plantings? Pages 51–55 in K. M. Wagner and P. Warner, editors. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposium. Vol. 3. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, Trabuco Canyon, CA.

——. 1998. Comparison of isozymes and quantitative traits for evaluating patterns of genetic variation in purple needlegrass. Conservation Biology 12:1031–1041.

Knapp, P. A. 1996. Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) dominance in the Great Basin: history, persistence, and influences to human activities. Global Environmental Change 6:37–52(16).

Kneitel, J. M. 1997. The effects of fire and pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) disturbances on a California valley grassland. Master’s thesis, California State University, Northridge.

Knight, T. M. and R. D. Holt. 2004. Fire generates spatial gradients in herbivory: An example from a Florida sandhill ecosystem. Ecology 86:587–593.

Knopf, F. L. 1996. Prairie legacies: Birds. Pages 135–148 in F. B. Samson and F. L. Knopf, editors. Prairie Conservation: Preserving North America’s most endangered ecosystem. Island Press, Washington, DC.

——. 1998. Foods of mountain plovers wintering in California. Condor 100:382–384.

Knops J. M. H., J. R. Griffin and A. C. Royalty. 1995. Introduced and native plants of the Hastings Reservation, Central Coastal California: A comparison. Biological Conservation 71:115–123.

Knops J. M. H., T. H. Nash and W. H. Schlesinger. 1996. The influence of epiphytic lichens on the nutrient cycling of an oak woodland. Ecological Monographs 66:159–179.

Knowles, C. J., C. J. Stoner and S. P. Gieb. 1982. Selective use of black-tailed prairie dog towns by mountain plovers. Condor 84:71–74.

Knowles, P. F. 1943. Improving an annual brome grass, Bromus mollis L. for range purposes. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 35:584–594.

Knutson, M. G., W. B. Richardson, D. M. Reineke, B. R. Gray, J. R. Parmelee and S. E. Weick. 2004. Agricultural ponds support amphibian populations. Ecological Applications 14:669–684.

Koenig, W. D., J. M. H. Knops and W. J. Carmen. 2002. Arboreal seed removal and insect damage in three California oaks. Pages 193–204 in R. B. Standiford, D. McCreary, and K. L. Purcell, editors. Proceedings of the fifth symposium on oak woodlands: Oaks in California’s changing landscape 2002. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-184. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Koenig, W. D., R. L. Mumme, W. J. Carmen and M. T. Stanback. 1994. Acorn production by oaks in central coastal California: Variation within and among years. Ecology 75:99–109.

Koerselman, W. and A. F. M. Meuleman. 1996. The vegetation N:P ratio: A new tool to detect the nature of nutrient limitation. Journal of Applied Ecology 33:1441–1450.

Koide, R. T., L. F. Huenneke, S. P. Hamburg and H. A. Mooney. 1988. Effects of applications of fungicide, phosphorus and nitrogen on the structure and productivity of an annual serpentine plant community. Functional Ecology 2:335–344.

Koide, R. T., L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney. 1987. Gopher mound soil reduces growth and affects ion uptake of two annual grassland species. Oecologia 72:284–290.

Komarek, E. V., Sr., 1965. Fire ecology: grasslands and man. Pages 169–220 in E. V. Komarek, Sr., editor. Proceedings of the Fourth Annual Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 1965. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, Florida.

Koontz, J. A. and P. S. Soltis. 2001. Polyploidy and segregation analysis in Delphinium gypsophilum (Ranunculaceae). Madroño 48:90–97.

Kotanen, P. 1994. Effects of feral pigs on grasslands. Fremontia 22:14–17.

——. 1995. Responses of vegetation to a changing regime of disturbance: Effects of feral pigs in a Californian coastal prairie. Ecography 18:190–199.

——. 1996. Revegetation following soil disturbance in a California meadow: The role of propagule supply. Oecologia 108:652–662.

——. 1997a. Effects of experimental soil disturbances on revegetation by natives and exotics in Coastal California meadows. Journal of Applied Ecology 34:631–644.

——. 1997b. Effects of gap area and shape on recolonization by grassland plants with differing reproductive strategies. Canadian Journal of Botany 75:352–361.

——. 2004. Revegetation following soil disturbance and invasion in a Californian meadow: A 10-year history of recovery. Biological Invasions 6:245–254.

Kowarik, I. 1995. Time lags in biological invasions with regard to the success and failure of alien species. Pages 15–38 in P. Pysˇek, K. Prach, M. Rajmánek, and M. Wade, editors. Plant invasions. SPB Academic Publishing, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Krebs, C. J. 2001. Ecology. Benjamin Cummings, San Francisco.

Kroeber, A. L. 1925. Handbook of the Indians of California. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

1976 reprint, Dover Publications, New York.

——. 1941. Culture element distributions XV: Salt, dogs, tobacco. Anthropological Records 6:1–20.

(p.351) ——. 1951. A Mohave historical epic. Archaeological Records 11:71–176.

Kruckeberg A. R., 1951. Intrapecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil. American Journal of Botany 38:408–419.

——. 1954. The ecology of serpentine soils: A symposium. III. Plant species in relation to serpentine soils. Ecology 35:267–274.

——. 1957. Variation in in fertility of hybrids between isolated populations of the serpentine species Streptanthus glandulosus Hook. Evolution 11:185–211.

——. 1958. The taxonomy of the species complex Streptanthus glandulosus Hook. Madroño 14:217–227.

——. 1967. Ecotypic responses to ultramafic soils by some plant species of northwestern United States. Brittonia 19:133–151.

——. 1984. California serpentines: flora, vegetation, geology, soils and management problems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Kuchler A. W., 1964. Potential natural vegetation of the conterminous United States. Special Publication 36. American Geographic Society New York, NY.

——. 1977. The map of the natural vegetation of California. Pages 909–938 in M. G. Barbour, and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. Wiley Interscience, New York, NY.

Kueppers, L. M., M. A. Snyder, L. C. Sloan, E. S. Zavaleta, and B. Fulfrost. 2005. Modeled regional climate change and California endemic oak ranges. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 102:16281–16286.

Kulmatiski, A., and K. H. Beard. 2006. Activated carbon as a restoration tool: Potential for control of invasive plants in abandoned agricultural fields. Restoration Ecology 14:251–257.

Kuminoff, N. V., and D. A. Sumner. 2001. Modeling farmland conversion with new GIS data. Agricultural Issues Center, University of California, Davis. http://aic.ucdavis.edu/research1/FarmGIS1.pdf.

Kurten, B. 1967. Pleistocene bears of North America. 2. Genus Arctodus, short-faced bears. Acta Zoologica Fennica 117.

Kyser, G. B., and J. M. DiTomaso. 2002. Instability in a grassland community after the control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) with prescribed burning. Weed Science 50:648–657.

Kyser, G. B., J. M. DiTomaso, M. P. Doran, S. B. Orloff, R. G. Wilson, D. L. Lancaster, D. F. Lile, and M. L. Porath. 2007. Control of medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae) and other annual grasses with imazapic. Weed Technology 21:66–75.

Lacey, J. R., C. B. Marlow, and J. R. Lane. 1989. Influence of spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) on surface runoff and sediment yield. Weed Technology 3:627–631.

Lal, R. 2002. Soil carbon dynamics in cropland and rangeland. Environmental Pollution 116:353–362.

Lamarque, J. F., J. T. Kiehl, G. P. Brasseur, T. Butler, P. Cameron-Smith, W. D. Collins, W. J. Collins, C. Granier, D. Hauglustaine, P. G. Hess, E. A. Holland, L. Horowitz, M. G. Lawrence, D. McKenna, P. Merilees, M. J. Prather, P. J. Rasch, D. Rotman, D. Shindell, and P. Thornton. 2005. Assessing future nitrogen deposition and carbon cycle feedback using a multimodel approach: Analysis of nitrogen deposition. Journal of Geophysical Research—Atmospheres 110:D19303.

Lambert, W. D., and C. S. Holling. 1998. Causes of ecosystem transformation at the end of the Pleistocene: Evidence from mammal body-mass distributions. Ecosystems 1:157–175.

Landis, J., and M. Reilly. 2003. How we will grow: Baseline predictions of California’s urban footprint through the year 2100. IURD Working Paper Series. Paper WP-2003-04. Institute of Urban and Regional Development. University of California, Berkeley. http://repositories.cdlib.org/iurd/wps/WP-2003-04/.

Landolt, E. 2001. Orchideen-Wiesen in Wollishofen (Zurich): Ein erstaunliches Relict aus dem Anfang des 20. Jarhrhunderts. [Orchid meadows in Wollishofen (Zurich): an astonishing relict from the beginning of the twentieth century]. Vierteljahrsschrift der Naturforschenden Gesellschaft in Zurich 146:41–51.

Langer, R. H. M. 1990. Pasture plants. In R. H. M. Langer, editor. Pastures: their ecology and management. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Langstroth, R. P. 1991. Fire and grazing ecology of Stipa pulchra grassland: A field study at Jepson Prairie. University of California, Davis.

Lanini, T. W., R. F. Long, and J. Anderson. 1996. Pre-emergent herbicides have little effect on vigor of perennial grasses. California Agriculture 50:38–41.

Lapham, M. H., and W. H. Heileman. 1901. Soil survey of the lower Salinas Valley, California. USDA Bureau of Soils, Baltimore.

Larink, O. 1993. Bait lamina as a tool for testing feeding activity of animals in contaminated soils. Pages 339–345 in M. H. Donker, H. Eijsackers, and F. Heimbach, editors. Ecotoxicology of soil organisms. Lewis Publishers, Baton Rouge, LA.

Larsen, R. E., W. C. Krueger, M. R. George, M. R. Barrington, J. C. Buckhouse, and D. E. Johnson. 1998. Viewpoint: Livestock influences on riparian zones and fish habitat: Literature classification. Journal of Range Management 51:661–664.

Larson, S., K. Smith, D. Lewis, J. Harper, and M. George. 2005. Evaluation of California’s Rangeland Quality Education Program. Rangeland Ecology and Management 58(5):514–522.

Latham, D. J., and J. A. Schlieter. 1989. Ignition probabilities of wildland fuels based on simulated lightning discharges. Research Paper INT-411. USDA Intermountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Latimer, H. 1984. Eastern Fresno County. Fremontia 11:29–30.

Latta, F. F. 1949. Hancock field notes. Frank Latta Papers. Yosemite Archives, National Park Service.

——. 1977. Handbook of the Yokuts Indians. Bear State Books, Santa Cruz, CA.

Latta, R. G., J. L. MacKenzie, A. Vats, and D. J. Schoen. 2004. Divergence and variation of quantitative traits between allozyme genotypes of Avena barbata from contrasting habitats. Journal of Ecology 92:57–71.

Laude, H. M. 1953. The nature of summer dormancy in perennial grasses. Botanical Gazette 114:284–292.

Laude, H. M., and J. C. Meldeen. 1958. Characteristics related to summer growth of prairie three-awn grass. Journal of Range Management 11:298–300.

Lawrence, G. E. 1966. Ecology of vertebrate animals in relation to chaparral fire in the Sierra Nevada foothills. Ecology 47:278–291.

Lawrence, W. E. 1945. Some ecotypic relations of Deschampsia caespitosa. American Journal of Botany 32:298–314.

Lawson, A. C., and C. Palache. 1902. The Berkeley Hills: A detail of Coast Range ecology. University of California Bulletin of the Department of Geology 2:349–450.

Lawson, F. R., and R. L. Piemeisel. 1943. The ecology of the principal summer weed hosts of the beet leafhopper in the San Joaquin Valley, California. USDA Technical Bulletin No. 848. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

(p.352) Ledig, F. T. 1992. Human impacts on genetic diversity in forest ecosystems. Oikos 63:87–108.

Leger, E. A. 2004. Local adaptation, increased colonization ability, and resistance to natural enemies: The invasion of the California poppy (Eschscholzia californica) in Chile. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Lemaire, G., and D. Chapman. 1996. Tissue flows in grazed plant communities. Pages 3–36 in J. Hodgson, and A. W. Illius, editors. The ecology and management of grazing systems. CAB International, New York.

Lemons, J. 1996. Scientific uncertainty. Blackwell Science, Cambridge, MA.

Lenihan J. M., D. Bachelet, R. Drapek, and R Neilson. 2006. The response of vegetation distribution, ecosystem productivity, and fire in California to future climate scenarios simulated by the MC1 Dynamic Vegetation Model. CEC-500-2005-191-SF. California Climate Change Center, Sacramento.

Lenihan, J. M., R. Drapek, D. Bachelet, and R. P. Neilson. 2003. Climate change effects on vegetation distribution, carbon, and fire in California. Ecological Applications 13:1667–1681.

Leonard, O. A. 1956. Effect on blue oak (Quercus douglasii) of 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T concentrates applied to cut trunks. Journal of Range Management 9:15–19.

Leong, J. M., and R. W. Thorp. 1999. Colour-coded sampling: The pan trap colour preferences of oligolectic and nonoligolectic bees associated with a vernal pool plant. Ecological Entomology 24:329–335.

Leriche, H., X. Le Roux, F. Desnoyers, D. Benest, G. Simioni, and L. Abbadie. 2003. Grass response to clipping in an African savanna: Testing the grazing optimization hypothesis. Ecological Applications 13:1346–1354.

Leung, L. R., L. O. Mearns, F. Giorgi and R. L. Wilby. 2003. Regional climate research: Needs and opportunities. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 84:89–95.

Levin, D. A., and H. W. Kerster. 1971. Neighborhood structure in plants under diverse reproductive methods. American Naturalist 105:345–354.

Levine, J. M., P. B. Adler, and S. G. Yelenik. 2004. A meta-analysis of biotic resistance to exotic plant invasions. Ecology Letters 7:975–989.

Levins, R. 1968. Evolution in changing environments. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Lewis, D., M. J. Singer, R. A. Dahlgren, and K. W. Tate. 2000. Hydrology in a California oak woodland watershed: A 17-year study. Journal of Hydrology 240:106–117.

——. 2006. Nitrate sediment fluxes from a California rangeland watershed. Journal of Environmental Quality 35(6):2202–2211.

Lewis, H. T. 1973. Patterns of Indian burning in California: Ecology and ethnohistory. Ballena Press, Ramona, CA.

1993 reprint as pages 55–116 in T. C. Blackburn, and K. Anderson, editors. Before the wilderness: Environmental management by Native Californians. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Lewis, H. T., and M. K. Anderson. 2002. Introduction. Pages 3–16 in O. C. Stewart, H. T. Lewis, and M. K. Anderson, editors. Forgotten fires: Native Americans and the transient wilderness. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Lewis, H., and C. Epling. 1959. Delphinium gypsophilum, a diploid species of hybrid origin. Evolution 13:511–525.

Lewontin, R. C. 1965. Selection for colonizing ability. Pages 77–94 in H. G. Baker, and G. L. Stebbins, editors. The genetics of colonizing species. Academic Press, New York.

Lewontin, R. C., and J. L. Hubby. 1966. A molecular approach to the study of genic heterozygosity in natural populations. II. Amount of variation and degree of heterozygosity in natural populations of Drosophila pseudoobscura. Genetics 54:595–609.

Lidicker, W. Z. 1989. Impacts of non-domesticated vertebrates on California grasslands. Pages 135–150 in L. Huenneke, and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston.

Liffmann, R. H., L. Huntsinger, and L. C. Forero. 2000. To ranch or not to ranch: Home on the urban range? Journal of Range Management 53:362–370.

Ling, S. 1998. A model of environmental compromise between regulators and landowners under the Endangered Species Act. Ph.D. dissertation. University of California, Davis, CA.

Linhart, Y. B. 1988. Intrapopulation diferentiation in annual plants III. The contrasting effects of intra- and interspecific competition. Evolution 42(5):1047–1064.

Linhart, Y. B., and M. C. Grant. 1996. Evolutionary significance of local genetic differentiation in plants. Annual Review of Ecology & Systematics 27:237–277.

Linsbauer, K. 1917. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Spaltoffnungsbewegung. Flora 9:100–143.

Litwin, R. J., N. O. Frederiksen, D. P. Adam, V. A. S. Andrle, and T. P. Sheehan. 1993. Continental-marine correlation of Late Pleistocene climate change: Census of palynomorphs from core OL-92, Owens Lake, California. USGS Open-File Report 93–683. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

Liu, Z., and T. D. Herbert. 2004. High-latitude influence on the eastern equatorial Pacific climate in the early Pleistocene epoch. Nature 427:720–723.

Lobo, A., K. Moloney, O. Chic, and N. R. Chiariello. 1998. Analysis of fine-scale spatial pattern of a grassland from remotely sensed imagery and field-collected data. Landscape Ecology 13:111–131.

Lombardo, K., J. S. Fehmi, K. J. Rice, and E. A. Laca. 2007. Nassella pulchra survival and water relations depend more on site productivity than on small scale disturbance. Restoration Ecology 15:177–178.

Long, W. E. 1993. The Santa Rosa wild pigs eradication project (abstract). Page 40 in W. Tietje, and R. H. Barrett, editors. The wild pig in California oak woodland: Ecology and economics, workshop proceedings, May 25 and 26, 1993. Integrated Hardwood and Range Management Program, Univerisity of California, Berkeley.

Longcore, T., and C. Rich. 1998. 419 acres: UCLA’s natural history. The Urban Wildlands Group. http://www.urbanwildlands.org/Resources/419acres.pdf.

Loucks, O. L., M. L. Plumb-Mentjes, and D. Rogers. 1985. Gap processes and large-scale disturbances in sand prairies. Pages 71–83 in S. T. A. Pickett, and P. S. White, editors. The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, New York.

Love, R. M. 1944. Preliminary trials on the effect of management on the establishment of perennial grasses and legumes at Davis, California. Journal of the American Society of Agronomy 36:699–703.

Love, R. M., and D. C. Sumner. 1952. Rose clover, a new winter legume. California Agricultural Experiment Station Circular 407.

(p.353) LTA. 2004. Land Trust Alliance. Land Trust Census. http://www.lta.org/census/census_tables.htm.

Lulow, M. E. 2004. Restoration in California’s inland grasslands: The role of priority effects and management strategies in establishing native communities and the ability of native grasses to resist invasion by non-native grasses. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

Lulow, M. E., T. P. Young, J. L. Wirka and J. H. Anderson. 2007. Variation in the initial success of seeded native bunchgrasses in the rangeland foothills of Yolo County, California. Ecological Restoration 25:20–28.

