This chapter discusses the modern views of the species concepts. It presents several classes of fundamental concepts such as reproductive isolation concepts, evolutionary concepts, phylogenetic concepts, and ecological concepts. Reproductive isolation concept involves the genetic isolation of adaptive genes and gene complexes. The evolutionary species concept defines species as a lineage evolving separately from others and with its own unitary evolutionary role and tendencies. Species concepts based on the phylogeny of the groups of organisms are called phylogenetic. Finally, the proponents of the ecological species concepts view species as a reproductive community of populations that occupies a specific niche in nature.
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