Crime and Punishment in the Punitive State
Punitive governance involves a dramatic shift in long-standing liberal ideas about the burden of proof. The entrenchment of punitive practices at the center of governance today poses a striking challenge to the progressive story line. Punitiveness and preemption have progressively redefined practices in an array of fields. Punitive justice expresses anger, resentment, or vindictiveness, in contrast to preventative, reformative, or restorative ideals. The carceral state is a type of political organization in which three conditions are obtained. First, incarceration becomes the preferred sanction for a growing number of infractions. Second, official bureaucracies and civil society collude to intensify enforcement, enhance penalties, and keep the prison system growing. Third, a bloated prison system begins to supply norms for other institutions of government.
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