Lund, C. P. 2001. Ecosystem carbon and water budgets under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration in two California grasslands. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford.

Luo, J., R. W. Tillman and P. R. Ball. 2000. Nitrogen loss through denitrification in a soil under pasture in New Zealand. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32:497–509.

Lusk, W. C., M. B. Jones, P. J. Torell and C. M. McKell. 1961. Medusahead palatability. Journal of Range Management 14:248–251.

Lym, R. G. 2005. Integration of biological control agents with other weed management techniques: successes from the leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) IPM program. Biological Control 35:366–375.

Lym, R. G. and D. A. Tober. 1997. Competitive grasses for leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula) reduction. Weed Technology 11:787–792.

MacArthur, R. H., H. F. Recher and M. Cody. 1966. On the relation between habitat selection and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:319–332.

MacArthur, R. H. and E. O. Wilson. 1967. The theory of island biogeography. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

MacDonald, I. A. W., D. M. Graber, S. DeBenedetti, R. H. Groves and E. R. Fuentes. 1988. Introduced species in nature reserves in Mediterranean-type climatic regions of the world. Biological Conservation 44:7–66.

MacFadden, B. J. and T. E. Cerling. 1996. Mammalian herbivore communities, ancient feeding ecology, and carbon isotopes: A 10 million-year sequence from the Neogene of Florida. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 16:103–115.

Mack, M. C. and C. M. D’Antonio. 1998. Impacts of biological invasions on disturbance regimes. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 13:195–198.

Mack, R. N. 1989. Temperate grasslands vulnerable to plant invasions: characteristics and consequences. Pages 155–179 in J. A. Drake, H. A. Mooney, F. di Castri, R. H. Groves, F. J. Kruger, M. Rejmanek, and M. Williamson, editors. Biological invasions: A global perspective. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Mack, R. N., D. Simberloff, W. M. Lonsdale, H. Evans, M. Clout and F. A. Bazzaz. 2000. Biotic invasions: Causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecological Applications 10:689–710.

MacNair, M. R. and M. Gardner. 1988. The evolution of edaphic endemics. Pages 157–171 in D. J. Howard and S. H. Berlocher, editors. Endless forms: Species and speciation. Oxford University Press, New York.

Maddox, D. M. and A. Mayfield. 1985. Yellow starthistle infestations are on the increase. California Agriculture 39:10–12.

Madhok, O. P. and R. B. Walker. 1969. Magnesium nutrition of two species of sunflower. Plant Physiology 44:1016–1022.

Maestas, J. D., R. L. Knight and W. C. Gilgert. 2003. Biodiversity across a rural land-use gradient. Conservation Biology 17:1425–1434.

Magurran, A. E. 1988. Ecological diversity and its measurement. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Major, J. 1988. California climate in relation to vegetation. Pages 11–74 in M. G. Barbour, and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California, 2nd edition. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Major, J., C. M. McKell, and L. J. Berry. 1960. Improvement of medusahead infested rangeland. Leaflet 123, California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service, University of California, Berkeley.

Major, J. and W. T. Pyott. 1966. Buried, viable seeds in two California bunchgrass sites and their bearing on the definition of a flora. Vegetatio 13:253–282.

Malmstrom, C. M. 1998. Barley yellow dwarf virus in native California grasses. Grasslands 8:6–10.

Malmstrom, C. M., C. C. Hughes, L. A. Newton and C. J. Stoner. 2005a. Virus infection in remnant native bunchgrasses from invaded California grasslands. New Phytologist 168:217–230.

Malmstrom, C. M., A. J. McCullough, H. A. Johnson, L. A. Newton and E. T. Borer. 2005b. Invasive annual grasses indirectly increase virus incidence in California native perennial bunchgrasses. Oecologia 145:153–164.

Malmstrom, C. M., C. J. Stoner, S. Brandenburg and L. A. Newton. 2006. Virus infection and grazing exert counteracting influences on survivorship of native bunchgrass seedlings competing with invasive exotics. Journal of Ecology 94:264–275.

Malo, J. E. and F. Suárez. 1995. Herbivorous mammals as seed dispersers in a Mediterranean dehesa. Oecologia 104:246–255.

Manzano, P. and J. E. Malo. 2006. Extreme long-distance dispersal via sheep. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 4:244–248.

Marañon, T. and J. W. Bartolome. 1989. Seed and seedling populations in two contrasted communities: open grassland and oak (Quercus agrifolia) understory in California. Acta Oecologica, Oecol. Plant. 10:147–158.

Marañon, T. and J. W. Bartolome. 1993. Reciprocal transplants of herbaceous communities between Quercus agrifolia woodland and adjacent grassland. Journal of Ecology 81:673–682.

——1994. Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) effects on grassland biomass and diversity. Madroño 41:39–52.

Marañon, T. and L. V. Garcia. 1997. The relationship between diversity and productivity in plant communities: facts and artefacts. Journal of Ecology 85:95–96.

Margolin, M. 1989. Life in a California mission: Monterey in 1786 by Lean Fra La Perouse. Heyday Books,.

Maron, J. L. and P. G. Connors. 1996. A native nitrogen-fixing shrub facilitates weed invasion. Oecologia 105:302–312.

Maron, J. L. and R. L. Jefferies. 1999. Bush lupine mortality, altered resource availability, and alternative vegetation states. Ecology 80:443–454.

——. 2001. Restoring enriched grasslands: Effects of mowing on species richness, productivity, and nitrogen retention. Ecological Applications 11:1088–1100.

Marschner, H. 1996. Mineral nutrient acquisition in nonmycorrhizal and mycorrhizal plants. Phyton (Horn) 36:61–68.

(p.354) Marshall, D. R. and S. K. Jain. 1968. Phenotypic plasticity of Avena fatua and Avena barbata. American Midland Naturalist 102:457–467.

Martens, D. A., W. Emmerich, J. E. T. McLain and T. N. Johnsen. 2005. Atmospheric carbon mitigation potential of agricultural management in the southwestern USA. Soil & Tillage Research 83:95–119.

Martin, L. M., K. A. Moloney and B. J. Wilsey. 2005. An assessment of grassland restoration success using species diversity components. Journal of Applied Ecology 42:327–336.

Martin, M. M. and J. Harding. 1981. Evidence for the evolution of competition between two species of annual plants. Evolution 35:975–987.

Martin, P. S. 1974. The discovery of America. Science 179:969–974.

Martin, W. E. 1958. Sulfur deficiency widespread in California soils. California Agriculture 12(November):10–12.

Martin, W. E. and G. L. Jeffries. 1966. Relating ranch prices and grazing permit values to ranch productivity. Journal of Farm Economics 48:233–342.

Martins, P. S. and S. K. Jain. 1979. The role of genetic variation in the colonizing ability of rose clover (Trifolium hirtum All.). American Naturalist 114:591–595.

Martinsen, G. D., J. H. Cushman and T. G. Whitham. 1990. Impact of pocket gopher disturbances on the diversity of a prairie community. Oecologia 83:132–138.

Marty, J. T. 2005. Effects of cattle grazing on diversity in ephemeral wetlands. Conservation Biology 19:1626–1632.

Marty, J. T., S. K. Collinge and K. J. Rice. 2005. Responses of a remnant California native bunchgrass population to grazing, burning and climatic variation. Plant Ecology 181:101–112.

Mason, J. A. 1912. The ethnology of the Salinan Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 10:97–240.

Mathewson, M. 1985. Threads of life: Cordage and other fibers of the California Tribes. Senior thesis, University of California, Santa Cruz.

Mattson, D. J. and T. Merrill. 2002. Extirpations of grizzly bears in the contiguous United States, 1850–2000. Conservation Biology 16:1123–1136.

Mayer, J. M. and I. L. Brisbin. 1991. Wild pigs in the United States: Their history, comparative morphology, and current status. University of Georgia Press, Athens.

Mayer, M. S., P. S. Soltis and D. E. Soltis. 1994. The evolution of the Streptanthus glandulosus complex (Cruciferae): Genetic divergence and gene flow in serpentine endemics. American Journal of Botany 81:1288–1299.

Mayfield, T. J. 1993. Indian summer. Heyday Books/California Historical Society, Bekeley, CA.

MBG. 2006 Grassbanking. The Malpais Borderlands Group: http://www.malpaiborderlandsgroup.org/gb.asp.

McBride, J. R. 1974. Plant succession in the Berkeley Hills, California. Madroño 22:317–329.

McBride, J. R. and H. L. Heady. 1968. Invasion of grassland by Baccharis pilularis D.C. Journal of Range Management 21:106–108.

McCarten, N. 1992. Community structure and habitat relations in a serpentine grassland in California. In A. J. M. Baker, J. Proctor, and R. D. Reeves, editors. The vegetation of ultramafic (serpentine) soils. Intercept Ltd., Andover, UK.

McCarthy, J. J., O.F. Canziani, N. A. Leary, D. J. Dokken and K. S. White, editors. 2001. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change third assessment report: Climate change 2001: Impacts, adaptation and vulnerability. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

McClaran, M. and J. Bartolome. 1985. The importance of oak to ranchers in the California foothill woodland. Rangelands 7:158–161.

——. 1989a Effect of Quercus douglasii (Fagaceae) on herbaceous understory along a rainfall gradient. Madroño 36:141–153.

——. 1989b. Fire-related recruitment in stagnant Quercus douglasii populations. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 19:580–585.

McClintock, E., P. Reeberg and W. Knight. 1990. A flora of the San Bruno Mountains. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

McCreary, D. D. 2001. Regenerating rangeland oaks in California. University of California Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources Communication Services Publication 21601. University of California, Oakland.

McCreary, D. D. 2004. Fire in California’s oak woodlands. Integrated Hardwood Range Management Program, University of California, Berkeley.

McCreary, D. D. and M. R. George. 2005. Managed grazing and seedling shelters enhance oak regeneration on rangelands. California Agriculture 59:4 217–222.

McCreary, D. D. and J. Tecklin. 1994. Grasshoppers continue to hamper oak restoration efforts. Oaks’n’ Folks 9(2):4–5.

——1997. Effects of seedling protectors and weed control on blue oak growth and survival. Pages 243–250 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban interface issues. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

McCullough, D. R. 1969. The tule elk: Its history, behavior, and ecology. University of California Publications in Zoology 88.

McDonald, J. N. 1981. North American bison. University of California Press, Los Angeles and Berkeley.

McEvoy, P., C. Cox and E. Coombs. 1991. Successful biological control of ragwort (Senecio jacobaea) by introduced insects in Oregon. Ecological Applications 1:430–442.

McEvoy, P. B. and E. M. Coombs. 1999. Biological control of plant invaders: Regional patterns, field experiments, and structured population models. Ecological Applications 9:387–401.

McKell, C. M., J. Major and E. R. Perrier. 1959. Annual-range fertilization in relation to soil moisture depletion. Journal of Range Management 12:189–193.

McInnes, P. F., R. J. Naiman, J. Pastor and Y. Cohen. 1992. Effects of moose browsing on vegetation and litter of the boreal forest, Isle Royale, Michigan. Ecology 73:2059–2075.

McIntyre, S. and S. Lavorel. 1994. Predicting richness of native, rare, and exotic plants in response to habitat and disturbance variables across a variegated landscape. Conservation Biology 8:521–531.

McKane, R. B., L. C. Johnson, G. R. Shaver, K. J. Nadelhoffer, E. B. Rastetter, B. Fry, A. E. Giblin, K. Kielland, B. L. Kwiatkowski, J. A. Laundre and G. Murray. 2002. Resource-based niches provide a basis for plant species diversity and dominance in arctic tundra. Nature 415:68–71.

(p.355) McKay, J. K., C. E. Christian, S. Harrison and K. J. Rice. 2005. “How local is local?” A review of practical and conceptual issues in the genetics of restoration. Restoration Ecology 13:432–440.

McKay, J. K. and R. G. Latta. 2002. Adaptive population divergence: Markers, QTL and traits. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:285–291.

McKell, C. C., A. M. Wilson and B. L. Kay. 1962. Effective burning of rangelands infested with medusahead. Weeds 10:125–131.

McLauchlan, K. K., S. E. Hobbie and W. M. Post. 2006. Conversion from agriculture to grassland builds soil organic matter on decadal timescales. Ecological Applications 16:143–153.

McLaughlin, J. F., J. J. Hellmann, C. L. Boggs and P. R. Ehrlich. 2002. Climate change hastens population extinctions. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 99:6070–6074.

McLaughlin, N. 2004. Increasing the tax incentives for conservation easement donations: A responsible approach. Ecological Law Quarterly 31:1–116.

McMillin, J. H. 1956. The aboriginal human ecology of the mountain meadows area in southwestern Lassen County, California. MS thesis, Sacramento State University, Sacramento, CA.

McNaughton, S. J. 1968. Structure and function in California grasslands. Ecology 49:962–972.

——. 1979. Grazing as an optimization process: Grass-ungulate relationships in the Serengeti. American Naturalist 113:691–703.

McNaughton, S. J., M. Oesterheld, D. A. Frank and K. J. Williams. 1989. Ecosystem level patterns of primary productivity and herbivory in terrestrial habitats. Nature 341:142–144.

McPhee, J. 1994. Assembling California. Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, New York.

McQueen, M. and E. McMahon. 2003. Land conservation financing. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Mead, J., L. L. Coats and B. W. Schubert. 2003. Late Pleistocene faunas from caves in the eastern Grand Canyon, Arizona. Pages 64–86 in B. W. Schubert, J. I. Mead, and R. W. Graham, editors. The Ice Age cave faunas of North America. Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Meimberg, H., J. I. Hammond, C. M. Jorgensen, T. W. Park, J. D. Gerlach, K. J. Rice and J. K. McKay. 2006. Molecular evidence for an extreme genetic bottleneck during the introduction of barbed goatgrass, Aegilops triuncialis, to California. Biological Invasions 8:1355–1366.

Menke, J. W. 1989. Management controls on productivity. Pages 173–200 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Menke, J. W. 1992. Grazing and fire management for native perennial grass restoration in California grasslands. Fremontia 20:22–25.

Menke, J. W. and K. J. Rice. 1981. Effects of fire on seeds and nutrients in California annual grassland. Society of Range Management 34th Annual Meeting (abstracts) 1981.

Mensing, S. A. 1993. The impact of European settlement on oak woodlands and fire: Pollen and charcoal evidence from the Transverse Ranges, California. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

——. 1998. 560 years of vegetation change in the region of Santa Barbara, California. Madroño 45:1–11.

Mensing, S. and R. Byrne. 1998. Pre-mission invasion of Erodium cicutarium in California. Journal of Biogeography 25:757–762.

——. 1999. Invasion of Mediterranean weeds into California before 1769. Fremontia 27:6–9.

Merenlender, A. M., K. L. Heise, J. W. Bartolome and B. Allen-Diaz. 2001. Monitoring shows vegetation change at multiple scales. California Agriculture 55:42–46.

Merenlender, A. M., L. Huntsinger, G. Guthey and S. K. Fairfax. 2004. Land trusts and conservation easements: Who is conserving what for whom? Conservation Biology 18:65–75.

Merriam, C. H. 1955. Studies of California Indians. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Merriam, K. E., J. E. Keeley and J. L. Beyers. 2006. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities. Ecological Applications 16:515–527.

Merrill, R. E. 1923. Plants used in basketry by the California Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 20:215–242.

Merzenich, J., W. A. Kurz, S. J. Beukema, M. Arbaugh and S. Schilling. 1999. Long range modeling of stochastic disturbances and management treatments using VDDT and TELSA. Pages 349–355 in (ed.). Society of American Foresters Annual Meeting 1999. Society of American Foresters.

Meyer, M. D. 1997. The effects of fire season and mulch reduction in a California grassland: a comparison of restoration strategies. M.S. thesis, California State University, Northridge.

Meyer, M. D. and P. M. Schiffman. 1999. Fire season and mulch reduction in a California grassland: a comparison of restoration strategies. Madroño 46:25–37.

Micallef, S. B. 1998. Grazing effects on the grassland vegetation of Mount Diablo State Park, California. M.S. thesis, San Francisco State University, San Francisco.

Michener, W. K. and J. W. Brunt. 2000. Ecological data: Design, management and processing. Blackwell Science, Malden, MA.

Milankovitch, M. 1930. Mathematishe Klimalehre und astronomische Theorie der Klimaschwankungen. Pages 1–176 in W. Koppen and R. Geiger, editor. Handbuch der Klimatologie. 1. A. Gebrüder Borntraeger, Berlin.

Milchunas, D. G. and W. K. Lauenroth. 1993. Quantitative effects of grazing on vegetation and soils over a global range of environments. Ecological Monographs 63:327–366.

Miller, J. R. 2003. Integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California. M.S. thesis, University of California, Davis.

Miller, M. 2000. Fire autecology. Page 257 in J. Brown and J. K. Smith, eds. Wildland fire in ecosystems: Effects of fire on flora. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42, Vol. 2. Rocky Mountain Research Station, USDA, Ogden, UT.

Miller, T. E. 1987. Effects of emergence time on survival and grown in an early old-field plant community. Oecologia 72:272–278.

Miller, T. E., J. H. Burns, P. Munguia, E. L. Walters, J. M. Kneitel, P. M. Richards, N. Mouquet and H. L. Buckley. 2005. A critical review of twenty years’ use of the resource-ratio theory. American Naturalist 165:439–448.

Miller, T. W., S. L. Shinn, R. H. Callihan, L. W. Lass and D. C. Thill. 1998. Livestock trampling of grass seedlings for enhanced establishment on yellow starthistle-infested rangelands. Proceedings of the Western Society of Weed Science 51:114–116.

Miller, W. A. and L. Rasochova. 1997. Barley yellow dwarf viruses. Annual Review of Phytopathology 35:167–190.

(p.356) Minnich, R. A. 1983. Fire mosaics in southern California USA and northern Baja-California Mexico. Science 219:1287–1294.

Minnich, R. A. and Y. H. Chou. 1997. Wildland fire patch dynamics in the chaparral of southern California and northern Baja California. International Journal of Wildland Fire 7:221–248.

Minnich, R. A. and R. J. Dezzani. 1998. Historical decline of coastal sage scrub in the Riverside-Perris plain, California. Western Birds 29:366–391.

Mitchell, C. E. and A. G. Power. 2003. Release of invasive plants from fungal and viral pathogens. Nature 421:625–627.

Mitchelson, S. R. 1993. Factors affecting fruit set and survival of Zigadenus fremontii (Liliaceae) growing in a northern California annual grassland. California State University, Chico.

