This chapter lists the natural and manmade causes of frog malformations. The natural causes of malformations include wounds from failed predation attempts, fish excrement, extreme tadpole densities, lathyrogens, nutritional deficiencies, ultraviolet-B radiation, diseases, temperature, hereditary factors, and parasites. Several manmade causes of amphibian malformations include acidification, radioactive pollution, ozone depletion, heavy metals, retinoids, agricultural chemicals, and xenobiotics. The chapter also discusses the correlation between morphology and cause of malformation type.
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