- Creationism and Its Critics in Antiquity
- University of California Press
The earliest western philosophers were the bright original Greek thinkers traditionally known as the Presocratics—a line-up which included such heterogeneous figures as Thales, Anaximander, Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Zeno of Elea, Anaxagoras, Empedocles, Democritus, and Protagoras. Presocratics assumes that Socrates, who lived in the late fifth century b.c., initiated a new direction in philosophical thought sufficiently radical to mark off his predecessors and many of his contemporaries as jointly constituting a distinct group. Anaxagoras was the truly revolutionary thinker. He was recognized by Plato as the first overt champion of a creative cosmic intelligence and even in Plato found his actual use of that concept to be in the event disappointing. Anaxagoras' most decisive philosophical innovation is his dualism of mind and matter. He was never reported as distinguishing mind or intelligence form body as the “incorporeal” from the corporeal, and he betrayed just the opposite assumption when he calls nous the finest and purest of all things.
Presocratics, Thales, Anaxagoras, Heraclitus, incorporeal
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