Molina-Freaner, F. and S. K. Jain. 1992. Isozyme variation in Californian and Turkish populations of the colonizing species Trifolium hirtum. Journal of Heredity 83:423–430.

——. 1993. Inbreeding effects in a gynodioecious population of the colonizing species Trifolium hirtum All. Evolution 47:1472–1479.

Moloney, K. A. and S. A. Levin. 1996. The effects of disturbance architecture on landscape-level population dynamics. Ecology 77:375–394.

Moloney, K. A., S. A. Levin, N. R. Chiariello and L. Buttel. 1992. Pattern and scale in a serpentine grassland. Theoretical Population Biology 41:257–276.

Montalvo, A. M., L. J. Feist-Alvey and C. E. Koehler. 2002. The effect of fire and cold treatments on seed germination of annual and perennial populations of Eschscholzia californica (Papaveraceae) in southern California. Madroño 49:207–227.

Montalvo, A. M., P. A. McMillan and E. B. Allen. 2002. The relative importance of seeding method, soil ripping, and soil variables on seeding success. Restoration Ecology 10:52–67.

Montalvo, A. M., S. L. Williams, K. J. Rice, S. L. Buchmann, C. Cory, S. N. Handel, G. P. Nabhan, R. Primack and R. H. Robichaux. 1997. Restoration biology: A population biology perspective. Restoration Ecology 5:277–290.

Moody, A. and J. A. Jones. 2000. Soil response to canopy position and feral pig disturbance beneath Quercus agrifolia on Santa Cruz Island, California. Applied Soil Ecology 14:269–281.

Moody, M. E. and R. N. Mack. 1988. Controlling the spread of plant invasions: The importance of nascent foci. Journal of Applied Ecology 25:1009–1021.

Mooney, H. A. 1977. Southern coastal scrub. Pages 471–490 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Mooney, H. A., and J. A. Drake, editors. 1986. Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer, New York.

Mooney, H. A. and R. J. Hobbs. 2000. Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Mooney, H. A., R. J. Hobbs, J. Gorham and K. Williams. 1986. Biomass accumulation and resource utilization in co-occurring grassland annuals. Oecologia 70:555–558.

Moore, C., M. Bastian, and H. Hunt. 2001. Final Report: Long term vegetation and faunal succession in an artificial northern California vernal pool system. Final report E99TL01. California Department of Transportation, Environmental Impact Mitigation Branch, Sacramento.

Moore, J. C., E. L. Berlow, D. C. Coleman, P. C. Ruiter, Q. Dong, A. Hastings, N. C. Johnson, K. S. McCann, K. Melville, P. J. Morin, K. Nadelhoffer, A. D. Rosemond, D. M. Post, J. L. Sabo, K. M. Scow, M. J. Vanni and D. H. Wall. 2004. Detritus, trophic dynamics and biodiversity. Ecology Letters 7:584–600.

Moore, L. A. and C. B. Field. 2006. The effects of elevated atmospheric CO2 on the amount and depth distribution of plant water uptake in a California annual grassland. Global Change Biology 12:578–587.

Moorhead, D. L. and T. Callaghan. 1994. Effects of increasing ultraviolet B radiation on decomposition and soil organic matter dynamics: a synthesis and modelling study. Biology and Fertility of Soils 18:19–26.

Morgan, J. A., D. E. Pataki, C. Korner, H. Clark, S. J. Del Grosso, J. M. Grunzweig, A. K. Knapp, A. R. Mosier, P. C. D. Newton, P. A. Niklaus, J. B. Nippert, R. S. Nowak, W. J. Parton, H. W. Polley and M. R. Shaw. 2004. Water relations in grassland and desert ecosystems exposed to elevated atmospheric CO2. Oecologia (Berlin) 140:11–25.

Morison J. I. L.. 1985. Sensitivity of stomata and water use efficiency to high CO2. Plant, Cell and Environment 8:467–474.

Moritz, M. A. 2003. Spatiotemporal analysis of controls on shrubland fire regimes: Age dependency and fire hazard. Ecology 84:351–361.

Morrison, S. A., N. MacDonald, K. J. Walker, L. Lozier and M. R. Shaw. 2007. Facing the dilemma at eradication’s end: uncertainty of absence and the Lazarus effect. Frontiers in Ecology 5:271–276.

Morton, J. B., S. R. Bentivenga and J. D. Bever. 1995. Discovery, measurement and interpretation of diversity in arbuscular end fungi (Glomales, Zygomycetes). Canadian Journal of Botany Suppl. 1:S25–S32.

Mousseau, T. A. and C. W. Fox. 1998. Maternal effects as adaptations. Oxford University Press, New York.

Moyes, A. B., M. S. Witter and J. A. Gamon. 2005. Restoration of native perennials in a California annual grassland after prescribed spring burning and solarization. Restoration Ecology 13:659–666.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and methods of vegetation ecology. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Muick, P. C. 1995. Effects of shade and simulated herbivory on seedling emergence, survival and growth of two California oaks: Coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia Nee.) and blue oak (Quercus douglasii Hook. and Arn.). Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Muick, P. C. and J. W. Bartolome. 1987. An assessment of natural regeneration of oaks in California. California Dept. of Forestry and Fire Protection, Sacramento.

Muir, J. 1894. The mountains of California.

1977 reprint, Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, CA.

——. 1974. Rambles of a botanist among the plants and climates of California. Dawson’s Book Shop, Los Angeles.

——. 1986. Muir among the animals. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco.

Muller, C. H. 1966. Role of chemical inhibition (allelopathy) in vegetational composition. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 93:332–351.

Munz, P. A. 1959. California plant communities. Pages 11–18 in P. A. Munz and D. D. Keck, editors. A California flora with supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Munz, P. A. and D. D. Keck. 1959. A California flora with supplement. University of California Press, Berkeley.

(p.357) Murphy, A. H. 1970. Predicted forage yield based on fall precipitation in California annual grasslands. Journal of Range Management 23:363–365.

Murphy, A. H. and L. J. Berry. 1973. Range pasture benefits through tree removal. California Agriculture 27:8–10.

Murphy, A. H. and B. Crampton. 1964. Quality and yield of forage as affected by chemical removal of blue oak (Quercus douglasii). Journal of Range Management 17:142–144.

Murphy, D. D. and P. R. Ehrlich. 1989. Conservation biology of California’s remnant native grasslands. Pages 201–211 in L. F. Huenneke and H. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Myers, N. and J. Kent. 1998. Perverse subsidies: tax $$ undercutting our economies and environments alike. International Institute for Sustainable Development, Winnipeg, Manitoba.

Nagy, E. S. 1997. Frequency-dependent seed production and hybridization rates: Implications for gene flow between locally adapted plant populations. Evolution 51:703–714.

Nagy, E. S. and K. J. Rice. 1997. Local adaptation in two subspecies of an annual plant: implications for migration and gene flow. Evolution 51:1079–1089.

Nagy, L. and J. Proctor. 1997a. Soil Mg and Ni as causal factors of plant occurrence and distribution at the Meikle Kilrannoch ultramafic site in Scotland. New Phytologist 135:561–566.

——. 1997b. Plant growth and reproduction on a toxic alpine ultramafic soil: Adaptation to nutrient limitation. New Phytologist 137:267–274.

Naiman, R. J. and H. Decamps. 1997. The ecology of interfaces: Riparian zones. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:621–658.

Nambiar, E.K.S. 1987. Do nutrients retranslocate from fine roots? Canadian Journal of Forest Research–Revue Canadienne de Recherche Forestière 17:913–918.

NASS. 2005. U. S. Department of Agriculture National Livestock Statistics Service. 2005 Data and statistics: Livestock. http://www.nass.usda.gov/Data_and_Statistics/Quick_Stats/.

National Academy of Sciences. 2001. Compensating for wetland losses under the Clean Water Act. National Academies Press, Washington, DC.

NatureServe. 2006. NatureServe explorer: An online encylopedia of life, Version 4.4. NatureServe, Arlington, VA. http://www.natureserve.org/explorer.

NatureServe, California Native Plant Society, and California Department of Fish and Game. 2003. Classification of the vegetation of Point Reyes National Seashore, Golden Gate National Recreation Area, Samuel P. Taylor, Mount Tamalpais, and Tomales State Parks, Marin, San Francisco, and San Mateo Counties, CA. California Department of Fish and Game, Wildlife and Habitat Data Analysis Branch, Sacramento.

Naveh, Z. 1967. Mediterranean ecosystems and vegetation types in California and Israel. Ecology 48:445–459.

Naylor, R. L. 2000. The economics of alien species invasions. Pages 241–260 in H. A. Mooney and R. J. Hobbs, editors. Invasive species in a changing world. Island Press, Washington, DC.

NCDC. 2007. Fossil and surface pollen data. National Climatic Data Center, U.S. Department of Commerce. http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/paleo/pollen.html (accessed March 20, 2007).

Negrini, R. M., P. E. Wigand, S. Draucker, K. Gobalet, J. K. Gardner, M. Q. Sutton and R. M. Yohe. 2006. The Rambla highstand shoreline and the Holocene lake-level history of Tulare Lake, California, USA. Quaternary Science Reviews 25:1599–1618.

Nelson, L. L. and E. B. Allen. 1993. Restoration of Stipa pulchra grasslands: Effects of mycorrhizae and competition from Avena barbata. Restoration Ecology 1:40–50.

Newmark, M. H., and M. R. Newmark, editors. 1916. Sixty years in southern California, 1853–1913, containing the reminiscences of Harris Newmark.

1930 reprint, Zeitlin and Ver Brugge, Los Angeles, CA.

NGN. 2005. National Grassbank Network. http://www.grassbank.net (accessed June 8, 2007).

Nicolai, N. 1992. Distribution of Gambelia silus, Ammospermophilus nelsoni, Dipodomys ingens, and Vulpes macrotis mutica in the Southern San Joaquin Valley, California. Pages 159–168 in D. F. Williams, S. Byrne, and T. A. Rado, editors. Endangered and sensitive species of the San Joaquin Valley: Their biology, management and conservation. California Energy Commission, Sacramento.

Nomland, G. A. 1935. Sinkyone notes. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 36:149–178.

Nowak, R. S., D. S. Ellsworth and S. D. Smith. 2004. Functional responses of plants to elevated atmospheric CO2—do photo-synthetic and productivity data from FACE experiments support early predictions? New Phytologist 162:253–280.

Noy-Meir, I. 1973. Desert systems: Environment and producers. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 4:25–51.

——. 1988. Dominant grasses replaced by ruderal forbs in a vole year in undergrazed Mediterranean grasslands in Israel. Journal of Biogeography 15:579–587.

Noy-Meir, I., M. Gutman and Y. Kaplan. 1989. Responses of Mediterranean grassland plants to grazing and protection. Journal of Ecology 77:290–310.

NPS. 2003. Annual Performance Plan for FY 2004. U.S. Department of Interior, National Park Service, Pt. Reyes, CA. http://www.nps.gov/pore/home_mngmntdocs_archives_performanceplans.htm.

NRPI. 1997. The Natural Resource Projects Inventory. Information Center for the Environment, Davis, CA. http://www.ice.ucdavis.edu/nrpi/.

Null, J. 2006. Mid-winter dry spells. http://ggweather.com/enso/winter_dry_spells.htm (accessed May 22, 2006).

Nuzum, R. C. 2005. Using livestock grazing as a resource management tool in California. Contra Costa Water District, Concord, CA. http://www.ccwater.com/files/LivestockGrazingFinal72005.pdf.

Odion, D. C. 2000. Seed banks of long-unburned stands of maritime chaparral: Composition, germination behavior and survival with fire. Madroño 47:195–203.

Odion, D. C. and F. W. Davis. 2000. Fire, soil heating, and the formation of vegetation patterns in chaparral. Ecological Monographs 70:149–169.

Odion, D. C. and K. A. Haubensak. 2002. Response of French broom to fire. Pages 296–307 in N. G. Sugihara, M. E. Morales, and T. J. Morales, editors. Proceedings of the symposium Fire in California ecosystems: Integrating ecology, prevention and management 2002. Miscellaneous Publication No. 2. Association for Fire Ecology, Berkeley, CA.

Odion, D. C. and C. M. Tyler. 2002. Are long fire-free periods needed to maintain the rare, fire-recruiting shrub Arctostaphylos morroensis (Ericaceae)? Conservation Ecology 6:4.

Oechel, W. C., S. J. Hastings, G. L. Vourlitis, M. A. Jenkins and C. L. Hinkson. 1995. Direct effects of elevated CO2 in chaparral and Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Pages 58–75 in J. L. Moreno and W. C. Oechel, editors. Global change and Mediterranean-type ecosystems. Ecological Studies 117. Springer-Verlag, New York.

(p.358) Oenema, O., G. L. Velthof, S. Yamulki and S. C. Jarvis. 1997. Nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland. Soil Use & Management 13:288–295.

Ogle, S. M., F. J. Breidt and K. Paustian. 2005. Agricultural management impacts on soil organic carbon storage under moist and dry climatic conditions of temperate and tropical regions. Biogeochemistry 72:87–121.

Okano, Y., K. R. Hristova, C. M. Leutenetter, L. E. Jackson, R. F. Denison, B. Gebreyesus, D. LeBauer and K. M. Scow. 2004. Application of real-time PCR to study effects of ammonium on population size of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in soil. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 20:1008–1016.

Olff, R. T. and M. E. Ritchie. 1998. Effects of herbivores on grassland plant diversity. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 13:261–265.

Olson, B. E. 1999. Grazing and weeds. Pages 85–96 in R. L. Sheley and J. K. Petroff, editors. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Opperman, J. J. and A. M. Merenlender. 2000. Deer herbivory as an ecological constraint to restoration of degraded riparian corridors. Restoration Ecology 8:41–47.

Orr, P. C. 1956. Pleistocene man in Fishbone Cave, Pershing County, Nevada. Nevada State Museum Bulletin 2:1–20.

Orr, R. T. 1940. The rabbits of California. Occasional Papers of the California Academy of Sciences 19:1–208.

Osono, T. 2002. Phyllosphere fungi on leaf litter of Fagus crenata: occurrence, colonization and succession. Canadian Journal of Botany–Revue canadienne de botanique 80:460–469.

Oswald, J. W. and B. R. Houston. 1951. A new virus disease of cereals, transmissible by aphids. Plant Disease Reporter 35:471–475.

Oswald, J. W. and B. R. Houston. 1953. The yellow-dwarf virus disease of cereal crops. Phytopathology 43:128–136.

Overton, J. M. and S. A. Levin. 2003. Components of spatial patterning in a serpentine grassland. Ecological Research 18:405–421.

Owen-Smith, N. 1987. Pleistocene extinctions: The pivotal role of megaherbivores. Paleobiology 13:351–362.

Packard, S., and C. F. Mutel, editors. 1996. The tallgrass restoration handbook for prairies, savannas, and woodlands. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Paddison, J., editor. 1999. A world transformed: Firsthand accounts of California before the gold rush. Heyday Books, Berkeley, CA.

Padgett, P. E., E. B. Allen, A. Bytnerowicz and R. A. Minnich. 1999. Changes in soil inorganic nitrogen as related to atmospheric nitrogenous pollutants in southern California. Atmospheric Environment 33:769–781.

Page, J. Ranchers form a “radical center” to protect wide-open spaces. Smithsonian, June 1997, 50–61.

Paine, L. K., D. Undersander and M. D. Casler. 1999. Pasture growth, production, and quality under rotational and continuous grazing management. Journal of Production Agriculture 12:569–577.

Painter, E. L. 1995. Threats to the California flora: Ungulate grazers and browsers. Madroño 42:180–188.

Painter, E. L. and A. J. Belsky. 1993. Application of herbivore optimization theory to rangelands of the western United States. Ecological Applications 3:2–9.

Pan, Z., J. H. Christensen, R. W. Arritt, W. J. Gutowski, E. S. Takle and F. Otieno. 2001. Evaluation of uncertainties in regional climate change simulations. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres 106:17735–17751.

Palmer, R. E. 1982. Ecological and evolutionary patterns in Holocarpha (Compositae, Madiinae). PhD dissertation. University of California, Davis.

Parker, I. M. and S. H. Reichard. 1998. Critical issues in invasion biology for conservation science. Pages 283–305 in P. L. Fiedler and P. M. Kareiva, editors. Conservation biology. Chapman & Hall, New York.

Parker, J. D., D. E. Burkepile and M. E. Hay. 2006. Opposing effects of native and exotic herbivores on plant invasions. Science 311:1459–1461.

Parker, S. 2006. Nitrogen cycling dynamics over space and time in annual and perennial grasslands in California. Doctoral dissertation. University of California, Santa Barbara.

Parker, V. T. and V. R. Kelly. 1989. Seed banks in California chaparral and other Mediterranean climate shrublands. Pages 231–255 in M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker, and R. L. Simpson, editors. Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Parker, V. T. and R. Kersnar. 1989. Regeneration potential in French broom, Cytisus monspessulanus. Unpublished report to the Land Management Division of the Marin Municipal Water District.

Parker, V. T. and C. H. Muller. 1982. Vegetational and environmental-changes beneath isolated live oak trees (Quercus agrifolia) in a California annual grassland. American Midland Naturalist 107:69–81.

Parker, W. H. 1992. Focal point seed zones site-specific seed zone delineation using geographic information systems. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22:267–271.

Parkman, E. B. 2002. Evidence of Rancholabrean rubbing rocks on California’s north coast. Society for California Archaeology Newsletter 36:26–31.

Parmenter, R. R. and J. A. MacMahon. 1983. Factors determining the abundance and distribution of rodents in a shrub-steppe ecosystem: the role of shrubs. Oecologia 59:145–156.

Parsons, D. J. 1981. The historical role of fire in foothill communities of Sequoia National Park. Madroño 46:112–120.

Parsons, D. J. and S. DeBenedetti. 1984. Effects of prescribed fire on annual grasslands in Sequoia National Park. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 65:258 (abstract).

Parsons, D. J. and T. J. Stohlgren. 1989. Effects of varying fire regimes on annual grasslands in the southern Sierra Nevada of California. Madroño 36:154–168.

Pavlik, B. M. and M. G. Barbour. 1986a. Demography of endemic psammophytes, Eureka Valley, California. I. Seed production, dispersal, and herbivory. State of California, Department of Fish and Game, Office of Endangered Species, Sacramento.

