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Malformed FrogsThe Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems$
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Michael Lannoo

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780520255883

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520255883.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 23 September 2021

What is an Amphibian Malformation?

What is an Amphibian Malformation?

(p.7) One What is an Amphibian Malformation?
Malformed Frogs

Michael Lannoo

University of California Press

This chapter defines amphibian malformations, describes the mechanisms underlying malformations, and outlines their developmental origins. Malformation in animals means an unintended lack of symmetry, or an imbalance in structure, color, or other quality. Malformations can arise through one of three mechanisms: genetic, epigenetic, or trauma. The chapter presents evidence that most frog malformations are caused by epigenetic mechanisms. Epigenetic effects occur when genes and gene expression are normal, but some deviation from expected environmental circumstances occurs where and at the time when genes are being expressed.

Keywords:   amphibian malformations, malformations, symmetry, genetic, epigenetic, trauma

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