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The Life and Times of the Shah$
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Gholam RezaAfkhami

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780520253285

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520253285.001.0001

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“I Heard the Message of Your Revolution”

“I Heard the Message of Your Revolution”

(p.468) 21 “I Heard the Message of Your Revolution”
The Life and Times of the Shah

Gholam R. Afkhami

University of California Press

The shah had said on several occasions that he had expected turmoil as the price of liberalization, but it was a passing political spasm and the country would soon return to calm and tranquility. The Americans, particularly President Carter, generally encouraged the shah along these lines. The Americans had monitored the gradual increase of violence since 1 January 1978, when President Carter had last been in Tehran. On 5 November 1978 Tehran was on fire. Rebellion enveloped the city. Major companies, cinemas, liquor stores, buses, and cars were vandalized and burned, but banks were the primary targets. The shah was caught between his military commanders, who advised him to show an iron fist, and civilians whose sense of guilt foreshadowed and encouraged his, advising him the opposite. On 29 December 1978 the shah asked Bakhtiar to form a government.

Keywords:   Tehran, Iran, liberalization, President Carter, Americans, military government, Bakhtiar

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