——. 1986b. Demography of endemic psammophytes, Eureka Valley, California. II. Survivorship, seed bank dynamics, and frequency of establishment. State of California, Department of Fish and Game, Office of Endangered Species, Sacramento.

Peart, D. R. 1980. Seed dispersal by grasses in a California coastal grassland. American Zoologist 20:947.

(p.359) Peart, D. R. 1989a. Species interactions in a succesional grassland. I. Seed rain and seedling recruitment. Journal of Ecology 77:236–251.

Peart, D. R. 1989b. Species interactions in a successional grassland. II. Colonization of vegetated sites. Journal of Ecology 77:252–266.

Peart, D. R. 1989c. Species interactions in a successional grassland. III. Effects of canopy gaps, gopher mounds and grazing on colonization. Journal of Ecology 77:267–289.

Peart, D. R. 1994. Impact of feral pig activity on vegetation patterns associated with Quercus agrifolia on Santa Cruz Island, California. Ph.D. dissertation, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ.

Pendelton, D. F., J. W. Menke, W. A. Williams and R. G. Woodmansee. 1983. Annual grassland ecosystem model. Hilgardia 5:1–44.

Perevolotsky, A. and N. G. Seligman. 1998. Role of grazing in Mediterranean rangeland ecosystems: Inversion of a paradigm. Bioscience 48:1007–1017.

Peri, D. W., S. M. Patterson and J. L. Goodrich. 1982. Ethnobotanical mitigation Warm Springs Dam—Lake Sonoma, California. Elgar Hill, Environmental Analysis & Planning, Penngrove, CA.

Perlot, J. N. 1985. Gold seeker: Adventures of a Belgian Argonaut during the gold rush years. Edited and translated by H. H. Bretnor. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Perry, D. A., M. P. Amaranthus, J. G. Borchers, S. L. Borchers and R. E. Brainerd. 1989. Bootstrapping in ecosystems. Bioscience 39:230–237.

Peters, H. A., E. E. Cleland, H. A. Mooney and C. B. Field. 2006. Herbivore control of annual grassland composition in current and future environments. Ecology Letters 9:86–94.

Peters, S. 2002. Mycorrhizal inoculum: Evaluating need and performance in revegetation and reclamation projects. Grasslands 12:1–10.

Peterson, D. A. 2005. Facilitating use of prescribed fire to manage invasive exotic grasses on California’s annual grasslands: Reseeding with annual clovers and grasses to mitigate first-year forage loss. M.S. thesis, University of California, Davis.

Peterson, P. M. 1993. Muhlenbergia. Pages 1272–1274 in J. C. Hickman, editor. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 2000. Systematics of the Muhlenbergiinae (Chloridoideae: Eragrostideae). Pages 195–212 in S. W. L. Jacobs and J. Everett, editors. Grasses: Systematics and evolution. CSIRO, Melbourne.

——. 2003. Poaceae (Gramineae). Nature encyclopedia of life sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, London. http://www.els.net/ [doi:10.1038/npg.els.0003689]

——. In press. Muhlenbergia. In B. G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B. J. Ertter, D. J. Keil, R. W. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. The Jepson manual of higher plants of California, 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Peterson, P. M., J. Cayouette, Y. S. N. Ferdinandez, B. Coulman and R. E. Chapman. 2002. Recognition of Bromus richardsonii and B. ciliatus: Evidence from morphology, cytology, and DNA fingerprinting (Poaceae: Bromeae). Aliso 20:21–36.

Peterson, P. M., J. T. Columbus and S. J. Pennington. In press. Classification and biogeography of New World grasses: Chloridoideae. In J. T. Columbus, E. A. Friar, J. M. Porter, L. M. Prince, and M. G. Simpson, editors. Monocots: comparative biology and evolution. Rancho Santa Ana Botanic Garden, Claremont, CA.

Peterson, P. M. and J. J.Ortíz-Diaz. 1998. Allelic variation in the amphitropical disjunct Muhlenbergia torreyi (Poaceae: Muhlen-bergiinae). Brittonia 50:381–391.

pPeterson, P. M. and J. J. Saarela. In press. Calamagrostis. In B. G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B. J. Ertter, D. J. Keil, R. W. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. The Jepson manual of higher plants of California, 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Phillips, F. M., M. G. Zreda, L. V. Benson, M. A. Plummer, D. Elmore and P. Sharma. 1996. Chronology for fluctuations in late Pleistocene Sierra Nevada glaciers and lakes. Science 274:749–751.

Phillips, K. 2001. Restoration of a California ranch benefits both wildlife and landowners. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Bi-Weekly Restoration Information Update.

Pickart, A. 2006. Vegetation of diked herbaceous wetlands of Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge: classification, description, and ecology. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. Humboldt Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Arcata, CA.

Pickart, A. J. and M. G. Barbour. In press. Beach and Dune. In M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California, 3rd Edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Pickart, A. J. and J. O. Sawyer. 1998. Ecology and restoration of northern California coastal dunes. California Native Plant Society Press, Sacramento.

Pickett, S.T.A. 1976. Succession: an evolutionary interpretation. American Naturalist 110:107–119.

Pickett, S. T. A., and P. S. White, editors. 1985. The Ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. Academic Press, Orlando, FL.

Pickford, G. G. 1932. The influence of continued heavy grazing and of promiscuous burning on spring-fall ranges in Utah. Ecology 13:159–171.

Piemeisel, R. L. and F. R. Lawson. 1937. Types of vegetation in the San Joaquin Valley of California and their relation to the beet leafhopper. USDA Technical Bulletin no. 557, Washington, DC.

Pietola, L., R. Horn and M. Yli-Halla.. 2005. Effects of trampling by cattle on the hydraulic and mechanical properties of soil. Soil and Tillage Research 82:99–108.

Pilling, A. R. 1978. Yurok. Pages 137–154 in R. F. Heizer, editor. Handbook of North American Indians Vol. 8. California. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Pitcairn, M. J., E. M. Coombs and G. L. Piper. 2004. Yellow starthistle. Pages 421–435 in E. M. Coombs, J. K. Clark, G. L. Piper, and A. F. Cofrancesco, editors. Biological control of invasive plants in the United States. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Pitcairn, M. J., B. Villegas, D. M. Woods, G. Wilber, A. Duffy and M. El-Bawdri. 2003. Statewide survey of yellow starthistle biological control agents. Pages 45–49 in D. M. Woods, editor. Biological Control Program Annual Summary, 2002. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, Sacramento.

Pitcairn, M. J., D. M. Woods, D. Joley and V. Popescu. 2002. Seven-year population buildup and combined impact of biological control insects on yellow starthistle. Pages 57–59 in D. M. Woods, editor. Biological Control Program Annual Summary, 2001. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, Sacramento.

(p.360) Pitcairn, M. J., J. A. Young, C. D. Clements and J. Balciunas. 2002. Purple starthistle (Centaurea calcitrapa) seed germination. Weed Technology 16:452–456.

Pitt, M. D. and H. F. Heady. 1978. Responses of annual vegetation to temperature and rainfall patterns in northern California. Ecology 59:336–350.

——. 1979. The effects of grazing intensity on annual vegetation. Journal of Range Management 32:109–114.

Platenkamp, G. A. 1990. Phenotypic plasticity and genetic differentiation in the demography of the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. Journal of Ecology 78:772–788.

——. 1991. Phenotypic plasticity and population differentiation in seeds and seedlings of the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. Oecologia 88:515–520.

Platenkamp, G. A. and R. G. Shaw. 1993. Environmental and genetic maternal effects on seed characters in Nemophila menziesii. Evolution 47:540–555.

Platenkamp G. A.J. and T. C. Foin. 1990. Ecological and evolutionary importance of neighbors in the grass Anthoxanthum odoratum. Oecologia 83:201–208.

Platt, W. J. 1975. The colonization and formation of equilibrium plant species associations on badger disturbances in tall-grass prairie. Ecological Monographs 45:285–305.

Pollak, O. and T. Kan. 1998. The use of prescribed fire to control invasive weeds at Jepson Prairie Preserve. Pages 241–249 in C. W. Witham editors. Ecology, conservation and management of vernal pool ecosystems: Proceedings from a 1996 conference. California Native Plant Society.

Pollock, J. F. 2006. Lassen Foothills controlled burn study 1996–2003, statistical modeling and analysis; a report to The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco, California. University of California, Santa Cruz.

Poorter, H. and M. L. Navas. 2003. Plant growth and competition at elevated CO2: on winners, losers and functional groups. New Phytologist 157:175–198.

Potthoff, M., J. Dyckmans, H. Flessa, A. Muhs, F. Beese and R. G. Joergensen. 2005a. Dynamics of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf straw mineralization as affected by the presence of soil and the availablility of nitrogen. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:1259–1266.

Potthoff, M., L. E. Jackson, K. L. Steenwerth, I. Ramirez, M. R. Stromberg and D. E. Rolston. 2005b. Soil biological and chemical properties in restored perennial grassland in California. Restoration Ecology 13:61–73.

Potthoff, M., K. L. Steenwerth, L. E. Jackson, R. E. Drenovsky, K. M. Scow and R. G. Joergensen. 2006. Soil microbial community composition as affected by restoration practices in California grassland. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38:1851–1860.

Potts, D. L., T. E. Huxman, B. J. Enquist, J. F. Weltzin and D. G. Williams. 2006. Resilience and resistance of ecosystem functional response to a precipitation pulse in a semi-arid grassland. Journal of Ecology 94:23–30.

Powers, S. 1976. Tribes of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Prasad, V., C. A. E. Stromberg, H. Alimohammadian and A. Sahni. 2005. Dinosaur coprolites and the early evolution ofgrasses and grazers. Science 310:1177–1180.

Preston, W. L. 1981. Vanishing landscapes: Land and life in the Tulare Lake basin. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 2002 Post-Columbian wildlife irruptions in California: Implications for cultural and environental understanding. Pages 111–140 in C. E. Kay and R. T. Simmons, editors. Wilderness and political ecology: Aboriginal influences and the original state of nature. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

——. 2002b. Portents of plague from California’s protohistoric period. Ethnohistory 49:69–121.

Price, M. V. and S. H. Jenkins. 1986. Rodents as seed consumers and dispersers. Pages 191–235 in D. R. Murray, editor. Seed dispersal. Academic Press, New York.

Priestley, H. I., editor and translator. 1937. A historical, political, and natural description of California by Pedro Fages, soldier of Spain. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Proctor, J. and S. R. J. Woodell. 1975. The ecology of serpentine soils. Advances in Ecological Research 9:255–366.

Provenza, F. D. and D. F. Balph. 1988. Development of dietary choice in livestock on rangelands and its implications for management. Journal of Animal Science 66:2356–2368.

Public Policy Institute of California. 2006. California’ futurepopulation. http://www.ppic.org/content/pubs/jtf/JTF_FuturePopulationJTF.pdf.

Pyke, C. R. and J. Marty. 2005. Cattle grazing mediates climate change impacts on ephemeral wetlands. Conservation Biology 19:1619–1625.

Raab, L. M., and T. L. Jones, editors. 2004. Prehistoric California: Archeology and the myth of paradise. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Rai, K. N. and S. K. Jain. 1982. Population biology of Avena. IX. Gene flow and neighborhood size in relation to microgeographic variation in Avena barbata. Oecologia 53:399–405.

Rajakaruna, N. 2003. Edaphic differentiation in Lasthenia: A model for studies in evolutionary ecology. Madroño 50:31–40.

Rajakaruna, N. and B. A. Bohm. 1999. The edaphic factor and patterns of variation in Lasthenia californica. American Journal of Botany 86:1576–1596.

Rajakaruna, N., G. E. Bradfield, B. A. Bohm and J. Whitton. 2003a. Adaptive differentiation in response to water stress by edaphic races of Lasthenia californica (Asteraceae). International Journal of Plant Science 164:371–376.

Rajakaruna, N., M. Y. Siddiqi and J. Whitton. 2003b. Differential responses to Na+/K+ and Ca2+/Mg2+ in two edaphic races of the Lasthenia californica (Asteraceae) complex: A case for parallel evolution of physiological traits. New Phytologist 157:93–103.

Rajakaruna, N., B. G. Baldwin, R. Chan, A. M. Desrochers, B. A. Bohm and J. Whitton. 2003c. Edaphic races and phylogenetic taxa in the Lasthenia californica complex (Asteraceae: Heliantheae): and hypothesis of parallel evolution. Molecular Ecology 12(6):1675–1679.

Rastetter, E. B. and G. R. Shaver. 1992. A model of multiple-element limitation for acclimating vegetation. Ecology 73:1157–1174.

Ratliff, R. D. 1986. Cattle responses to continuous and seasonal grazing of California USA annual grassland. Journal of Range Management 39:482–485.

Ratliff, R. D., D. A. Duncan and S. E. Westfall. 1991. California oak-woodland overstory species affect herbage understory: Management implications. Journal of Range Management 44:306–310.

Raven, P. J. and C. Axelrod. 1978. Origin and relationships of the California flora. University of California Publications in Botany 72:-1–144.

Reeder, J. D., G. E. Schuman and J. A. Morgan. 2004. Response of organic and inorganic carbon and nitrogen to long-term grazing of the shortgrass steppe. Environmental Management 33:485–495.

(p.361) Reever Morghan, K. J., E. A. Leger and K. J. Rice. 2003. Clopyralid effects on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) and non-target species. Weed Science 51:596–600.

Reever Morghan, K. J. and K. J. Rice. 2005. Centaurea solstitialis invasion success is influenced by Nassella pulchra size. Restoration Ecology 13:524–528.

Reeves, K. and J. Morris. 2000. Biological monitoring report for the Hollister Hills State Vehicular Recreation Area. T.O. Cattle Company, San Juan Bautista, CA.

——. 2001. Holistic management and biological planning in California: You be the judge. California Native Grass Association Newsletter:4–7.

Reichman, O. J. and E. W. Seabloom. 2002. The role of pocket gophers as subterranean ecosystem engineers. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:44–49.

Reiner, R. J. 2001. Protecting biodiversity on grazed grasslands in California: A presentation to the Association for the Advancement of Science, January 24, 1999. Conserve Online. http://conserveonline.org/coldocs/2001/05/AAAS_Talk_1999.doc.

Reiner, R. J., P. Hujik and J. Pollock. In press. Predicting vegetation response to fire in California annual grasslands. In R. Schlising and D. Alexander, editors. The vernal pool complexes of the northstate: Biology, conservation, and management conference, March 23, 2006. Butte Environmental Council, Chico, CA.

Reiner, R. J. and R. Swenson. 2000. Saving vernal pools in the Cosumnes River watershed. Fremontia 27:4:33–37.

Reinhart, K. O. and R. M. Callaway. 2006. Soil biota and invasive plants. New Phytologist 170:445–457.

Rejmánek, M. and M. J. Pitcairn. 2002. When is eradication of exotic pest plants a realistic goal? Pages 249–253 in C. R. Veitch and M. N. Clout, editors. Turning the tide: The eradication of invasive species. IUCN SSC Invasive Species Specialist Group, Gland, Switzerland.

Rejmánek, M. and J. M. Randall. 1994. Invasive alien plants in California: 1993 summary and comparison with other areas in North America. Madroño 41:161–177.

——. 2004. The total number of naturalized species can be a reliable predictor of the number of alien pest species. Diversity and Distributions 10:367–363.

Rejmánek, M., D. M. Richardson, M. G. Barbour, M. J. Crawley, G. F. Hrusa, P. B. Moyle, J. M. Randall, D. Simberloff and M. Williamson. 2002. Biological invasions: Politics and the discontinuity of ecological terminology. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 83:131–133.

Reynolds, H. L., B. A. Hungate, F. S. Chapin and C. M. D’Antonio. 1997. Soil heterogeneity and plant competition in an annual grassland. Ecology 78:2076–2090.

Reynolds, R. D. 1959. The effect upon the forest of natural fire and aboriginal burning in the Sierra Nevada. M.S. thesis, University of California, Berkeley.

Reynolds, S., J. D. Corbin and C. M. D’Antonio. 2001. The effects of litter and temperature on the germination of native and exotic grasses in a coastal California grassland. Madroño 48:230–235.

Riba, M. and J. Terradas. 1987. Characteristiques de la resposta als incendis en els ecosistemes mediterranis. Pages 63–75 in J. Terradas, editor. Ecosistemes terrestres. Diputacio de Barcelona, Spain.

Rice, K. J. 1985. Responses of Erodium to varying microsites: The role of germination cueing. Ecology 66:1651–1657.

——. 1987. Interaction of disturbance patch size and herbivory in Erodium colonization. Ecology 68:1113–1115.

——. 1989 Competitive interactions in California annual grasslands. Pages 59–71 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Press, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

——. 1989b. Impacts of seed banks on grassland community structure and population dynamics. Pages 212–230 in M. A. Leck, V. T. Parker, and R. L. Simpson, editors. Ecology of soil seed banks. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.

Rice, K. J. and A. R. Dyer. 2001. Seed aging, delayed germination and reduced competitive ability in Bromus tectorum. Plant Ecology 155:237–243.

Rice, K. J. and N. C. Emery. 2003. Managing microevolution: Restoration in the face of global change. Frontiers in Ecology 1:469–478.

Rice, K. J. and E. E. Knapp. 2000. Evolutionary factors affecting the probability of local adaption or should we expect to see ecotypes behind every rock? Pages 221–226 in J. E. Keeley, M. Baer-Keeley, and C. J. Fotheringham, editors. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California. USGS Open-File Report 00–62. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

Rice, K. J. and E. S. Nagy. 2000. Oak canopy effects on the distribution patterns of two annual grasses: The role of competition and soil nutrients. American Journal of Botany 87:1699–1706.

Richards, J. H. and M. M. Caldwell. 1985. Soluble carbohydrates, concurrent photosynthesis and efficiency in regrowth following defoliation: A field study with Agropyron species. Journal of Applied Ecology 22:907–920.

Richards, R. T. and M. R. George. 1996. Evaluating changes in ranch management practices through extension education. Journal of Range Management 49:76–80.

Richardson, D. M., P. Pysek, M. Rejmanek, M. G. Barbour, F. D. Panetta and C. J. West. 2000. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants: Concepts and definitions. Diversity and Distributions 6:93–107.

Ridolfi, M. C., R. A. Dahlgren, W. R. Horwarth and K. W. Tate. 1999. Changes in soil quality due to oak tree removal in California oak woodland. Pages 18–27 in A. Zabel and G. Sposito, editors. Soil quality in the California environment. Annual Report of Research Projects 1998–1999. M. Theo Kearney Foundation of Soil Science, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley.

