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Friendship – Development, Ecology, and Evolution of a Relationship - California Scholarship Online
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Friendship: Development, Ecology, and Evolution of a Relationship

Daniel Hruschka


Friends—they are generous and cooperative with each other in ways that appear to defy standard evolutionary expectations, frequently sacrificing for one another without concern for past behaviors or future consequences. This multidisciplinary study synthesizes an array of cross-cultural, experimental, and ethnographic data to understand the broad meaning of friendship, how it develops, how it interfaces with kinship and romantic relationships, and how it differs from place to place. The book argues that friendship is a special form of reciprocal altruism based not on tit-for-tat accounting or ... More

Keywords: friends, evolutionary expectations, past behaviors, future consequences, friendship, kinship, relationships, reciprocal altruism, rationality, mutual goodwill

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2010 Print ISBN-13: 9780520265462
Published to California Scholarship Online: May 2012 DOI:10.1525/california/9780520265462.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Daniel Hruschka, author