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India and PakistanContinued Conflict or Cooperation?$
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Stanley Wolpert

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780520266773

Published to California Scholarship Online: March 2012

DOI: 10.1525/california/9780520266773.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM CALIFORNIA SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (www.california.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright University of California Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in CALSO for personal use.date: 23 September 2021

The Historic Roots of the Problem

The Historic Roots of the Problem

(p.6) (p.7) One The Historic Roots of the Problem
India and Pakistan

Stanley Wolpert

University of California Press

India and Pakistan were born to conflict generated by the Partition of British India in August 1947. Britain's last viceroy, Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, who had little understanding of India, foolishly halved the timetable allotted to him by British Prime Minister Clement Attlee's Labour cabinet to try to resolve the conflicts that divided India's political leaders and to get them to agree to form a single federal dominion of independent India. Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehru, the leaders of the Indian National Congress party, had always wanted such a federal union. Since 1940, however, Muhammad Ali Jinnah and his Muslim League had demanded an independent Pakistan, whose Muslims would have their own government rather than remaining subordinate to India's Hindu majority. A British lawyer, Cyril Radcliffe, who had never before set foot on Indian soil, presided over the partition of British India's two largest multicultural provinces, Punjab and Bengal. Two months after winning their precious freedom, India and Pakistan embarked on their first war, over the former state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Keywords:   India, Pakistan, Partition, Kashmir, conflict, Jammu, Britain, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, Muslims, Cyril Radcliffe

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