Rikard, W. H. and J. F. Cline. 1980. Cheatgrass communities: Effects of plowing on species composition and productivity. Northwest Science 54:216–221.

Rillig, M. C., M. F. Allen, J. N. Klironomos, N. R. Chiariello and C. B. Field. 1998. Plant species-specific changes in rootinhabiting fungi in a California annual grassland: responses to elevated CO2 and nutrients. Oecologia 113:252–259.

Rillig, M. C., C. B. Field and M. F. Allen. 1999a. Soil biota responses to long-term atmospheric CO2 enrichment in two California annual grasslands. Oecologia 119:572–577.

Rillig, M. C., S. F. Wright, M. F. Allen and C. B. Field. 1999b. Rise in carbon dioxide changes soil structure. Nature 400:628.

Rillig, M. C., S. F. Wright, M. R. Shaw and C. B. Field. 2002. Artificial climate warming positively affects arbuscular mycorrhizae but decreases soil aggregate water stability in an annual grassland. Oikos 97:52–58.

(p.362) Ritchie, M. E., D. Tilman and J. M. H. Knops. 1998. Herbivore effects on plant and nitrogen dynamics in oak savanna. Ecology 79:165–177.

Rizzo, D. M., M. Garbelotto and E. M. Hansen. 2005. Phytophthora ramorum: Integrative research and management of an emerging pathogen in California and Oregon forests. Annual Review of Phytopathology 43:309–435.

Roberts, B. A. and J. Proctor. 1992. The ecology of areas with serpentinized rocks: A world view. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Robins, P. 2002a. Bring farm edges back to life. Yolo County Resource Conservation District, Woodland, CA.

——. 2002b. Cost share programs for resource conservation and wildlife habitat development. Pages 85–94 in P. Robins, editor. Bring farm edges back to life. Yolo County Resource Conservation District, Woodland, CA.

Robinson, G. R., J. F. Quinn and M. L. Stanton. 1995. Invasibility of experimental habitat islands in a California annual grassland. Ecology 76:786–794.

Robinson, R. H. 1971. An analysis of ecological factors limiting the distribution of a group of Stipa pulchra associations. Korean Journal of Botany 14:61–80.

Roché, B. F., C. T. Roché and R. C. Chapman. 1994. Impacts of grassland habitat on yellow starthistle (Centaurea solsitialis L.) invasion. Northwest Science 68:86–96.

Roché, C. T., R. Vilatersana, T. Garnatje, R. Gamarra, N. Garcia-Jacas, A. Susanna and D. C. Thill. 2003. Tracking an invader to its origins: The invasion case history of Crupina vulgaris. Weed Research 43:177–189.

Rodell, C. F. 1977. A grasshopper model for a grassland ecosystem. Ecology 58:227–245.

Rodriguez-Rojo, M. P., D. Sanchez-Mata, R. G. Gavilan, S. Rivas-Martinez and M. G. Barbour. 2001a. Syntaxonomical approach for classification of the Californian serpentine annual grasslands. Lazaroa 22:83–94.

——. 2001b. Typology and ecology of Californian serpentine annual grasslands. Journal of Vegetation Science 12:687–698.

Rohrbaugh, R. W., D. L. Reinkeing, D. H. Wolfe, S. K. Sherrod and M. L. Jenkins. 1999. Effects of prescribed burning and grazing on nesting and reproductive success of three grassland passerine species in tallgrass prairie. Studies in Avian Biology 19:165–170.

Romañach, S. S., O. J. Reichman and E. W. Seabloom. 2005. Seasonal influences on burrowing activity of a subterranean rodent, Thomomys bottae. Journal of Zoology 266:319–325.

Rosenthal, R. 1979. The “file drawer problem” and tolerance for null results. Psychological Bulletin 86:638–641.

Rosenzwieg, M. L. 1995. Species diversity in space and time. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Rosiere, R. E. 1987. An evaluation of grazing intensity influences on California annual range. Journal of Range Management 40:160–165.

Ross, M. A. and J. L. Harper. 1972. Occupation of biological space during seedling establishment. Journal of Ecology 60:77–88.

Rossi, R. S. 1979. Land use and vegetation change in the oak woodland-savanna of northern San Luis Obispo County, California (l774–l978). Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Rowe, H. I., E. T. Bartlett and L. E. Swanson Jr. 2001. Ranching motivations in two Colorado counties. Journal of Range Management 54:314–321.

Rowe, P. B. and L. F. Reimann. 1961. Water use by brush, grass, and grass-forb vegetation. Journal of Range Management 59:175–180.

Rudaz, A. O., E. A. Davidson and M. K. Firestone. 1991. Sources of nitrous oxide following wetting of a dry soil. FEMS Microbial Ecology 85:117–124.

Ruddiman, W. F. 2001. Earth’s climate: Past and future. W. H. Freeman and Comapany, New York.

Ruiz-Jaen, M. C. and T. Mitchell Aide. 2005. Restoration success: How is it being measured? Restoration Ecology 13:569–577.

Russell, W. H. and J. R. McBride. 2003. Landscape scale vegetationtype conversion and fire hazard in the San Francisco Bay area open spaces. Landscape and Urban Planning 64:201–208.

Russell-Smith, J. and D. M. J. S. Bowman. 1992. Conservation of monsoon rainforest isolates in the Northern Territory, Australia. Biological Conservation 59:51–63.

Rustad, L. E., J. L. Campbell, G. M. Marion, R. J. Norby, M. J. Mitchell, A. E. Hartley, J. H. C. Cornelissen and J. Gurevitch. 2001. A meta-analysis of the response of soil respiration, net nitrogen mineralization, and aboveground plant growth to experimental ecosystem warming. Oecologia 126:543–562.

Saarela, J. J. and P. M. Peterson. In press. Bromus. In B. G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B. J. Ertter, D. J. Keil, R. W. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. The Jepson Manual of higher plants of California, 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Sabater, F., A. Butturini, E. Marti, I. Munoz, A. Romani, J. Wray and S. Sabater. 2000. Effects of riparian vegetation removal on nutrient retention in a Mediterranean stream. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 19:609–620.

Saenz, L. and J. O. Sawyer. 1986. Grasslands as compared to adjacent Quercus garryana woodland understories exposed to different grazing regimes. Madroño 33:40–46.

Safford, H. D. and S. P. Harrison. 2001. Grazing and substrate interact to affect native vs. exotic diversity in roadside grasslands. Ecological Applications 11:1112–1122.

——. 2004. Fire effects on plant diversity in serpentine vs. sandstone chaparral. Ecology 85:539–548.

Safford, H. D., J. H. Viers and S. Harrison. 2005. Serpentine endemism in the Calfornia flora: A database of serpentine affinity. Madroño 52:222–257.

Sakai, A. K., F. W. Allendorf,, J. S. Holt, D. M. Lodge, J. Molofsky, K. A. With, S. Baughman, R. J. Cabin, J. E. Cohen, N. C. Ellstran, D. E. McCauley, P. O’Neill, I. M. Parker, J. N. Thompson, and S. G. Weller. 2001. The population biology of invasive species. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 32:305–332.

Sala, O. E., W. J. Parton, L. A. Joyce and W. K. Lauenroth. 1988. Primary production of the central grassland region of the United States. Ecology 69:40–45.

Sala, O. E. and J. M. Paruelo. 1997. Ecosystem services in grasslands. Pages 237–252 in G. C. Daily, editor. Nature’s services: Societal dependence on natural ecosystems. Island Press, Washington DC.

Salathe, E. P. 2003. Comparison of various precipitation downscaling methods for the simulation of streamflow in a rainshadow river basin. International Journal of Climatology 23:887–901.

Sampson, A. W. 1917. Succession as a factor in range management. Journal of Forestry 15:593–596.

——. 1944. Plant succession on burned chaparral lands in northern California. University of California, Agriculture Experiment Station Bulletin 685.

(p.363) ——. 1952. Range management principles and practices. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Sampson, A. W., A. Chase and D. W. Hedrick. 1951. California grasslands and range forage grasses. University of California Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin 724:2–131.

Sampson, A. W. and B. S. Jespersen. 1963. California range brushlands and browse plants. Manual 33. University of California Agricultural Experiment Station, Extension Service 102B112, Berkeley, CA.

Sampson, A. W. and E. C. McCarty. 1930. The carbohydrate metabolism of Stipa pulchra. Hilgardia 5:61–99.

Sapir, E. and L. Spier. 1943. Notes on the culture of the Yana. University of California Anthropological Records 3:239–298.

Sauer, C. O. 1950. Grassland climax, fire and management. Journal of Range Management 3:16–21.

Sauer, J. D. 1988. Plant migration: The dynamics of geographic patterning in seed plant species. University of California Press, Berkeley, CA.

Saunders, G. 1993. Observations on the effectiveness of shooting feral pigs from helicopters. Wildlife Research 20:771–776.

Savage, D. E. 1951. Late Cenozoic vertebrates of the San Francisco Bay region. Bulletin of the Department of Geological Science, University of California 28:215–314.

Savelle, G. D. 1977. Comparative structure and function in a California annual and native bunchgrass community. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Savelle, G. D. and H. F. Heady. 1970. Mediterranean annual species: Their response to defoliation. Pages 548–560 in Proceedings of the XI International Grassland Congress 1970.

Savile, D. B. O. 1970. Some Eurasian Puccinia species attacking Cardueae. Canadian Journal of Botany 48:1553–1566.

Savory, A. and J. Butterfield. 1999. Holistic management: A new framework for decision making. Island Press, Covelo, CA.

Sawyer, J. O. and T. Keeler-Wolf. 1995. A manual of California vegetation. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Sawyer, J. O., T. Keeler-Wolf, and J. M. Evens, editors. 2007. A manual of California vegetation, 2nd ed. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Sawyer, J. O., D. A. Thornburgh and J. R. Griffin. 1977. Mixed evergreen forest. Pages 359–382 in M. G. Barbour and J. Major, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Schiffman, P. M. 1994. Promotion of exotic weed establishment by endangered giant kangaroo rats (Dipodomys ingens) in a California grassland. Biodiversity and Conservation 3:524–537.

——. 1995. Impact of endangered giant kangaroo rat on grassland restoration. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 76:238.

——. 1997. Animal-mediated dispersal and disturbance: Driving forces behind alien plant naturalization. Pages 87–94 in J. O. Luken and J. W. Thieret, editors. Assessment and management of plant invasions. Springer-Verlag, New York.

——. 2000. Mammal burrowing, erratic rainfall and the annual lifestyle in the California prairie: Is it time for a paradigm shift? Pages 153–160 in J. E. Keeley, M. Baer-Keeley, and C. J. Fotheringham, editors. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California. USGS Open-File Report 00–62. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

——. 2005. The Los Angeles prairie. Pages 38–51 and 298–303 in W. Deverell and G. Hise, editors. Land of sunshine: An environmental history of metropolitan Los Angeles. University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh, PA.

Schimel, J. P., L. E. Jackson and M. K. Firestone. 1989. Spatial and temporal effects of plant-microbial competition for inorganic nitrogen in a California annual grassland. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 21:1059–1066.

Schlesinger, W. H. and A. M. Pilmanis. 1998. Plant-soil interactions in deserts. Biogeochemistry 42:169–187.

Schlichting, C. D. 1986. The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 17:667–693.

Schoenherr, A. A. 1992. A natural history of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Scholes, R. J. and S. R. Archer. 1997. Tree-grass interactions in savannas. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 28:517–544.

Schultz, C. B. and E. C. Crone. 1998. Burning prairie to restore butterfly habitat: A modeling approach to management tradeoffs for the Fender’s blue. Restoration Ecology 6:244.

Schultz, P. W. and L. Zelezney. 2003. 6Reframing environmental messages to be congruent with American values. Human Ecology Review 10:126–136.

Schuur, E. A. G. 2003. Productivity and global climate revisited: The sensitivity of tropical forest growth to precipitation. Ecology 84:1165–1170.

Scott, T. A., L. Fernandez and M. Allen. 2006. Land use planning. in J. M. Scott, D. Goble, and F. W. Davis, editors. The Endangered Species Act at thirty. Volume 2: Conserving biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. Island Press, Washington, DC.

Seabloom, E. W., O. N. Bjornstad, B. M. Bolker and O. J. Reichman. 2005. Spatial signature of environmental heterogeneity, dispersal, and competition in successional grasslands. Ecological Monographs 75:199–214.

Seabloom, E. W., E. T. Borer, V. L. Boucher, R. S. Burton, K. L. Cottingham, L. Goldwasser, W. K. Gram, B. E. Kendall and F. Micheli. 2003a. Competition, seed limitation, disturbance, and reestablishment of California native annual forbs. Ecological Applications 13:575–592.

Seabloom, E. W., W. S. Harpole, O. J. Reichman and D. Tilman. 2003b. Invasion, competitive dominance, and resource use by exotic and native California grassland species. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:13384–13389.

Seabloom, E. W. and O. J. Reichman. 2001. Simulation models of the interactions between herbivore foraging strategies, social behavior, and plant community dynamics. American Naturalist 157:76–96.

Seabloom, E. W., O. J. Reichman and E. J. Gabet. 2000. The effect of hillslope angle on pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) burrow geometry. Oecologia 125:26–34.

Seabloom, E. W. and S. A. Richards. 2003. Multiple stable equilibria in grasslands mediated by herbivore population dynamics and foraging behavior. Ecology 84:2891–2904.

Seabloom, E. W., J. W. Williams, D. Slayback, D. M. Stoms, J. H. Viers and A. P. Dobson. 2006. Human impacts, plant invasion, and imperiled species in California. Ecological Applications 16:1338–1350.

Seastedt, T. R., J. M. Briggs and D. J. Gibson. 1991. Control on nitrogen limitation in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 87:72–79.

(p.364) Seligman, N. G. 1996. Management of Mediterranean grasslands. Pages 359–391 in J. Hodgson and A. W. Illius, editors. The ecology and mangement of grazing systems. CAB International, Oxfordshire, UK.

SER. 2004. The SER primer on ecological restoration. Society for Ecological Restoration International Science & Policy Working Group, Tucson, AZ. http://www.ser.org/content/ecological_restoration_primer.asp.

Sharp, L. A., M. Hironaka and E. W. Tisdale. 1957. Viability of medusahead (Elymus caput-medusae L.) seed collected in Idaho. Journal of Range Management 10:123–126.

Shaw, C. A. and S. M. Cox. 1993. The giant short-faced bear. Pages 22–23 in I. Sterling, editor. Bears, the majestic creatures of the wild. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania.

Shaw, R. M., E. S. Zavaleta, N. R. Chiariello, E. E. Cleland, H. A. Mooney and C. B. Field. 2002. Grassland responses to global environmental changes suppressed by elevated CO2. Science 298:1987–1990.

Shaw, W. T. 1934. The ability of the giant kangaroo rat as a harvestor and storer of seeds. Journal of Mammalogy 15:275–286.

Shea, K. and P. Chesson. 2002. Community ecology theory as a framework for biological invasions. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 17:170–176.

Sheley, R. L., J. S. Jacobs and M. F. Carpinelli. 1998. Distribution, biology, and management of diffuse knapweed (Centaurea diffusa) and spotted knapweed (Centaurea maculosa). Weed Technology 12:353–362.

Sheley, R. L., S. Kedzie-Webb and B. D. Maxwell. 1999. Integrated weed management on rangeland. Pages 57–68 in R. L. Sheley and J. K. Petroff, editors. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Sheley, R. L. and L. L. Larson. 1995. Interference between cheatgrass and yellow starthistle at 3 soil depths. Journal of Range Management 48:392–397.

Sheley, R. L., L. L. Larson and D. E. Johnson. 1993. Germination and root dynamics of range weeds and forage species. Weed Technology 7:234–237.

Sheley, R. L., B. Olson and C. Hoopes. 1998. What is so dangerous about the impacts of noxious weeds on the ecology and economy of Montana? Extension Bulletin 152, Montana State University, Bozeman.

Sheley, R. L. and J. K. Petroff, editors. 1999. Biology and management of noxious rangeland weeds. Oregon State University Press, Corvallis.

Shepard, P. 1996. A Paul Shepard reader: The only world we’ve got. Sierra Club Books, San Francisco.

Sher, A. A., D. E. Goldberg and A. Novoplansky. 2004. The effect of mean and variance in resource supply on survival of annuals from Mediterranean and desert environments. Oecologia 141:353–362.

Shipek, F. C. 1989. An example of intensive plant husbandry: the Kumeyaay of southern California. Pages 159–170 in D. R. Harris and G. C. Hilman, editors. Foraging and farming: The evolution of plant exploitation. Unwin-Hyman Publishers, London.

Shipek, F. C. 1991. Delfina Cuero. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, California.

Shishkoff, N. and W. Bruckart. 1993. Evaluation of infection of target and nontarget hosts by isolates of the potential biocontrol agent Puccinia jaceae that infect Centaurea spp. Phytopathology 83:894–898.

Shock, C. C., M. B. Jones, W. A. Williams and D. M. Center. 1984. Competition for S and N by associations of three annual range species in lysimeters. Plant and Soil 81:311–321.

Shoulders, C. L. 1994. Methods of restoring Nassella pulchra (purple needlegrass) at Jepson Prairie Preserve, Solano County, California. M.S. thesis, University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Shuford, W. D. and I. C. Timossi. 1989. Plant communities of Marin County. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Shurin, J. B., E. T. Borer, E. W. Seabloom, K. Anderson, C. A. Blanchette, B. Broitman, S. D. Cooper and B. S. Halpern. 2002. A cross-ecosystem comparison of the strength of trophic cascades. Ecology Letters 5:785–791.

Siemann, E., J. Haarstad and D. Dilman. 1997. Short-term and long-term effects of burning on oak savanna arthropods. The American Midland Naturalist 137:349–361.

Silveira, J. G. 2000. Vernal pools and relict dune land at Arena Plains. Fremontia 27/28:38–47.

Silver, S. 1978. Shastan peoples. Pages 211–224 in R. F. Heizer, editor. Handbook of North American Indians. Vol. 8: California. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC.

Simberloff, D. and B. Van Holle. 1999. Positive interactions of nonindigenous species: Invasional meltdown? Biological Invasions 1:21–32.

Simpson, G. G. 1980. Splendid isolation: The curious history of South American mammals. hYale University Press, New Haven, CT.

