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Malformed FrogsThe Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems$
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Michael Lannoo

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780520255883

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520255883.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 20 September 2021



(p.105) Four Causes
Malformed Frogs

Michael Lannoo

University of California Press

This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, lathyrogens, nutritional deficiencies, ultraviolet-B radiation, diseases, temperature, hereditary factors, and parasites. Several manmade causes of amphibian malformations include acidification, radioactive pollution, ozone depletion, heavy metals, retinoids, agricultural chemicals, and xenobiotics. The chapter also discusses the correlation between morphology and cause of malformation type.

Keywords:   causes of malformations, frog malformations, predation, fish excrement, lathyrogens, ultraviolet-B radiation, acidification, radioactive pollution, retinoids, agricultural chemicals

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