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Malformed FrogsThe Collapse of Aquatic Ecosystems$
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Michael Lannoo

Print publication date: 2008

Print ISBN-13: 9780520255883

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520255883.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 16 September 2021



(p.111) Five Resolutions
Malformed Frogs

Michael Lannoo

University of California Press

This chapter discusses the potential biases that exist in malformed frog data. It also notes several important trends in malformed frog literature and suggests that malformations are more numerous and severe in modern times than they were historically. The chapter discusses the importance of the known causes of malformations, starting with predation, and followed by effects of ultraviolet-B radiation, retinoic acid, and other chemicals. Parasite-induced malformation is critical to understanding the recent frog-malformation phenomenon. The chapter examines the role of parasites (Ribeiroia ondatrae) in causing morphological abnormalities in more detail.

Keywords:   malformed frog, malformations, predation, ultraviolet-B radiation, retinoic acid, parasite-induced malformations, parasites, Ribeiroia ondatrae

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