Sims, P. L. and P. G. Risser. 2000. Grasslands. Pages 323–356 in M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, editors. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Singer, F. J. and K. A. Schoenecker. 2003. Do ungulates accelerate or decelerate nitrogen cycling? Forest Ecology and Management 181:189–204.

Singer, F. J., W. T. Swank and E. E. C. Clebsch. 1984. Effects of wild pig rooting in a deciduous forest. Journal of Wildlife Management 48:464–473.

Singer, M. J. and D. N. Munns. 1999. Soils: An introduction. 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

Six, J., S. D. Frey, R. K. Thiet and K. M. Batten. 2006. Bacterial and fungal contributions to carbon sequestration in agroecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 70:555–569.

Skinner, C. N. and C. Chang. 1996. Fire regimes, past and present. Pages 1041–1070 in Sierra Nevada Ecosystem Project: Final report to Congress, Vol. 2. Assessments and scientific basis for management options. Report 36. University of California Centers for Water and Wildland Resources.

Skinner, M. W. and B. A. Pavlik. 1994. California Native Plant Society’s inventory of rare and endangered plants in California, 5th edition. Special Publication 1 California Native Plant Society, Sacramento.

Smith, A. H. and W. E. Martin. 1972. Socioeconomic behavior of cattle ranchers, with implications for rural community development in the West. American Journal of Agricultural Economics 54:217–225.

Smith, B. D. 1995. The emergence of agriculture. Scientific American Library, New York.

Smith, D. W. and W. L. Verrill. 1998. Vernal pool landforms and soils of the Central Valley, California. Proceedings of the conference on the ecology, conservation, and management of vernal pool ecosystems. California Native Plant Society, Sacramento California.

(p.365) Smith, J. K. 2000. Wildland fire in ecosystems: effects of fire on fauna. General Technical Report RMRS-GTR-42-Volume 1. USD A Rocky Mountain Experiment Station, Ogden, UT.

Smith, J. P. 2006. The grasses of California. HSU Herbarium Miscellaneous Publications 5. Humboldt State University, Arcata, CA.

Smith, T. A. 1970. Effects of disturbance on seed germination in some annual plants. Ecology 51:1106–1108.

Snow, G. E. 1972. Some factors controlling the establishment and distribution of Quercus agrifolia Nee and Q. engelmannii Greene in certain southern California oak woodlands. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis.

Snyder, M. A., J. L. Bell, L. C. Sloan, P. B. Duffy and B. Govindasamy. 2002. Climate responses to a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide for a climatically vulnerable region. Geophysical Research Letters 29:9–1.

Snyder, R. L. and R. O. Pruitt. 1992. Evapotranspiration data management in California. Pages 128–133 in Irrigation & Drainage Session Proceedings/Water Forum 9. American Society of Civil Engineering, Baltimore, MD.

Snyder, S. R. 2003. Managing the recovery of mycorrhizal population in restoration. Grasslands 13:1–7.

Solomeshch, A. I. and M. G. Barbour. 2006. Defining restoration targets for the Great Valley Grassland State Park (San Joaquin Valley). Grasslands 16(2):1–17.

Soreng, R. J. 1993. Poa. Pages 1284–1290 in J. C. Hickman, editor. The Jepson manual: Higher plants of California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

——. 2007. Poa L. Pages 486–601 in M. E. Barkworth, K. M. Capels, S. Long, and M. B. Piep, editors. Magnoliophyta: Commelinidae (in part): Poaceae, part 1. Flora of North America North of Mexico. 24. Oxford University Press, New York.

——. In press. Poa. In B. G. Baldwin, S. Boyd, B. J. Ertter, D. J. Keil, R. W. Patterson, T. J. Rosatti, and D. H. Wilken, editors. The Jepson manual of higher plants of California, 2nd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Soreng, R. J., G. Davidse, P.M. Peterson, F.O. Zuloaga, E.J. Judziewicz, T.S. Filgueiras and O. Morrone. 2005. Catalogue of New World grasses. Suprageneric classification. Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis, MO. http://mobot.mobot.org/W3T/Search/nwgclass.html.

Soreng, R. J. and J. I. Davis. 1998. Phylogenetics and character evolution in the grass family (Poaceae): Simultaneous analysis of morphological and chloroplast DNA restriction site character sets. Botanical Review 64:1–90.

——. 2000. Phylogenetic structure in Poaceae subfamily Pooideae as inferred from molecular and morphological characters: misclassification verses reticulation. Pages 61–74 in W. L. Jacobs and J. Everett, editors. Grasses: Systematics and evolution. CSIRO, Collingwood, Australia.

Sork, V. L., F. W. Davis, P. E. Smouse, V. J. Apsit, R. J. Dyer, J. F. Fernandez and B. Kuhn. 2002. Pollen movement in declining populations of California Valley oak, Quercus lobata: Where have all the fathers gone? Molecular Ecology 11:1657–1668.

Sousa, W. P. 1984. The role of disturbance in natural communities. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 15:353–391.

Sparkman, P. S. 1908. The culture of the Luiseño Indians. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 8:187–234.

Sparling, G. P., D. Wheeler and E. T. Vesely. 2006. What is soil organic matter worth? Journal of Environmental Quality 35:548–557.

Spatz, G. and D. Mueller-Dombois. 1975. Succession patterns after pig digging in grassland communities on Mauna Loa, Hawaii. Phytocoenologia 3:346–373.

Sperry, T. M. 1994. The Curtis Prairie restoration, using the singlespecies planting method. Natural Areas Journal 14:124–127.

Spira, T. P. and L. K. Wagner. 1983. Viability of seeds up to 211 years old extracted from adobe brick buildings in California and northern Mexico. Amercan Journal of Botany 70:303–307.

Standiford, R. B., N. McDougald, W. Frost and R. Phillips. 1997. Factors influencing the probability of oak regeneration on southern Sierra Nevada woodlands in California. Madroño 44:170–183.

Standiford, R. B. and P. Tinnin. 1996. Guidelines for managing California’s hardwood rangelands. Publication 3368. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, Berkeley.

Stark, J. M. 1991. Environmental factors versus ammonia-oxidizer population characteristics as dominant controllers of nitrification in an oak woodland-annual grassland soil. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley.

Stark, J. M. and M. K. Firestone. 1995. Mechanisms for soil moisture effects on activity of nitrifying bacteria. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 61:218–221.

Stebbins, G. L. 1942. The genetic approach to problems of rare and endemic species. Madroño 6:241–272.

——. 1957. Self-fertilization and population variability in the higher plants. American Naturalist 91:337–354.

Steenwerth, K. L., L. E. Jackson, F. J. Calderón, K. M. Scow and D. E. Rolston. 2005. Response of microbial community composition and activity in agricultural grassland soils after a simulated rainfall. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 37:2249–2262.

Steenwerth, K. L., L. E. Jackson, F. J. Calderón, M. R. Stromberg and K. M. Scow. 2002. Soil microbial community composition and land use history in cultivated and grassland ecosystems of coastal California. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 34:1599–1611.

Steenwerth, K. L., L. E. Jackson, F. J. Calderón, M. R. Stromberg and K. M. Scow. 2003. Soil microbial community composition and land use history in cultivated and grassland ecosystems of coastal California. Erratum. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 35:489–500.

Steenwerth, K. L., L. E. Jackson, E. A. Carlisle and K. M. Scow. 2006. Microbial communities of a native perennial bunchgrass do not respond consistently across a gradient of land-use intensification. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38:1797–1811.

Stephens, S. L. 1997. Fire history of a mixed oak-pine forest in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada, El Dorado County, California. Pages 191–198 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: ecology, management, and urban interface issues. General Technical Report. PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Stephens, S. L. and L. W. Ruth. 2005. Federal forest fire policy in the United States. Ecological Applications 15:532–542.

Stephenson, B. A. 2002. Carmel Mountain and Del Mar Mesa Preserves management plan. City of San Diego, CA.

Sterner, J. D. and R. H. Barrett. 1991. Removing feral pigs from Santa Cruz Island, California. Transactions of the Western Section of the Wildlife Society 27:47–53.

(p.366) Sterner, R. W. and J. J. Elser. 2002. Ecological stoichiometry: The biology of elements from molecules to the biosphere. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Steward, J. H. 1933. Ethnography of the Owens Valley Paiute. University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnology 33:423–438.

Stewart, O. C. 1935. Pomo unpublished field notes in the possession of D. Theodoratus.

Stock, C. S. and J. M. Harris. 1992. Rancho La Brea, a record of Pleistocene life in California. Science Series 37. Los Angeles County Museum.

Stoll, S. 1998. The fruits of natural advantage: Making the industrial countryside in California. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Stone, C. P.1985. Alien animals in Hawaii’s native ecosystems: Toward controlling the adverse effects of introduced vertebrates. Pages 251–584 in C. P. Stone and J. M. Scott, editors. Hawaii’s terrestrial ecosystems: Preservation and management. Cooperative National Park Resources Studies Unit. University of Hawaii, Honolulu.

Stone, E. C. 1951. The stimulative effect of fire on the flowering of the golden brodiaea (Brodiaea ixiodes Wats. var. lugens Jeps.). Ecology 32:534–537.

Storer, T. I. and L. P. Tevis. 1996. California grizzly. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Strauss, S. Y., C. O. Webb and N. Salamin. 2006. Exotic taxa less related to native species are more invasive. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 103:5841–5845.

Strohecker, H. F., W. W. Middlekauff and D. C. Rentz. 1968. The grasshoppers of California (Orthoptera: Acridoidea). Bulletin of the California Insect Survey. Vol. 10. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Stromberg, C. A. E. 2002. The origin and spread of grass-dominated ecosystems in the late Tertiary of North America: Preliminary results concerning the evolution of hypsodonty. Paleoclimatology, Paleogeography, Paleoecology 177:59–75.

Stromberg, M. R. and J. R. Griffin. 1996. Long-term patterns in coastal California grasslands in relation to cultivation, gophers and grazing. Ecological Applications 6:1189–1211.

Stromberg, M. R. and P. Kephart. 1996. Restoring native grasses to California old fields. Restoration and Management Notes 14:102–111.

Stromberg, M. R., P. Kephart and M. Sicular-Mertens. 2002. Tillage: Cheap weed and gopher control before planting native grasses. Grasslands 12:1–7.

Stromberg, M. R., P. Kephart and V. Yadon. 2001. Composition, invasibility, and diversity in coastal California grasslands. Madroño 48:236–252.

Stulen, I. and J. Den Hertog. 1993. Root-growth and functioning under atmospheric CO2 enrichment. Vegetatio 104:99–115.

Suarez, A. V., D. T. Bolger and T. J. Case. 1998. Effects of fragmentation and invasion on native ant communities in coastal southern California. Ecology 79:2041–2056.

Sugihara, N. G. and L. J. Reed. 1987. Vegetation ecology of the Bald Hills oak woodlands of Redwood National Park. Redwood National Park Research and Development Technical Report 21, Redwood National Park, Orick, CA.

Sugihara, N. G., L. J. Reed and J. M. Lenihan. 1987. Vegetation of the Bald Hills oak woodlands, Redwood National Park, California. Madroño 34:193–208.

Sulak, A. and L. Huntsinger. 2002. Sierra Nevada grazing in transition: The role of Forest Service grazing in the foothill ranches of California. A report to the Sierra Nevada Alliance, the California Cattlemen’s Association, and the California Rangeland Trust, Sierra Nevada Alliance, University of California, Berkeley. http://www.sierranevadaalliance.org/publications.

——. 2007. Public land grazing in California: untapped conservation potential for private lands? Rangelands 29(3):9–12.

Sulak, A., L. Huntsinger, R. Standiford, A. M. Merenlender and S. K. Fairfax. 2004. The agricultural conservation easement: a strategy for oak woodland conservation in California. Advances in Geoecology 37:309–326.

Sultan, S. E. 1987. Evolutionary implications of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Evolutionary Biology 21:127–178.

Suneson, C. A. 1956. An evolutionary plant breeding method. Agronomy Journal 48:188–191.

Suttle, K. B. and M. A. Thomsen. In press. Climate change and grassland restoration in California: lessons from six years of rainfall manipulation in a northern grassland. Madroño.

Suttle, K. B., M. A. Thomsen and M. E. Power. 2007. Species interactions reverse species responses to climate change. Science 315:640–642.

Sweet, S. B. 2005. Effect of seed maturity on the resistance of weed weeds to simulated fire: implications for timing prescribed burns. M.S. thesis, University of California, Davis.

Swetzer, R. A. and D. H. Van Vuren. 2002. Rooting and foraging effects of wild pigs on tree regeneration and acorn survival in California’s oak woodland ecosystems. Proceedings of the 5th symposium on oak woodlands: Oaks in California’s changing landscape. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-184. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Swetnam, T. W., C. H. Baisan, K. Morino and A. C. Caprio. 1998. Fire history along elevational transects in the Sierra Nevada, California. USGS Biological Resources Division, Sequoia–Kings Canyon Field Station, Three Rivers, CA.

Swiecki, T. J. and E. A. Bernhardt. 2002. Effects of fire on naturally occurring blue oak (Quercus douglasii) saplings. Pages 251–259 in R. B. Standiford, D. McCreary, and K. L. Purcell, editors. Proceedings of the fifth symposium on oak woodlands: Oaks in California’s changing landscape. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-184. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station.

Swiecki, T. J., E. A. Bernhardt and C. Drake. 1997. Factors affecting blue oak sapling recruitment. Pages 157–161 in N. H. Pillsbury, J. Verner, and W. D. Tietje, editors. Proceedings of a symposium on oak woodlands: Ecology, management, and urban-interface issues. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-160. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Swift, M. J., O. W. Heal and J. M. Anderson. 1979. Decomposition in terrestrial ecosystems. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Sylvia, D. M. and S. E. Williams. 1992. Vesicual-arbuscular mycorrhizae and environmental stress. Pages 101–124 in G. J. Bethlenfalvay and R. G. Linderman, editors. Mycorrhizae in sustainable agriculture. American Society of Agronomy, Madison, WI.

Takemoto, B. K., B. E. Croes, S. M. Brown, N. Motallebi, F. D. Westerdahl, H. G. Margolis, B. T. Cahill, M. D. Mueller and J. R. Holmes. 1995. Acidic deposition in California: Findings from a program of monitoring and effects research. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 85:261–272.

(p.367) Talbot, M. W., H. H. Biswell and A. L. Hormay. 1939. Fluctuations in the annual vegetation of California. Ecology 20:394–402.

Tanaka, Y. and K. Yano. 2005. Nitrogen delivery to maize via mycorrhizal hyphae depends on the form of N supplied. Plant, Cell, and Environment 28:1247–1254.

Tardiff, S. E. and J. A. Stanford. 1998. Grizzly bear digging: Effects on subalpine meadow plants in relation to mineral nitrogen availability. Ecology 79:2219–2228.

Tate, K. 2003. Riparian friendly grazing project. Western Region Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education. Project Report SW01-044.

Tate, K. W., E. R. Atwill, J. W. Bartolome and G. Nader. 2006. Significant Escherichia coli attenuation by vegetative buffers on annual grasslands. Journal of Environmental Quality 35:795–805.

Tate, K. W., E. R. Atwill, N. K. McDougald and M. R. George. 2003. Spatial and temporal patterns of cattle feces deposition on rangeland. Journal of Range Management 56:432–438.

Tate, K. W., E. R. Atwill, N. K. McDougald, M. R. George and D. Witt. 2000. A method for estimating cattle fecal loading on rangeland watersheds. Journal of Range Management 53:506–510.

Tate, K. W., R. A. Dahlgren, M. J. Singer, B. Allen-Diaz and E. R. Atwill. 1999. On California rangeland watersheds: timing, frequency of sampling affect accuracy of water quality monitoring. California Agriculture 53:44–48.

Tate, K. W., D. M. Dudley, N. K. McDougald and M. R. George. 2004. Effect of canopy and grazing on soil bulk density. Journal of Range Management 57:411–417.

Tate, K. W., M. D. C. Pereira and E. R. Atwill. 2004. Efficacy of vegetated buffer strips for retaining Cryptosporidium parvum. Journal of Environmental Quality 33:2243–2251.

Taylor, B. 1951. New pictures from California. Biobooks, Oakland, CA.

Taylor, D. W. and W. Davilla. 1986. Vegetation of Site 300, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California. UCRL-15873 (J-262). BioSystems Analysis, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA.

Templeton, B. C. 1964. The fruits and seeds of the Rancho La Brea Pleistocene deposits. Ph.D. dissertation, Oregon State University, Corvallis.

ter Braak, C. J. F. 1987. Ordination. Pages 91–169 in R. H. A. Songman, C. J. F. ter Braak, and O. F. R. van Tengeren, editors. Data analysis in community and landscape ecology. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

ter Braak, C. J. F. and P. Smilauer. 1998. CANOCO reference manual and user’s guide to CANOCO for Windows: software for canonical community ordination (version 4). Microcomputer Power, Ithaca, NY.

Thomas, F. 1996. Using annual legumes to manage weeds. Proceedings of California Weed Science Society 48:120–122.

Thomas, F. 1997. Selecting cover crops to suppress weeds. Proceedings of California Weed Science Society 49:68–71.

Thomas, K. A., T. Keeler-Wolf, J. Franklin and P. Stine. 2004. Mojave Desert Ecosystem Program: Central Mojave vegetation database. Technical Report 08–2004, United States Geological Survey, Western Regional Science Center, Sacramento, CA.

Thomasson, J. R. 1987. Fossil grasses: 1820–1986 and beyon. Pp. 159–167 in T. R. Soderstrom, K. W. Hilu, C. S. Campbell, and M. E. Barkworth, editors. Grass systematics and evolution. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Thomasson, J. R., M. E. Nelson and R. J. Zakrzewski. 1986. A fossil grass (Gramineae: Chloridoideae) from the Miocene with Kranz anatomy. Science 233:876–878.

Thompson, R., T. R. Van Devender, P. S. Martin, T. Foppe and A. Long. 1980. Shasta ground sloth at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction. Quaternary Research 14:360–376.

Thomsen, C. D., M. P. Vayssières and W. A. Williams. 1997. Mowing and subclover plantings suppress yellow starthistle. California Agriculture 51:15–20.

Thomsen, C. D., W. A. Williams and M. R. George. 1990. Managing yellow starthistle on annual range with cattle. Knapweed 4:3–4.

Thomsen, C. D., W. A. Williams, M. R. George, W. B. McHenry, F. L. Bell and R. S. Knight. 1989. Managing yellow starthistle on rangeland. California Agriculture 43:4–7.

