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SpeciesA History of the Idea$
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John Wilkins and Daniel Doak

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780520260856

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520260856.001.0001

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The Species Problem Arises

The Species Problem Arises

(p.164) (p.165) The Species Problem Arises

John S. Wilkins

University of California Press

During the so-called eclipse of the Darwinism period, in which neo-Lamarckian ideas overtook Darwin's mechanism of natural selection, species were often thought to be types again. This chapter focuses on the non-Darwinian ideas that became prominent after the period of Darwinism. It discusses orthogenetic Lamarckism, bathmism, and the Baldwin Effect. It also describes Johannes Paulus Lotsy's work, which proposes the evolution of species by hybridization. It also examines the role played by the species concepts in the thinking of several German-speaking biologists in the early part of the twentieth century. In particular, the views of Erwin Stresemann are influential. He claimed that morphology as a criterion of species had been abandoned in favor of physiological divergence, as evidenced by reproductive isolation.

Keywords:   Darwinism, neo-Lamarckian ideas, non-Darwinian ideas, orthogenic Lamarckism, bathmism, Baldwin Effect, Johannes Paulus Lotsy, evolution, hybridization, Erwin Streseman

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