This chapter discusses the potential biases that exist in malformed frog data. It also notes several important trends in malformed frog literature and suggests that malformations are more numerous and severe in modern times than they were historically. The chapter discusses the importance of the known causes of malformations, starting with predation, and followed by effects of ultraviolet-B radiation, retinoic acid, and other chemicals. Parasite-induced malformation is critical to understanding the recent frog-malformation phenomenon. The chapter examines the role of parasites (Ribeiroia ondatrae) in causing morphological abnormalities in more detail.
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