Thomsen, C.D., W.A. Williams, M. Vayssières and F.L. Bell. 1994. Yellow starthistle control. Range Science Report 33. University of California, nDavis.

Thomsen, C. D., W. A. Williams, M. Vayssières, F. L. Bell and M. R. George. 1993. Controlled grazing on annual grassland decreases yellow starthistle. California Agriculture 47:36–40.

Thomsen, M. A. 2005. Ecological resistance, propagule supply and the invasion of California coastal prairie by the European grass Holcus lanatus L. PhD dissertation. University of California, Berkeley.

Thomsen, M. A., J. C. Corbin and C. M. D’Antonio. 2006a. The effect of soil nitrogen on competition between native and exotic perennial grasses from northern coastal California. Plant Ecology 186:23–35.

Thomsen, M. A., C. M. D’Antonio, K. B. Suttle and W. P. Souza. 2006b. Ecological resistance, seed density and their interactions determine patterns of invasion in a California coastal grassland. Ecology Letters 9:160–170.

Thurber, G. 1880. Gramineae. Pages 253–328 in S. Watson, editor. Botany, Vol 2. U.S. Geological Survey of California, Washington, DC.

Tierney, T. and J. H. Cushman. 2006. Temporal changes in native and exotic vegetation and soil characteristics following disturbances by feral pigs in a California grassland. Biological Invasions 8:1073–1089.

Tietje, W. and R. H. Barrett. 1993. The wild pig in California oak woodland: Ecology and economics, Workshop Proceedings May 25 and 26, 1993. Integrated Hardwood and Range Management Program, University of California, Berkeley, San Luis Obispo.

Tietje, W. D., S. L. Nives, J. A. Honig and W. H. Weitkamp. 1991. Effect of acorn planting depth on depredation, emergence, and survival of valley and blue oak. Pages 14–20 in R. B. Standiford, editor. Proceedings of the symposium on oak woodlands and hardwood rangeland management. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-126. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Tilman, D. 1980. Resources: a graphical-mechanistic approach to competition and predation. American Naturalist 116:362–393.

(p.368) ——. 1982. Resource competition and community structure. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

——. 1983. Plant succession and gopher disturbance along an experimental gradient. Oecologia 60:285–292.

——. 1988. Dynamics and structure of plant communities. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

——. 1993. Species richness of experimental productivity gradients: How important is colonization limitation? Ecology 74:2179–2191.

Timbrook, J. 1990. Ethnobotany of Chumash Indians, California, based on collections by John P. Harrington. Economic Botany 44:236–253.

Timbrook, J., J. R. Johnson and D. D. Earle. 1993. Vegetation burning by the Chumash. Pages 117–149 in T. C. Blackburn and M. K. Anderson, editors. Before the wilderness: Environmental management by Native Californians. Ballena Press, Menlo Park, CA.

Timmerman, A., J. Oberhuber, A. Bacher, M. Esch, M. Latif and E. Roeckner. 1999. Increasing El Niño frequency in a climate model forced by future greenhouse warming. Nature 398:694–697.

Tinnin, R. O. and C. H. Muller. 1971. The allelopathic potential of Avena fatua: Influence of herb distribution. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 98:243–250.

——. 1972. The allelopathic influence of Avena fatua: The allelopathic mechanism. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 99:287–292.

Tisdall, J. M. and J. M. Oades. 1982. Organic matter and waterstable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science 33:141–163.

Tissue, D. T., R. B. Thomas and B. R. Strain. 1993. Long-term effects of elevated CO2 and nutrients on photosynthesis and Rubisco in loblolly pine seedlings. Plant, Cell, and Environment 16:859–865.

TNC. 2000. Effects of prescribed fire and cattle grazing on a vernal pool grassland landscape: Recommendations for monitoring. The Nature Conservancy, San Francisco.

Torell, L. A., N. R. Rimbey, O. A. Ramirez and D. W. McCollum. 2005. Income earning potential versus consumptive amenities in determining ranchland values. Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics 30:537–560.

Torn, M. S., E. Mills and J. Fried. 1998. Will climate change spark more wildfire damage? LBNL-42592, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA.

Torne, E. 1990. Assessing feeding activities of soil-living animals. I. Bait-lamina-tests. Pedobiologia 34:89–101.

Torrence, J. R., J. M. DiTomaso and A. Hazebrook. 2003. Largescale integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California. Page 63 in M. Kelly, editor. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposiums [sic].Vol. 6. California Exotic Pest Plant Council, Berkeley.

——. 2003b. Long-term, large-scale, integrated management of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis) at Fort Hunter Liggett, Monterey County, California: Lower cost follow-up maintenance is vital for successful control program. Page 126 in M. Kelly, editor. Proceedings, California Exotic Pest Plant Council Symposiums [sic]. Vol. 6 California Exotic Pest Plant Council, Berkeley.

Treseder, K. K. and P. M. Vitousek. 2001. Effects of soil nutrient availability on investment in acquisition of N and P in Hawaiian rain forests. Ecology 82:946–954.

Trust for Public Land. 2005. Over $1.7 billion approved for conservation. Trust for Public Land. http://www.tpl.org/tier3_cd.cfm?content_item_id=20217&folder_id=186.

Tsiouvaras, C. N., N. A. Havlik and J. W. Bartolome. 1989. Effects of goats on understory vegetation and fire hazard reduction in a coastal forest in California. Forest Science 35:1125–1131.

Turitzin, S. N. 1982. Nutrient limitations to plant growth in a California serpentine grassland. American Midland Naturalist 107:95–99.

Turner, A. 1997. The big cats and their fossil relatives. Columbia University Press, New York.

Turner, C. L., T. R. Seastedt and M. I. Dyer. 1993. Maximization of aboveground grassland production-the role of defoliation frequency, intensity, and history. Ecological Applications 3:175–186.

Tuskes, P. M. and J. F. Emmel. 1981. The life history and behavior of Euproserpinus euterpe (Sphingidae). Journal of the Lepidopterists’ Society 35:27–33.

Twigg, L. E., T. Lowe, G. Martin and M. Everett. 2005. Feral pigs in the north-western Australia: Basic biology, bait consumption, and the efficacy of 1080 baits. Wildlife Research 32:281–296.

Twisselman, E. C. 1967. A flora of Kern County, California. Wasmann Journal of Biology 25:1–395.

Tyler, C. M. 1995. Factors contributing to postfire seedling establishment in chaparral: Direct and indirect effects of fire. Journal of Ecology 83:1009–1020.

——. 1996. Relative importance of factors contributing to postfire seedling establishment in maritime chaparral. Ecology 77(7):2182–2195.

Tyler, C. M., B. Kuhn and F. W. Davis. 2006. Demography and recruitment limitations of three oak species in California. Quarterly Review of Biology 81:127–152.

Tyler, C. M., B. E. Mahall, F. W. Davis and M. Hall. 2002. Factors limiting recruitment in valley and coast live oak. Pages 565–572 in R. B. Standiford, D. McCreary, and K. L. Purcell, editors. Proceedings of the fifth symposium on oak woodlands: Oaks in California’s changing landscape. General Technical Report PSW-GTR-184. USDA Forest Service, Pacific Southwest Research Station, Albany, CA.

Tyler, C. M., D. C. Odion and D. Meade. 1998. Reproductive biology and the conservation of Morro Manzanita (Arctostaphylos morroensis). California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

Tyndall, R. W. and J. C. Hull. 1999. Vegetation, flora and plant physiological ecology of serpentine barrens of eastern North America. Pages 67–82 in J. S. Anderson, J. S. Fralish, and J. M. Baskin, editors. Savannas, barrens and rock outcrop communities of North America. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Tyser, R. W. and C. H. Key. 1988. Spotted knapweed in natural area fescue grassland: An ecological assessment. Northwest Science 62:151–160.

Umbanhowar, C. E. J. 1992. Reanalysis of the Wisconsin prairie continuum. American Midland Naturalist 127:268–275.

Underwood, E. C. 2004. Consequences of ecological disturbance on ground dwelling invertebrates: Implications for conservation. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.

(p.369) USAF. 1997. Secretary of the Air Force, Air Force Instruction 32–7064, Integrated Natural Resource Management. Accession Number ADA329388. http://handle.dtic.mil/100.2/ADA329388 (accessed July 5, 2007).

USDA. 1985. Prescribed fire smoke management guide. Prescribed Fire and Fire Effects Working Team National Interagency Fire Center, NFES#1279, Boise, ID.

USDA Forest Service. 2007. Fire Effects Information System. Forb list. http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/forb/.

USDA-NASS. 2006. California historical data—Statistics by state. USD A National Agriculture Statistics Service, http://www.nass.usda.gov/Statistics_by_State/California/Historical_Data/.

USDA NRCS. 2006. The PLANTS Database. NRCS, National Plant Data Center, Baton Rouge, LA. http://plants.usda.gov.

USDA-NRCS Soil Survey Staff. 1999. Soil taxonomy: a basic system of soil classification for making and interpreting soil surveys, 2nd ed. USDA-NRCS Agricultural Handbook no. 436. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

USDA-NRCS STATSGO. 2005. State Soil Geographic Database. http://www.ncgc.nrcs.usda.gov/products/datasets/statsgo.

USDA-NRI. 2000. NRCS Natural Resource Inventory (NRI). USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service. http://www.ca.nrcs.usda.gov/technical/nri/.

USDA-SCS. 1978. Soil survey of Monterey County, California. Cartographic Division, Soil Conservation Service, USDA, Washington, DC.

USDA-USFS. 2005a. About rangelands. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. http://www.fs.fed.us/rangelands/whoweare/index.shtml.

——. 2005b. About us—mission. USDA Forest Service, Washington, DC. http://www.fs.fed.us/aboutus/mission.shtml.

——. 2006. Annual grazing statistical summary. USDA Forest Service, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, http://www.fs.fed.us/rangelands/reports/index.shtml.

USFWS. 1997. Draft recovery plan for the Stephens kangaroo rat, Region 1. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR.

——. 1998. Recovery plan for serpentine soil species of the San Francisco Bay Area. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR.

——. 2004. Yreka phlox recovery plan. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, OR.

USMC. 2005. United States Marine Corps Impact Guide: Environmental Stewardship. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton, CA. http://www.pendleton.usmc.mil/impact/stewardship.asp (accessed July 5, 2007).

Valentini, R., J. A. Gamon and C. B. Field. 1995. Ecosystem gas exchange in a Californian grassland: Seasonal patterns and implications for scaling. Ecology 76:1940–1952.

Van Auken, O. W. 2000. Shrub invasions on North America semiarid grasslands. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:197–215.

Vance, C. P., C. Uhde-Stone and D. L. Allan. 2003. Phosphorus acquisition and use: Critical adaptations by plants for securing a nonrenewable resource. New Phytologist 157:423–447.

van der Heijden, M. G. A., J. N. Klironomos, M. Ursic, P. Moutoglis, R. Streitwolf-Engel, T. Boller, A. Wiemken and I. R. Sanders. 1998. Mycorrhizal fungal diversity determines plant biodiversity, ecosystem variability and productivity. Nature 396:69–72.

Van Vuren, D. and B. E. Coblentz. 1987. Some ecological effects of feral sheep on Santa Cruz Island, California, U.S.A. Biological Conservation 41:253–268.

Vaughn, C. E. and A. H. Murphy. 1982. Long-term effects of fertilization and subclover seeding on northern California annual range. Journal of Range Management 35:92–95.

Vaughn, C. E., D. M. Center and M. B. Jones. 1986. Seasonal fluctuations in nutrient availability in some northern california annual range soils. Soil Science 141:43–51.

Venable, D. L. and J. S. Brown. 1988. The selective interactions of dispersal, dormancy, and seed size as adaptations for reducing risk in variable environments. American Naturalist 131:360–384.

Verville, J. H. 2000. Biological nitrogen fixation in California annual grassland: responses to elevated carbon dioxide and effects on community niotrogen status and productivity. Ph.D. dissertation, Stanford University, Stanford, CA.

Via, S., R. Gomulkiewicz, G. De Jong, S. M. Scheiner, C. D. Schlichting and P. H. van Tienderen. 1995. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity: Consensus and controversy. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 10:212–217.

Vickery, J. A., J. R. Tallowin, R. E. Feber, E. J. Asteraki, P. W. Atkinson, R. J. Fuller and V. K. Brown. 2001. The management of lowland neutral grasslands in Britain: Effects of agricultural practices on birds and their food resources. Journal of Applied Ecology 38:647–664.

Vickery, P. D., M. L. Hunter and J. V. Wells. 1999. Effects of fire and herbicide treatment on habitat selection in grassland birds in southern Maine. Studies in Avian Biology 19:149–159.

Vitousek, P. M. 1986. Biological invasions and ecosystem properties: Can species make a difference? Pages 163–176 in H. A. Mooney and J. A. Drake (editors). Ecology of biological invasions of North America and Hawaii. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Vitousek, P. M. and R. W. Howarth. 1991. Nitrogen limitation on land and in the sea: How can it occur? Biogeochemistry 13:87–115.

Vivrette, N. and C. H. Miller. 1977. Mechanisms of invasion and dominance of coastal grasslands by Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Ecological Monographs 47:301–318.

Voegelin, E. W. 1938. Tubatulabal ethnography. Anthropological Records 2:1–84.

——. 1942. Culture element distributions XX: Northeast California. Anthropological Records 7:47–251.

Vogl, R. J. 1974. Effects of fire on grasslands. Pages 139–182 in T. T. Kozlowski and C. E. Ahlgren, editors. Fire and ecosystems. Academic Press, New York.

Volk, M., P.A. Niklaus and C. Körner. 2000. Soil moisture effects determine CO2 responses of grassland species. Oecologia 125:380–388.

von Lützow M, Kögel-Knabner I, Ekschmitt K, Matzner, E, Guggenberger, G. 2006. Stabilization of organic matter in temperate soils: Mechanisms and their relevance under different soil conditions—a review. European Journal of Soil Science 57:426–444.

Vreeland, J. K. and W. D. Tietje. 2002. Numerical response of small vertebrates to prescribed fire in California oak woodland. Pages 100–110 in Prescribed fire in California oak woodland. General Technical Report NE-GTR-288. USDA Forest Service, Northeastern Research Station, Newton Square, PA.

(p.370) Wacker, M., and N. M. Kelly. 2004. Changes in vernal pool edaphic settings through mitigation at the project and landscape scale. Wetlands Ecology and Management 12:165–178.

Wagnon, H. K. 1952. A revision of the genus Bromus, section Bromopsis, of North America. Brittonia 7:415–480.

Waithman, J. D., R. A. Sweitzer, D. Van Vuren, J. D. Drew, A. J. Brinkhaus, I. A. Gardner, and W. M. Boyce. 1999. Range expansion, population sizes, and management of wild pigs in California. Journal of Wildlife Management 63:298–308.

Waldrop, M. P., and M. K. Firestone. 2004. Microbial community utilization of recalcitrant and simple carbon compounds: impact of oak-woodland plant communities. Oecologia 138:275–284.

Walker, C. F., and W. A. Williams. 1963. Responses of annual-type range vegetation to sulfur fertilization. Journal of Range Management 16:64–69.

Walker, J. W. 1994. Multispecies grazing: the ecological advantage. Sheep and Goat Research Journal Special Issue: 1994:52–64.

Walker, R. B. 1954. The ecology of serpentine soils: a symposium. III. Factors affecting plant growth on serpentine soils. Ecology 35:259–266.

Walker, R. B., H. M. Walker, and P. R. Ashworth. 1955. Calciummagnesium nutrition with special reference to serpentine soils. Plant Physiology 30:214–221.

Wallace, N. M., J. A. Leitch, and F. L. Leistritz. 1992. Economic impact of leafy spurge on North Dakota wildland. North Dakota Farm Research 49:9–13.

WallisDe Vries [sic], M. F., J. P. Bakker, and S. E. Van Wieren. 1998. Grazing and conservation management. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Walters, C. J. 1993. Dynamic models and large-scale field experiments in environmental impact assessment and management. Australian Journal of Ecology 18:53–61.

Walters, C. J.——. 1986. Adaptive management of renewable resources. Macmillan, New York.

Walters, C. J., and C. S. Holling. 1990. Large-scale management experiments and learning by doing. Ecology 71:2060–2068.

Wan, S., D. Hiui, and Y. Lou. 2001. Fire effects on nitrogen pools and dynamics in terrestrial ecosystems; a meta-analysis. Ecological Applications 11:1349–1356.

Ward, P. 1968. Fire in relation to waterfowl habitat of the delta marshes. Pages 255–267 in E. V. Komarek, Sr., editor. Proceedings, 8th Tall Timbers Fire Ecology Conference 1968. Tall Timbers Research Station, Tallahassee, FL.

Wardle, D. A. 2006. The influence of biotic interactions on soil biodiversity. Ecology Letters 9:870–886.

Wardle, D. A., R. D. Bardgett, J. N. Klironomos, H. Setala, W. H. van der Putten, and D. H. Wall. 2004. Ecological linkages between aboveground and belowground biota. Science 304:1629–1633.

Warter, J. K. 1976. Late Pleistocene plant communities—evidence from the Rancho La Brea tarpits. ges 32–39 in J. Letting, editor. Plant communities of southern California. California Native Plant Society Special Publication 2, Berkeley.

Waterhouse, D. M., and J. E. Mahoney. 1983. Effect of pre-fallowing application of glyphosate on hoary cress (Cardaria draba (L.) Desv.). Australian Weeds 2:141–143.

Watson, L., and M. J. Dallwitz. 1992. The grass genera of the world. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.

——. 1999. Grass genera of the world: Descriptions, identification, and information retrieval; including synonyms, morphology, anatomy, physiology, phytochemistry, cytology, classification, pathogens, world and local distribution, and references. http://biodiversity.uno.edu/delta/.Watson,

Weaver, J. E., and N. W. Rowland. 1952. Effects of excessive natural mulch on development, yield, and structure of native grassland. Botanical Gazette 114:1–19.

Webb, S. D. 1965. The osteology of Camelops. Los Angeles County Museum Bulletin no. 1.

Weber, E. 1985. Grazing management controls weeds. Soil and Water Conservation News 6:4–5.

Wedin, D. A., and D. Tilman. 1996. Influence of nitrogen loading and species composition on the carbon balance of grasslands. Science 274:1720–1723.

