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SpeciesA History of the Idea$
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John Wilkins and Daniel Doak

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780520260856

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520260856.001.0001

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The Early Nineteenth Century: A Period of Change

The Early Nineteenth Century: A Period of Change

(p.97) The Early Nineteenth Century: A Period of Change

John S. Wilkins

University of California Press

This chapter discusses the species concepts debate and the revival of the study of logic in the early nineteenth century. It discusses the use of the notions of genus and species in logical discussions and suggests that the genera plus differentia definition remained widely accepted by logicians until the introduction of the new set theory and formal logic. It also discusses H.W.B. Joseph's influential book, Introduction to Logic, which suggests that the evolutionary species of Darwin and Spencer came from a different notion to that of the logical species of definitions. Joseph continued the tradition of Richard Whately, separating logical species defined by essence and biological species described by types. The chapter also examines different notions of taxonomic groups and pre-Darwinian evolutionary views of species.

Keywords:   species, logic, genus, genera, differentia, H.W.B. Joseph, Introduction to Logic, evolutionary species, Richard Whately

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