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Sensory Evolution on the ThresholdAdaptations in Secondarily Aquatic Vertebrates$
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J. G. M. Thewissen

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780520252783

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520252783.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 20 September 2021

The Physics and Physiology of Balance

The Physics and Physiology of Balance

(p.226) (p.227) 14 The Physics and Physiology of Balance
Sensory Evolution on the Threshold

Justin S. Sipla

Fred Spoor

University of California Press

The vestibular system, identified as the sensory organ of balance, is located in the inner ear of all vertebrates and plays an important role in the organism's body movements or locomotion. This chapter focuses on a part of the vestibular system, the semicircular canal system. It first discusses the functional morphology of the semicircular canal system and highlights two important properties of semicircular canal function: arc size and planar orientation. It then discusses the biophysical and physiological aspects of the vestibular system in land and in water.

Keywords:   vestibular system, balance, body movements, locomotion, semicircular canal system, arc size, planar orientation

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