Weil, J., and R. W. Allard. 1964. The mating system and genetic variability in natural populations of Collinsia heterophylla. Evolution 18:515–525.

Weiner, J., and S. C. Thomas. 1986. Size variability and competition in plant monocultures. Oikos 47:211–222.

Weiss, S. B. 1999. Cars, cows, and checkerspot butterflies: Nitrogen deposition and management of nutrient-poor grasslands for a threatened species. Conservation Biology 13:1478–1486.

——;. 2003. Serpentine grassland restoration at Edgewood Natural Preserve, San Mateo County. Grasslands 13:7.

——. 2006. Impacts of nitrogen deposition on California ecosystems and biodiversity. CEC-500-2005-165, California Energy Commission, PIER Energy-Related Environmental Research, Sacramento.

Welker, J. M., D. R. Gordon, and K. J. Rice. 1991. Capture and allocation of nitrogen by Quercus douglasii seedlings in competition with annual and perennial grasses. Oecologia 87:59–466.

Wells, P. V. 1962. Vegetation in relation to geological substrate and fire in the San Luis Obispo quadrangle, California. Ecological Monographs 32:79–103.

——. 1965. Scarp woodlands, transported grassland soils, and concept of grassland climate in the Great Plains region. Science 148:246–249.

——. 1970. Historical factors controlling vegetation patterns and floristic distributions in the Central Plains region of North America. Pages 211–221 in W. Dort and J. K. Jones, editors. Pleistocene and Recent Environments of the Central Great Plains. Department of Geology, University of Kansas Special Publication, 3. University Press of Kansas, Lawrence.

Weltzin, J. F., R. T. Belote, and N. J. Sanders. 2003. Biological invaders in a greenhouse world: will elevated CO2 fuel plant invasions? Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 1:146–153.

West, N. E., and J. A. Young. 2000. Intermountain valleys and lower mountain slopes. Pages 255–284 in M. G. Barbour and W. D. Billings, editors. North American terrestrial vegetation. Cambridge Universiy Press, New York.

Wester, L. 1981. Composition of native grasslands in the San Joaquin Valley, California. Madroño 28:231–241.

Westmann, W. E. 1976. Vegetation conversion for fire control in Los Angeles. Urban Ecology 2:119–137.

Westoby, M., B. H. Walker, and I. Noy-Meir. 1989. Opportunistic management for rangelands not at equilibrium. Journal of Range Management 42:266–274.

WFAS. 2005. Wildlands fire assessment system. USDA Forest Service. http://www.fs.fed.us/land/wfas/welcome.htm.

Whelan, J. R. 1995. The ecology of fire. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.

Whicker, A.D., and J. K. Detling. 1988. Ecological consequences of prairie dog disturbances. Bioscience 38:778–785.

(p.371) White, K. L. 1966. Structure and composition of foothill woodland in central coastal California. Ecology 47:229–237.

——. 1967. Native bunchgrass (Stipa pulchra) on Hasting Reservation, California. Ecology 48:949–955.

White, P. S. 1979. Pattern, process, and natural disturbance in vegetation. Botanical Review 45:220–299.

White, P. S., and J. L. Walker. 1997. Approximating nature’s variation: Selecting and using reference information in restoration ecology. Restoration Ecology 5:338–349.

White, R. 1975. Indian land use and environmental change: Island County, Washington, a case study. Arizona and the West 17:327–338.

White, R., S. Murray, and M. Rohweder. 2000. Pilot analysis of global ecosystems: Grassland ecosystems. Research Report 1–56973-461-5, World Resources Institute, Washington, DC.

Whitford, W. G., and F. R. Kay. 1999. Bioturbation by mammals in deserts: A review. Journal of Arid Environments 41:203–230.

Whitson, T. D., A. Mooney, and M. Griswold. 1989. Control of hoary cress (Cardaria draba) with various herbicides. Proceedings Western Society of Weed Science 42:39.

Whittaker, R. H. 1975. Communities and ecosystems. Collier MacMillan, London.

Wiens, J. A. 1984. On understanding a non-equilibrium world: Myth and reality in community patterns and processes. Pages 439–457 in D. R. Strong, D. Simberloff, K. G. Abele, and A. B. Thistle, editors. Ecological communities: Conceptual issues and the evidence. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Wigand, P. E. 1987. Diamond Pond, Harney County, Oregon: Vegetation history and water table in the eastern Oregon Desert. Great Basin Naturalist 47:427–458.

——. In press, a. Estuarine evolution, chaparral history, and changing plant resource availability. in J. A. Homburg, and M. Palacios-Fest, editors. Paleoenvironments of the Ballona SRI Technical Series, Statistical Research, Tucson, AZ.

——. In press, b. Sites CAL-LAN-63, CAL-LAN-64, CAL-LAN-206 (Del Rey Bluffs, Southern California): pollen and macrobotanical analysis. In J. Douglass, editor. SRI Technical Series, Statistical Research, Tucson, AZ.

Wigand, P. E., and D. Rhode. 2002. Great Basin vegetation history and aquatic systems: The last 150,000 years. Pages 309–367 in R. Hershler, D. B. Madsen, and D. R. Currey, editor. Great Basin aquatic systems history. Smithsonian Contributions to Earth Sciences 33. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC.

Willett, I. R., and T. Batey. 1977. The effects of metal ions on the root surface phosphatase activity of grasses differing in tolerance to serpentine soil. Plant and Soil 48:213–221.

Williams, D. F., S. Byrne, and T. A. Rado, editors. 1992. Endangered and sensitive species of the San Joaquin Valley, California. California Energy Commission, Sacramento.

Williams, D. F., and K. S. Kilburn. 1991. Dipodomys ingens. Mammalian Species 377:1–7.

Williams, J. W., E. W. Seabloom, D. Slayback, D. M. Stoms, and J. H. Viers. 2005. Anthropogenic impacts upon plant species richness and net primary productivity in California. Ecology Letters 8:127–137.

Williams, K., and R. J. Hobbs. 1989. Control of shrub establishment by springtime soil water availability in an annual grassland. Oecologia 81:62–66.

Williams, K., R. J. Hobbs, and S. P. Hamburg. 1987. Invasion of an annual grassland in northern California by Baccharis pilularis ssp. consanguinea. Oecologia 72:461–465.

Williamson, J., and S. Harrison. 2002. Biotic and abiotic limits to the spread of exotic revegetation species. Ecological Applications 12:40–51.

Williamson, M. H., and A. Fitter. 1996. The characters of successful invaders. Biological Conservation 78:163–170.

Williamson, S. C., J. K. Detling, J. L. Dodd, and M. I. Dyer. 1989. Experimental evaluation of the grazing optimization hypothesis. Journal of Range Management 42:149–152.

Wills, R. 2000. Effective fire planning for California grasslands. Pages 75–78 in J. E. Keeley, M. Baer-Keeley, and C. J. Fother-ingham, editors. 2nd interface between ecology and land development in California. USGS Open-File Report 00–62. U.S. Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

Wilson, C. G. 1955. Alice Eastwood’s wonderland: The adventures of a botanist. California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco.

Wilson, M. V., and D. L. Clark. 2001. Controlling invasive Arrhenatherum elatius and promoting native prairie grasses through mowing. Applied Vegetation Science 4:129–138.

Winsome, T., and P. Hendrix. 2000. Earthworm ecology in California. Oaks’n’ Folks 15.

Winsome, T., W. R. Horwath, L. Epstein, and P. F. Hendrix. 2003. Functional differences between exotic and native earthworm species in a California grassland. Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting Abstracts 88:361.

Wohlgemuth, E. 2004. Nine thousand years of plant use in native central California: Implications of the archaeobotanical record for archaeologists, native peoples, and restoration practitioners. Paper presented at the 27th Annual Ethnobiology Conference 2004. University of California, Davis.

Wolfe, L. M. 1938. John of the mountains: the unpublished journals of John Muir. University of Wisconsin Press, Madison.

Wolters, G. L., and G. P. Eberlein. 1986. Sulfur or sulfur plus nitrogen increases beef production on California annual range. Journal of Range Management 39:125–129.

Wood, A. W., L. R. Leung, V. Sridhar, and D. P. Lettenmaier. 2004. Hydrologic implications of dynamical and statistical approaches to downscaling climate model outputs. Climatic Change 62:189–216.

Wood, Y. A., T. Meixner, P. J. Shouse, and E. B. Allen. 2006. Altered ecohydrologic response drives native shrub loss under conditions of elevated nitrogen deposition. Journal of Environmental Quality 35:76–92.

Woodburne, M. O., and C. S. Swisher. 1995. Land mammal highresolution geochronology, intercontinental overland dispersals, sea level, climate, and vicariance. Pages 335–364 in W. A. Berggren, D. V. Kent, M.-P. Aubry, and J. Hardenbol. Geochronology, time scales, and global stratigraphic correlation. SEPM Special Publication 40054 2073946.Society for Sedimentary Geology, Tulsa, OK.

Woodmansee, R. G. 1978. Additions and losses of nitrogen in grassland ecosystems. Bioscience 28:448–453.

Woodmansee, R. G., and D. A. Duncan. 1980. Nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics and budgets in annual grasslands. Ecology 61:893–904.

Woods, D. M., D. B. Joley, M. J. Pitcairn, and V. Popescu. 2004. Impact of biological control insects on yellow starthistle at one site in Yolo County. Pages 35–37 in D. M. Woods, editor. Biological Control Program annual summary, 2003. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, Sacramento.

(p.372) Woods, D. M. and B. Villegas. 2004. Continued success with biological control agents of squarrose knapweed. Pages 27–28 in D. M. Woods, editor. Biological Control Program annual summary, 2003. California Department of Food and Agriculture, Plant Health and Pest Prevention Services, Sacramento.

Woods, L. E. 1989. Active Organic matter distribution in the surface 15 cm of undisturbed and cultivated soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils 8:272–278.

Woodward, F. I., M. R. Lomas and C. K. Kelly. 2004. Global climate and the distribution of plant biomes. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences 359:1465–1476.

Woolfenden, W. B. 1993. Pollen present in cores OL-92-1, 2 and 3. Pages 312, 314–332, in G. I. Smith and J. L. Bischoff, editors. Core OL-92 from Owens Lake, Southeast California. USGS Open-File Report 93–683. United States Geological Survey, Denver, CO.

——. 2003. A 180,000-year pollen record from Owens Lake, CA: terrestrial vegetation change on orbital scales. Quaternary Research 59:430–444.

Woolfolk, J. J. and D. A. Duncan. 1962. Fertilizers increase range production. Journal of Range Management 15:42–45.

WRCC. 2004. Classification of El Niño and La Niña winters. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/enso/ensodef.html (accessed November 6, 2005).

Wright, H. A. and A. W. Bailey. 1982. Fire ecology of the United States and southern Canada. John Wiley and Sons, New York.

Wright, H. A. and J. O. Klemmedson.1965. Effects of fire on bunchgrasses of the sagebrush region of southern Idaho. Ecology 46:680–688.

Wrysinski, J. 2002. Roadside establishment of native perennial grasses. Pages 19–27 in P. Robins, editor. Bring farm edges back to life. Yolo County Resource Conservation District, Woodland, CA.

Wu, L. and S. Jain. 1980. Self-fertility and seed set in natural-populations of Anthoxanthum odoratum L. Botanical Gazette 141(3):300–304.

Wu, J. and S. A. Levin. 1994. A spatial patch dynamic modeling approach to pattern and process in an annual grassland. Ecological Monographs 64:447–464.

Wu, K. K. and S. K. Jain. 1978. Genetic and plastic responses in geographic differentiation of Bromus rubens populations. Canadian Journal of Botany 56:873–879.

Wu, Z. L. and P. M. Peterson. 2006. Muhlenbergia. Pages 486–487 in Z. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven, and D. Y. Hong, editors. Flora of China: Poaceae, volume 22. Science Press, Beijing, and Missouri Botanic Garden, and St. Louis, MO.

Wyland, L. J., L. E. Jackson, W. E. Chaney, K. Klonsky, S. T. Koike and B. Kimple. 1996. Altering surface soil dynamics with winter cover crops in a vegetable cropping system: impacts on yield, nitrate leaching, pests and management costs. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 59:1–17.

Xiong, S. and C. Nilsson. 1997. Dynamics of leaf litter accumulation and its effects on riparian vegetation: A review. Botanical Review 63:240–264.

——. 1999. The effects of plant litter on vegetation: A metaanalysis. Journal of Ecology 87:984–994.

Yazdi-Samadi, B., K. K. Wu and S. K. Jain. 1978. Population biology of Avena. VI. Role of genetic polymorphisms in outcome of interspecific competition. Genetica 48:188–191.

Yoakum, J. 1980. Habitat management guides for the American pronghorn antelope. Technical Note 347, US Department of Interior, Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Yoakum, J. D. and B. W. O’Gara. 2000. Pronghorn. Pages 559–577 in S. Demaris and P. Karusman, editors. Ecology and management of large mammals in North America. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River, NJ.

York, A. 2000. Long-term effects of frequent low-intensity burning on ant communities in coastal blackbutt forests of southeastern Australia. Austral Ecology 25:83–98.

Yoshida, L. C. and E. B. Allen. 2001. Response of ammonium and nitrate by a mycorrhizal annual invasive grass and a native shrub in southern California. American Journal of Botany 88:1430–1436.

——. 2004. N-15 uptake by mycorrhizal native and invasive plants from a N-eutrophied shrubland: A greenhouse experiment. Biology and Fertility of Soils 39:243–248.

Young, J. A. 1992. Ecology and management of medusahead (Taeniatherum caput-medusae ssp. asperum [Simk.] Melderis). Great Basin Naturalist 52:245–252.

Young, J. A. and C. D. Clements. 1999. Native perennial grass communities of the Carson Desert of northwestern Nevada. Pages 133–136 in E. D. McArthur, W. K. Ostler, and C. L. Wamboldt, editors. Proceedings: Shrubland ecotones 1999. RMRS-P-11. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Research Station, Ogden, UT.

Young, J. A., C. D. Clements and H. C. Jansen. In press. Sagebrush steppe. Pages in press in M. G. Barbour, T. Keeler-Wolf, and A. Schoenherr, editors. Terrestrial vegetation of California. 3rd edition. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Young, J. A. and R. A. Evans. 1978. Population dynamics after wildfires in sagebrush grasslands. Journal of Range Management 31:283–289.

——. 1989. Seed production and germination dynamics in California annual grasslands. Pages 39–45 in L. F. Huenneke and H. A. Mooney, editors. Grassland structure and function: California annual grassland. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.

Young, J. A., R. A. Evans and B. L. Kay. 1970. Phenology of reproduction of medusahead. Weed Science 18:451–454.

——. 1971. Germination of annual grasses in simulated litter. Agronomy Journal 63:656–659.

Young, J. A., R. A. Evans, C. A. Raguse and J. R. Larson. 1981. Germinable seeds and periodicity of germination in annual grasslands. Hilgardia 49:1–37.

Young, J. A., R. A. Evans and J. Robison. 1972. Influence of repeated annual burning on a medusahead community. Journal of Range Management 25:372–375.

Young, J. A., D. E. Palmquist and R. R. Blank. 1998. The ecology and control of perennial pepperweed (Lepidium latifolium L.). Weed Technology 12:402–405.

Young, T. P. 2000. Restoration ecology and conservation biology. Biological Conservation 92:73–83.

Young, T. P., D. A. Petersen and J. J. Clary. 2005. The ecology of restoration: Historical links, emerging issues and unexplored realms. Ecology Letters 8:662–673.

Zammit, C. A. and P. H. Zedler. 1988. The Influence of dominant shrubs, fire, and time since rire on soil seed banks in mixed chaparral. Vegetatio 75:175–187.

(p.373) ——. 1993. Size structure and seed production in even-aged populations of Ceanothus greggii in mixed chaparral. Journal of Ecology 81:499–511.

——. 1994. Organization of the soil seed bank in mixed chaparral. Vegetatio 111:1–16.

Zavaleta, E. S. 2006. Shrub establishment under experimental global changes in a California grassland. Plant Ecology 184:53–63.

Zavaleta, E. S., M. R. Shaw, N. R. Chiariello, H. A. Mooney and C. B. Field. 2003a. Additive effects of simulated climate changes, elevated CO2, and nitrogen deposition on grassland diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 100:7650–7654.

Zavaleta, E. S., M. R. Shaw, N. R. Chiariello, B. D. Thomas, E. E. Cleland, C. B. Field and H. A. Mooney. 2003b. Grassland responses to three years of elevated temperature, CO2, precipitation, and N deposition. Ecological Monographs 73:585–604.

Zavaleta, E. S., B. D. Thomas, N. R. Chiariello, G. P. Asner, M. R. Shaw and C. B. Field. 2003c. Plants reverse warming effect on ecosystem water balance. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 100:9892–9893.

Zavon, J. A. 1982. Grazing and fire effects on annual grassland composition and sheep diet selectivity. M.S. thesis, University of California, Davis.

Zedler, P. H. and C. Black. 1992. Seed dispersal by a generalized herbivore: rabbits as dispersal vectors in a semiarid California vernal pool landscape. American Midland Naturalist 128:1–10.

Zedler, P. H., C. R. Gautier and G. S. MacMaster. 1983. Vegetation change in response to extreme events: the effect of a short interval between fires in California chaparral and coastal scrub. Ecology 64:809–818.

Zeiner, D. C., W. F. Laudenslayer, and K. E. Mayer, editors. 1988. California’s wildlife. Vol. 1. Amphibians and reptiles. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

Zeiner, D. C., W. F. Laudenslayer, K. E. Mayer, and M. White, editors. 1990. California’s wildlif. Vol. 2. Birds. California Department of Fish and Game, Sacramento.

Zelles, L. 1997. Phospholipid fatty acid profiles in selected members of soil microbial communities. Chemosphere 35:275–294.

Zigmond, M. L. 1978. Kawaiisu basketry. Journal of California Anthropology 5:199–215.

——. 1981. Kawaiisu ethnobotany. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City.

Zimmerman, J. L. 1997. Avian community responses to fire, grazing, and drought in the tallgrass prairie. Pages 167–180 in F. L. Knoph and F. B. Samson, editors. Ecology and conservation of Great Plains vertebrates. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Ziska, L. H. 2003. Evaluation of the growth response of six invasive species to past, present, and future atmospheric carbon dioxide. Journal of Experimental Botany 54:395–404.

Zohary, D. and M. Hopf. 2000. Domestication of plants in the Old World. 3rd edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford. (p.374)